CN110226440A - A kind of Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings - Google Patents

A kind of Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110226440A
CN110226440A CN201811321339.6A CN201811321339A CN110226440A CN 110226440 A CN110226440 A CN 110226440A CN 201811321339 A CN201811321339 A CN 201811321339A CN 110226440 A CN110226440 A CN 110226440A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
seed
seedling
nitraria tangutorum
carries
seedbed
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CN201811321339.6A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
王进
冯起
刘蔚
张勇
颜霞
李军元
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Hexi University
Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute of CAS
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Hexi University
Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute of CAS
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Application filed by Hexi University, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute of CAS filed Critical Hexi University
Priority to CN201811321339.6A priority Critical patent/CN110226440A/en
Publication of CN110226440A publication Critical patent/CN110226440A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals
    • A01G24/15Calcined rock, e.g. perlite, vermiculite or clay aggregates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • A01G24/25Dry fruit hulls or husks, e.g. chaff or coir
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B7/00Fertilisers based essentially on alkali or ammonium orthophosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D9/00Other inorganic fertilisers

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings, the described method comprises the following steps: seed collection and processing, seeding and seedling raising, seedling management and transplanting.Method provided by the present invention can significantly improve the basic height of seedling of emergence rate and field of Nitraria tangutorum, and easy to operate, time and labour saving, seedling are managed and protected that at low cost, sowing quantity is low, the amount of being out of the garden is high, applied widely.

Description

A kind of Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings
Technical field
The invention belongs to planting technical fields, and in particular to a kind of method of Nitraria tangutorum open country nursery.
Background technique
Nitraria tangutorum (Nitraria tanggutorum) is that zygophyllaceae (Zygophyllaceae) Nitraria drought is raw, super Xeric pasture is mainly distributed on northwest drought desert, extremely frigid zones and Northern Coastal Region salt lick band in China.It not only have compared with Good drought resisting, cold-resistant and Saline alkali tolerance, and solid land reform sand performance is more prominent, is mainly making for China's Arid sand control with biological measures One of woods tree species, and be the host of Chinese medicine " desert ginseng " cynomorium songaricum (Cynomoriumz songaricum).
Nitraria tangutorum is the common wild halophytes in northwest China area, is had very high economical, ecological and medicinal Value, well developed root system plant Nitraria tangutorum, are the effective ways for improving saline and alkaline soil, solution " sand is moved back into people " situation.It is made For Berry-like drupe plant rare in psammophytes, fruit color, shape, taste are similar to cherry, there is the good reputation of " desert cherry ".But It is that Nitraria tangutorum population is more sensitive to environmental disturbances, the acquisition of transition is inevitably to local fragile ecological ring Border adversely affects.In recent years, the variation with the transition of natural environment, especially moisture and artificial irrational utilization, White thorn resource is caused to largely reduce.
For above-mentioned status, the method for artificial cultivation is mostly used to carry out Nitraria tangutorum nursery, existing method for culturing seedlings There are following problems:
(1) seed is just sowed without Dormancy breaking, causes Seedling emergence rate low, is short of seedling and ridge phenomenon of breaking is serious;
(2) seedling percent is low, leads to higher seed rate, expends a large amount of human and material resources resources, higher cost;
(3) seedling is serious by harm such as weeds, pest and disease damages, and the speed of growth is slow and growing way is poor, and planting percent is low.
Therefore, at present urgent need to resolve the technical issues of be to provide fast a kind of speed of emergence, the basic height of seedling in field, easy to operate And the open country method for culturing seedlings of Nitraria tangutorum at low cost.
Summary of the invention
In order to overcome the above problem, present inventor has performed sharp studies, as a result, it has been found that: pass through the kind to Nitraria tangutorum Son carry out Dormancy breaking processing, fine site preparation and fertilization before sowing, in seedbed add seedling medium, growth period carries out top dressing, removes Grass and etc., the basic height of seedling of emergence rate and field can be significantly improved, and method is easy to operate, time and labour saving, seedling are managed and protected into This is low, sowing quantity is low, the amount of being out of the garden is high, so as to complete the present invention.
In particular it is object of the present invention to provide following aspect:
The present invention provides a kind of Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings, which is characterized in that the method includes following steps It is rapid:
Step 1, seed collection and processing;
Step 2, seeding and seedling raising;
Step 3, seedling management;
Step 4, it transplants.
Wherein, the step 1 includes following sub-step:
Step 1-1 acquires the fruit of Nitraria tangutorum;
Step 1-2 carries out the fruit of acquisition to take kind of a processing;
Step 1-3, elite seed;
Step 1-4, handles seed;
Step 1-5, to treated, seed is cleaned;
Step 1-6 carries out cold stratification to the seed after cleaning;
Step 1-7, by step 1-6, treated that seed carries out back dry-cure.
Wherein, in step 1-4, for seed to be immersed in strong base solution, the strong base solution is hydroxide for the processing One of sodium solution, potassium hydroxide solution, barium hydroxide solution or saturated limewater are a variety of.
Wherein, the step 2 includes following sub-step:
Step 2-1, selection of land seedling bed;
Step 2-2 handles seedbed;
Step 2-3, sowing.
Wherein, in step 2-2, one layer of mixing being made of biogas residue, vinegar grain and wet river sand of tiling on the seedbed prepared Object, to improve soil organic matter content and increase porosity.
Wherein, the mass ratio of the biogas residue, vinegar grain and wet river sand is (2~4): (1~3): 4.
Wherein, in step 2-3, the sowing includes opening shallow ridges on treated seedbed, is then tiled in shallow ridges bottom One layer of seedling medium, after planting covers sand.
Wherein, the seedling medium includes rice bran, plant ash, vermiculite, perlite and zinc sulfate, weight ratio be (50~ 60): (25~40): (10~15): (10~15): (0.5~1).
Wherein, in step 3, the seedling management includes after-culture, weeding, top dressing and the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control,
Wherein, within entire growth period, the top dressing combines progress of pouring water, and preferably carries out 3 times.
Wherein, the fertilizer of the top dressing is one of urea, phosphorus diamines or compound fertilizer or a variety of, preferably compound fertilizer,
Preferably, the compound fertilizer includes the component of following weight proportion:
5~15 parts of urea
2~6 parts of phosphorus diamines
5~15 parts of fulvic acid concentrate.
Beneficial effect possessed by the present invention includes:
(1) Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings provided by the present invention, seed take seed by fermentation, and method is easy, It saves trouble saving of labor, it is easily operated;
(2) Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings provided by the present invention, seed pass through selection by winnowing, screening and wet concentration, only Degree, consistency and robustness are significantly increased;
(3) Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings provided by the present invention, seed wash immersion after base extraction, can The germination inhicbitor in seed is effectively removed, then the seed for removing germination inhicbitor cold stratification is subjected to again, can broken Except seed afterripening suspend mode, percentage of seedgermination and Seedling emergence rate are improved;
(4) Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings provided by the present invention, Seedling Stage pass through weeding, pour water, apply fertilizer and foster, Growth period combines and pours water, and applies seminality herbicide, promotes growth of seedling, reduce weeding cost, improve under adverse circumstance Field planting percent;
(5) Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings provided by the present invention digs seedling temporary planting, reduces seedling winter before overwintering Risk is managed and protected, the flexibility of field planting is changed, improves planting survival rate;
(6) Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings provided by the present invention, field emergence neat and consistent increase field base This seedling promotes growth of seedling, and seedling branch is few, commodity is good, single plant is small in size, convenient for excavation, transport and field planting;
(7) Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings provided by the present invention, field Basic Seedling is up to 19~230,000 plants/acre, one For year life seedling height up to 30~50cm, application rate reduces 1/5, reduces cultivation cost, is suitble to extensive cultivating and growing;
(8) Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings provided by the present invention, recurrence effect is good, applied widely.
Specific embodiment
Below by preferred embodiment and embodiment, the present invention is described in more detail.Illustrated by these, this hair Bright feature and advantage will become more apparent from clear.
The present invention provides a kind of Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings, method includes the following steps:
Step 1, seed collection and processing;
Step 2, seeding and seedling raising;
Step 3, seedling management;
Step 4, it transplants.
The specific steps of the method for the invention described further below:
Step 1, seed collection and processing.
In the present invention, the step 1 includes following sub-step:
Step 1-1 acquires the fruit of Nitraria tangutorum.
In the present invention, at the beginning of the acquisition time of the fruit is late July to 10 months, in seed collecting garden or wild Tang Gu Tebai Distributed area is pierced, ripening fruits is acquired.
Wherein, it selects that tree vigo(u)r is strong, healthy and strong, result is dense, no disease and pests harm maternal plant is seed collecting strain, follows the example of, wins by smoothing out with the fingers Method taps the method picked up, and collects uniform, full, no disease and pests harm ripening fruits.
In the present invention, it is preferred to which collected fruit is dried, prevents fruit mouldy, rotten, influence seed vitality.
Step 1-2 carries out the fruit of acquisition to take kind of a processing.
In the present invention, take kind to fruit using the method for fermentation, it is described take kind the following steps are included:
Step 1-2-1 adds water in fruit, ferments at room temperature.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention first rejects the branches and leaves and sundries in fruit in fruit plus before water, Then fruit is put into washbasin, Porcelain Jar, sealed plastic bag or cement pit.
In further preferred embodiment, it is described be added water quality and fruit quality) the ratio between be (5~25): ~100, preferably (8~22) :~100, more preferably (10~20): 100.
In embodiment still more preferably, the fermentation time is 3~5 days.
Step 1-2-2 removes the pulp of fermentation material.
In the present invention, it is preferred to which fermentation material is packed into nylon net bag, crumple repeatedly, so that fruit ruptures, then uses flowing water Nylon net bag is rinsed, so that pulp removes.
Step 1-2-3 removes pericarp, obtains seed.
In the present invention, the fermentation material residue for removing pulp taking-up is placed in container, utilizes the ratio of pericarp and seed The method of double differences is different, is removed pericarp using flowing water, and taking-up seed dries in the shade spare.
Step 1-3, elite seed.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention, the selected of the seed includes selection by winnowing, screening and wet concentration three steps Suddenly.
The present inventor has found after study, by the seed of Nitraria tangutorum after three selection by winnowing, screening and wet concentration steps, Its physical purity of seed, consistency and robustness can effectively improve.
In further preferred embodiment, the screening is carries out screen with the sieve of 3mm, to reject in seed Impurity.
In embodiment still more preferably, the wet concentration is to add water and stir garbled seed, is soaked seed one section Time, to reject the empty not plump, seed of damaging by worms of floating.
Preferably, the mixing time be 6~12min, preferably 10min, the seed soaking time be 3~6h, preferably 4 ~5h.
In the present invention, by above-mentioned selected, selection obtains full, neat, healthy and strong and high viability seed, then deposits Deposit is used.
Step 1-4, handles seed.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention, it is described that processing is carried out to seed for seed is immersed in strong base solution In.
In further preferred embodiment, the strong base solution is sodium hydroxide solution, potassium hydroxide solution, hydrogen-oxygen Change one of barium solution or saturated limewater or a variety of.
The present inventor has found after study, the method in the prior art for impregnating seed, as water seed soaking, sulfuric acid seed soaking, The methods of " floods and droughts alternating ", to abolishing not exclusively for seed dormancy.Therefore, in the present invention, it is preferred to be impregnated using strong base solution Seed can make the hydrophobic pectolysis on the pectin and kind skin of germination mouthful, and make kind of an intracutaneous germination inhicbitor dissolution. After soaking and washing, the germination inhicbitor planted in skin can be precipitated, and abolish seed mortifier suspend mode.
In embodiment still more preferably, the strong base solution be sodium hydroxide solution, potassium hydroxide solution or One of saturated limewater is a variety of.
Preferably, the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution be 0.5~6mol/L, preferably 0.75~5mol/L, more preferably For 1~4mol/L;
The concentration of the potassium hydroxide solution is 0.5~5.5mol/L, preferably 0.75~4.5mol/L, more preferably 1 ~3mol/L.
The present inventor has found after study, when the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution is 0.5~6mol/L, preferably 0.75~ When 5mol/L, more preferably 1~4mol/L, the effect abolished to Nitraria tangutorum seed dormancy is best.Work as sodium hydroxide solution Concentration when being less than 0.5mol/L, the pectin on seed cannot remove, and the germination inhicbitor planted on skin cannot dissolve, and influence seed Suspend mode release;When the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution is greater than 6mol/L, the seed that partial pericarp is thin, suspend mode is shallow, pectin is few can be made Pectolysis in a short time, germination mouth expansion, can also make germinate mouth kind skin and cellular membrane lysis, seed is caused to lose life Power.
When potassium hydroxide solution concentration be 0.5~5.5mol/L, preferably 0.75~4.5mol/L, more preferably 1~ When 3mol/L, the effect abolished to Nitraria tangutorum seed dormancy is best.When the concentration of potassium hydroxide solution is less than 0.5mol/L When, pectin and germination inhicbitor on seed cannot be removed, and seed dormancy release is influenced;When the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution is greater than When 5.5mol/L, making the seed that partial pericarp is thin, suspend mode is shallow, pectin is few, pectolysis, germination mouth expansion are sent out in a short time Bud mouth kind skin and cellular membrane lysis, seed lose viability.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention, soaking time of the seed in sodium hydroxide solution be 20~ 70min, preferably 30~60min;
Soaking time of the seed in potassium hydroxide solution is 20~60min, preferably 30~50min;
Soaking time of the seed in saturated limewater be 20~28h, preferably 22~26h, more preferably for 24 hours.
Wherein, it is bright but be not unfolded to be dipped to germination mouth by the strong base solution for seed, so that kind transdermally gas, permeable, benefit Pass through in Germination Inhibitors.
The present inventor has found after study, when soaking time of the seed in sodium hydroxide solution is less than 30min, impregnates Time is too short, prevent the pectin on seed, from fully erased, germination inhicbitor cannot dissolve, influences seed dormancy release;When When soaking time of the seed in sodium hydroxide solution is greater than 70min, long soaking time, can make partial pericarp is thin, suspend mode is shallow, The pectin of the few seed of pectin dissolves in a short time, can also make mouth expansion of germinateing, and germinate mouth kind skin and cellular membrane lysis, seed Lose viability.
When soaking time of the seed in potassium hydroxide solution is less than 20min, the pectin planting skin and germinateing on mouth cannot Fully erased, germination inhicbitor cannot dissolve, and influence seed dormancy release;When soaking time of the seed in potassium hydroxide solution When greater than 60min, the pectin for the seed that partial pericarp is thin, suspend mode is shallow, pectin is few can be made to dissolve in a short time, mouth exhibition of germinateing It opens, germinate mouth kind skin and cellular membrane lysis, and seed loses viability.
When soaking time of the seed in saturated limewater is less than 20h, the pectin on seed cannot be fully erased, germination Mortifier cannot dissolve, and influence seed dormancy release;When soaking time of the seed in saturated limewater is greater than 28h, can make The pectin for the seed that partial pericarp is thin, suspend mode is shallow, pectin is few dissolves in a short time, and germination mouth expansion, germinate mouth kind Pi Jixi After birth dissolution, seed lose viability.
In further preferred embodiment, the seed is 1mol/L, 2mol/L, 3mol/L and 4mol/L in concentration Sodium hydroxide solution in soaking time be respectively 60min, 50min, 40min and 30min;
The seed concentration be 1mol/L, 2mol/L and 3mol/L potassium hydroxide solution in soaking time be respectively 50min, 40min and 30min.
Step 1-5, to treated, seed is cleaned.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention is washed and is impregnated to the seed that strong base solution impregnated, with Remove the germination inhicbitor in the lye and seed of the surface of the seed.
Wherein, the washing is to be rinsed with flowing water.
In further preferred embodiment, the soaking time is 3~8 days, preferably 5~7 days, more preferably 4 ~6 days.
The present inventor has found that after aqueous alkali impregnates, germination inhicbitor dissolution needs to use clear water into one seed after study Immersion treatment is walked, to promote germination inhicbitor sufficiently to leach.
In embodiment still more preferably, within the period of immersion, a clear water is replaced every 3~6h, it is excellent Choosing replaces a clear water every 4~5h, so that germination inhicbitor sufficiently leaches.
Wherein, until soak no longer changes colour, then illustrate that germination inhicbitor leaches completely, can stop impregnating, leach kind Son.
Step 1-6 carries out cold stratification to the seed after cleaning.
Wherein, the step 6 includes following sub-step:
Step 1-6-1 is mixed with to obtain lamination sand with water after river sand cleaning, sieving and disinfection.
Wherein, the lamination sand after cleaning and sterilize is free of solable matter, and pH is easy to keep seed between 6.0~7.5 Safety.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention, the sieve that the sieving was 0.05~0.8mm.
Lamination sand the study found that being crossed the sieve of 0.05~0.8mm, capable of crossing the preferable water conservation of holding and being breathed freely by the present inventor Property, so that seed is not susceptible to go mouldy in lamination process.
In further preferred embodiment, the disinfection is disinfection 1~3h, preferably 2h at 140~145 DEG C.
The ratio of a kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention, the volume of the water and the husky quality of disinfection be 1:(10~ 20), preferably 1:(13~17).
In further preferred embodiment, in water and disinfection is husky after mixing, 0.5~1.5h of standing, preferably 0.75~1.25h is stood, more preferably standing 1h.
In the present invention, when Stratificated treatment, the humidity of mixed lamination sand can be agglomerating but not be dripped with holding, and a touching is Subject to dissipating.
Step 1-6-2 mixes seed with lamination sand, carries out cold stratification.
The volume ratio of a kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention, the lamination sand and seed is (2~12): 1, preferably For (3~10): 1.
Wherein, uniformly mixed lamination sand is fitted into gunnysack or ventilative Nylon Bag or wooden case, then carries out Stratificated treatment.
In further preferred embodiment, the cold stratification carries out under low temperature dark condition, preferably 1 It carries out under~10 DEG C of dark condition, is more preferably carried out under 2~5 DEG C of dark condition.
In embodiment still more preferably, the Stratification time is 20~80 days, preferably 25~70 days, more excellent It is selected as 30~60 days.
The present inventor has found that, when Stratification time was less than 20 days, part physiological dormancy seed cannot discharge not after study It sleeps, seed vitality is low, and germination percentage is low, and speed of germination is slow;When Stratification time is greater than 80 days, the early seed of partial sleep release It sprouts at low temperature, sowing is difficult, while seed content exosmoses in lamination process, easily leads to the mold of seed and loses life Power.
In the present invention, under the conditions of above-mentioned Stratificated treatment, seed can complete life under ventilation, wet, cryogenic conditions After-ripening, cell membrane reconstitution and organelle duplication are managed, is conducive to seed dormancy and abolishes and vigor improvement, raising seed field seedling Power.
Step 1-7, by step 6, treated that seed carries out back dry-cure.
In the present invention, the Nitraria tangutorum seed before germination, needs to carry out Hui Gan after low-temperature stratification It handles, preferably dry in the shade seed in the present invention.
Wherein, the seed after low-temperature stratification is subjected on the compass screen surface in the aperture 2.0~3.0mm screen, then sets seed It dries in the shade in the dry thin booth in place.
Step 2, seeding and seedling raising.
Wherein, the step 2 includes following sub-step:
Step 2-1, selection of land seedling bed.
Wherein, according to sowing season, nursery base is selected to prepare seedbed.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention after summer crop harvest, selects soil layer deep in early or mid July, Irrigation and drainage are convenient, without invading natural disposition weeds, fertile soil, surrounding without shading object, preceding stubble be Changshu of wheat stubble or beans stubble plough deeply, Shi Ji Fertilizer, then the soil moisture conservation of rake mill, keeps soil thin, loose, flat, soft.
Wherein, rake mill refers to arranges in soil smooth in a manner of raking the soil level, grind ground, and soil moisture conservation refers to through deep ploughing, thin The means such as rake, diligent hoe reduce the invalid evaporation of soil moisture to the greatest extent.
Another preferred embodiment according to the present invention selects soil layer deep in the fall, and irrigation and drainage are convenient, and nothing invades natural disposition Weeds, fertile soil, for surrounding without shading, preceding stubble is wheat stubble, ploughs deeply to Changshu of beans stubble or potato stubble that basal dressing, winter fills It irrigates, rake mill is insulted on spring top, and spring shallowly ploughs deeply, and is applied seed manure, is kept soil thin, loose, flat, soft.
Wherein, the top icepro rake mill, which refers to, returns the slurry phase in early spring defrosting soil, has just thawed in soil up to 3~4cm depth, soil Still there is ice slush in lower layer, and daytime food taken late at night carries out rake mill when freezing.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention, the base manure of the application are decomposed dung, including decomposed cow dung, sheep One of excrement and horsehit are a variety of.
In further preferred embodiment, the applied amount of the base manure is 3~8 tons/mu, preferably 4~7 tons/mu.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention, the seed manure are calcium superphosphate, double superhosphate, phosphorus diamines or sulphur One of sour ammonium is a variety of.
In further preferred embodiment, the seed manure is phosphorus diamines.
In embodiment still more preferably, the applied amount of the seed manure is 10~30kg/ mus, preferably 12~ 25kg/ mus, more preferably 15~20kg/ mus.
Step 2-2 handles seedbed.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention tiles one layer by biogas residue, vinegar grain and wet on the seedbed prepared The mixture of river sand composition, to improve soil organic matter content and increase porosity.
In further preferred embodiment, the mass ratio of the biogas residue, vinegar grain and wet river sand is (2~4): (1~ 3): 4, preferably (2.5~3.5): (1.5~2.5): 4.
The present inventor the study found that by seedbed be laid with biogas residue, vinegar grain and wet river sand mixture, can effectively mention The content of organic matter of high nursery soil, while soil porosity can be increased, compared to conventional soil, emergence can be significantly improved Rate.
In embodiment still more preferably, the mixture with a thickness of 2~3cm.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention, the processing seedbed further includes carrying out disinfection to nursery soil.
In further preferred embodiment, the disinfection is is 0.6%~0.9% with mass concentration, preferably 0.6 ~0.8% copper-bath pours seedbed.
The present inventor can effectively reduce Nitraria tangutorum children the study found that by carrying out disinfection processing to nursery soil Disease incidence in seedling later period cultivating process improves the disease and insect resistance performance of seedling.
Step 2-3, sowing.
After to nursery bed disinfection 10~15 days, sowed.Wherein, the sowing time is early or mid August or early or mid April.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention opens shallow ridges, the depth of the shallow ridges on the seedbed after above-mentioned disinfection Degree is 3~5cm, and line-spacing is 22~28cm, preferably 25cm.
In further preferred embodiment, tile in shallow ridges bottom with a thickness of the seedling medium of 1~3cm, it is preferably thick Degree is 2cm.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention, the seedling medium include rice bran, plant ash, vermiculite, perlite And zinc sulfate.
In further preferred embodiment, rice bran, plant ash, vermiculite, perlite and sulfuric acid in the seedling medium The weight ratio of zinc is (50~60): (25~40): (10~15): (10~15): (0.5~1), preferably (52~58): (30~ 35): (12~14): (12~14): (0.5~1).
In embodiment still more preferably, the preparation method of the seedling medium is: first adding zinc sulfate water-soluble Solution is uniformly mixed to form seedling medium at solution of zinc sulfate, then by it with rice bran, plant ash, vermiculite and perlite.
The inventors discovered that the seedling medium of addition can be sprouted for growth of seedling and seed and provide sufficient required member Element, so that emergence rate is high, the speed of growth is fast.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention, scatters seeds on seedling medium, covers the sand of 2~3cm thickness, Then it pours water rapidly, to keep seedbed wet.
In further preferred embodiment, the application rate is 10~25g/m2, preferably 15~20g/m2
Step 3, seedling management.
Wherein, the seedling management includes after-culture, weeding, top dressing and the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention should repeatedly water, to the seeding stage after the completion of sowing depending on the growth of cereal crop seedlings out The timely after-culture seed of condition guarantees full stand Miao Quan.
It is long to 5~10cm high to seedling in further preferred embodiment, it is filled every 15~20 days view soil moisture contents Water is primary, weeds out the rank grass after pouring water, and promotes growth of seedling.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention carries out tillage and weeding in the ranks within entire growth period, is growing Mid-term, with pouring water, punching applies herbicide.
In further preferred embodiment, the herbicide is seminality herbicide, including butralin, penta 2 spirit of first Or one of trefanocide or a variety of.
In embodiment still more preferably, the applied amount of penta 2 spirit of the seminality herbicide butralin and first is 150-250 milliliters/mu, the applied amount of trefanocide is 100-150 milliliters/mu.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention, within entire growth period, the top dressing combines progress of pouring water, preferably It carries out 3 times.
In further preferred embodiment, in early or mid April sowing, the dressing time is mid or late June, 7 The middle ten days and the last ten days moon and mid or late August.
In embodiment still more preferably, dose when mid or late June top dressing be in 3~5kg/ mus, 7 months under Dose when ten days top dressing is 5~10kg/ mu, and dose when mid or late August top dressing is 10~15kg/ mus.
Another preferred embodiment according to the present invention, in early or mid August sowing, the dressing time is next year 4 Month, June and August, topdressing amount is respectively 10~15kg/ mus of top dressing in April, 5~10kg/ mus of top dressing in June, 5~10kg/ of August top dressing Mu.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention, the fertilizer of the top dressing are in urea, phosphorus diamines or compound fertilizer It is one or more, preferably compound fertilizer.
In further preferred embodiment, the compound fertilizer includes the component of following weight proportion:
5~15 parts of urea
2~6 parts of phosphorus diamines
5~15 parts of fulvic acid concentrate,
In embodiment still more preferably, the compound fertilizer includes the component of following weight proportion:
8~12 parts of urea
3~5 parts of phosphorus diamines
6~13 parts of fulvic acid concentrate.
The inventors discovered that fulvic acid is due to having stronger complexing, chelating and table containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, phenolic hydroxyl groups Face adsorption capacity can be reduced the loss of ammonium nitrogen;Phosphorus moving distance in the soil can be increased, inhibit soil to water-soluble phosphorus It is fixed, invalidate phosphorus and be converted into available phosphorus, promotes absorption of the root system to phosphorus;Fulvic acid can also absorb storage potassium ion, improve The content of effective potassium is obvious to potash fertilizer synergy.
A kind of preferred embodiment according to the present invention, in Seedling Stage, weekly with carbendazim or Bravo sprinkling seedling 2~ 3 times, clear water sprinkling immediately is rinsed after spray, with pre- disease prevention.
Wherein, stop from emergence to growth, according to the severity of insect pest, spray and kill the medicaments such as pyrethroids, decis Prevention and treatment, to ensure seedling health.
In further preferred embodiment, after finding pest and disease damage column, pull out in time, while needing to seedbed bed surface It carries out disinfection.
In embodiment still more preferably, the disinfection is using copper-bath or liquor potassic permanganate sprinkling Seedbed, and 30s sprays clear water flushing plant after spray.
Preferably, the mass concentration of the copper sulphate is 2~3%, the mass concentration of the potassium permanganate is 0.8~ 1.2%, preferably 1.0%.
Step 4, it transplants.
Wherein, lifting field planting is carried out according to planting scheme, or before soil is freeze-up in the fall, to the seedling of spring next year field planting Lifting is carried out, temporary planting hole is then dug, is planted near planting point.
Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings provided by the present invention, Seedling emergence rate are up to 90%, and annual seedling is planted Plant height is up to 30~50cm, and field planting percent is high and application rate is few, is suitble to the cultivation of large area Nitraria tangutorum seedling.
Embodiment
The present invention is further described below by way of specific example, but these examples are only exemplary, not to this The protection scope of invention constitutes any restrictions.
Embodiment 1
(1) fruit of Nitraria tangutorum is acquired: at the beginning of First Year mid-July to 10 months, in the open country of Hexi Corridor in Gansu Raw Nitraria tangutorum distributed area --- Zhangye Ganzhou District Pingshan Mountain lake sand ground (39 ° 06 ' of N, 100 ° 39 ' of E), selects tree vigo(u)r strong It is strong, result is dense, no disease and pests harm maternal plant is seed collecting strain, by winning method, collect uniform, full, no disease and pests harm fruit;
(2) fermentation is carried out to the fruit of acquisition and takes kind: by the fruit of collection, rejected branches and leaves and sundries, be put into washbasin, press It is that 10:100 adds water according to the mass ratio of water and fruit, ferments 3 days at room temperature, fermentation material is packed into nylon wire and is borrowed, is crumpled repeatedly, is flowed Water rinses net pulp, and residue in nylon wire is poured into basin, using pericarp and seed specific weight difference, is cleared up pericarp with flowing water Fall, taking-up seed dries in the shade spare;
(3) elite seed: by the sieve screen of seed 3mm, the impurity in seed is rejected, basin is put into, adds water and stirs 10min, soak seed 5h, and by the sky of floating, not plump, seed of damaging by worms is rejected, and selected seed full, neat, healthy and strong, viability is high is healthy and strong Degree is 98%, dormancy depth 88%;
(4) base extraction is carried out to seed: the seed of selected processing is immersed in 1mol.L-1KOH solution in 50min, Keep germination mouth bright but is not unfolded;
(5) seed of base extraction is cleaned: the seed after base extraction is first rinsed with flowing water, is then impregnated 5d replaces a clear water every 5h therebetween, non-discolouring to soak, leaches seed;
(6) cold stratification is carried out to the seed after cleaning: crosses 0.5mm sieve after river sand is cleaned, then in 142 DEG C of conditions It is lower to sterilize 2 hours, water and disinfection sand are mixed even rear standing 1 hour according to 1:15 (V/W);By the husky seed with after cleaning of disinfection It is uniformly mixed by 6:1 (v/v), is packed into gunnysack or ventilative Nylon Bag or wooden case, the moisturizing low-temperature stratification 30 under 4 DEG C of dark conditions It;
(7) seed after low-temperature stratification is subjected to back dry-cure: by seed screen on the compass screen surface in the aperture 2.5mm, then It dries in the shade at the dry thin booth in place;
(8) second year early or mid July after summer crop harvests, imparts knowledge to students real in Zhangye City, Gansu Province Ganzhou District Hexi University Test base, select soil layer deep, irrigation and drainage are convenient, without invading natural disposition weeds, fertile soil, surrounding without shading object, preceding stubble be wheat stubble or It ploughs deeply to Changshu of beans stubble, after 6 ton/mu of basal dressing (decomposed cow dung), rake mushroom soil moisture conservation makes soil " thin, loose, flat, soft ";
The seed manure phosphorus diamines for applying 20kg/ mus on seedbed at the beginning of August, then according to one thickness 2cm of tiling on seedbed Biogas residue, vinegar grain and wet river sand mixture (mass ratio of three is 3:1.5:4);Then with 0.7% copper-bath pair Seedbed is poured;
After pouring 15 days, the shallow ridges of 5cm is opened on seedbed, line-spacing 25cm tiles in shallow ridges bottom with a thickness of 2cm's Seedling medium (rice bran, plant ash, vermiculite, perlite and zinc sulfate weight ratio be 55:32:13:13:0.7), then according to row Away from 20cm drilling seed, the sand of 1-2cm is covered, application rate is 15Kg/ mus;
(9) after the completion of sowing, the seeding stage repeatedly waters, timely after-culture seed when being short of seedling, and guarantees full stand Miao Quan;It is long to young plant It to 5~10cm high, poured water once, weeds out the rank grass depending on soil moisture content every 15~20 days, promote growth of seedling;
Within entire growth period, tillage and weeding is carried out in the ranks, imposes compound fertilizer (urea, phosphorus diamines and Huang in conjunction with pouring water The weight ratio of rotten acid concentrate is 10:4:10), first time topdressing is carried out in mid or late June, dose is 7kg/ mus;In 7 months The last ten-days period carry out second of top dressing, and dose is 13kg/ mus;Third time top dressing is carried out in mid or late August, dose is 10kg/ mus.
In growth medium (as at the beginning of 7 months), apply seminality herbicide butralin in conjunction with pouring water, applied amount be 200 milliliters/ Mu;
It in Seedling Stage, is sprayed seedling 3 times with carbendazim or Bravo weekly, clear water sprinkling immediately is rinsed after spray;From out Seedling sprays to stopping is grown and kills pyrethroids and decis;
(10) before soil is freeze-up, lifting is planted near planting point.
Embodiment 2
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, step (4) are as follows: be immersed in the seed of selected processing 2mol.L-1KOH solution in 40min.
Embodiment 3
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, step (4) are as follows: be immersed in the seed of selected processing 3mol.L-1KOH solution in 30min.
Embodiment 4
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, step (4) are as follows: be immersed in the seed of selected processing 1mol.L-1NaOH solution in 60min.
Embodiment 5
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, step (4) are as follows: be immersed in the seed of selected processing 2mol.L-1NaOH solution in 50min.
Embodiment 6
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, step (4) are as follows: be immersed in the seed of selected processing 3mol.L-1NaOH solution in 40min.
Embodiment 7
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, step (4) are as follows: be immersed in the seed of selected processing 4mol.L-1NaOH solution in 30min.
Embodiment 8
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, step (4) are as follows: be immersed in the seed of selected processing In saturated limewater for 24 hours.
Embodiment 9
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, the low-temperature stratification number of days in step (6) is 40 days.
Embodiment 10
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, the low-temperature stratification number of days in step (6) is 50 days.
Embodiment 11
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, the low-temperature stratification number of days in step (6) is 60 days.
Embodiment 12
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, in step (8), the weight of biogas residue, vinegar grain and wet river sand Amount is than being 2:1:4.
Embodiment 13
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, in step (8), rice bran in seedling medium, plant ash, The weight ratio of vermiculite, perlite and zinc sulfate is 50:40:10:15:1.
Embodiment 14
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, in step (8), rice bran in seedling medium, plant ash, The weight ratio of vermiculite, perlite and zinc sulfate is 60:40:15:15:0.5.
Embodiment 15
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, in step (1), seed collection is in mid-August, acquisition Ground is that sand ground edge in lattice is risen in Wuwei Minqin;
Step (4) are as follows: the seed of selected processing is immersed in 1mol.L-1NaOH solution in 60min;
Step (8): it in mid or late September, after autumn crops harvest, is educated in Zhangye City, Gansu Province Linze county state-run five spring forest farm Seedling base selects soil layer deep, and irrigation and drainage are convenient, without invading natural disposition weeds, fertile soil, surrounding without shading object, preceding stubble be wheat stubble or Plough deeply to Changshu of beans stubble, 6 ton/mu of basal dressing (cow dung, sheep dung, corn stover mass ratio be 3:3:8) after, rake mushroom soil moisture conservation; Enter winter irrigation before the winter, early spring top insults rake mill, makes soil " thin, loose, flat, soft ";
It is to apply 20kg/ mus of seed manure (Diammonium phosphate (DAP)) on seedbed in mid or late April, then exist that sowing, which covers sand and pours water, According to the mixture of the biogas residue of one thickness 2cm of tiling, vinegar grain and wet river sand on seedbed (weight ratio of three is 3:1.5:4);So Seedbed is poured with 0.7% ferrous sulfate solution afterwards;
After pouring 15 days, the shallow ridges of 5cm is opened on seedbed, line-spacing 25cm tiles in shallow ridges bottom with a thickness of 2cm's Seedling medium (rice bran, plant ash, vermiculite, perlite and zinc sulfate weight ratio be 55:32:13:13:0.7), then broadcast sowing kind Son, application rate are 15Kg/ mus.
Embodiment 16
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, in step (1), seed is to collect local resident's acquisition The dry fruit of sunning is eaten, and provenance is Wuwei City of Gansu Province Minqin County periphery sand ground (N38 ° 43 ', E103 ° 00 ');
Step (4) are as follows: be immersed in the seed of selected processing in saturated limewater for 24 hours;
In step (8), in Zhangye City, Gansu Province Ganzhou District red sand nest forest farm nursery base seedling bed, application rate 18Kg/ Mu.
Embodiment 17
Method therefor of the present invention is similar to Example 1, and difference is, step (4) are as follows: be immersed in the seed of selected processing In saturated limewater for 24 hours;In step (8), in Zhangye City, Gansu Province Ganzhou District red sand nest forest farm nursery base seedling bed, application rate It is 20Kg/ mus.
Comparative example
Comparative example 1
This comparative example carries out nursery to the Nitraria tangutorum handled without Dormancy breaking using traditional drilling seedling method, broadcasts Kind amount is 100Kg/ mus.
Wherein, the drilling nursery follows the steps below: the fruit fermentation of acquisition being taken seed, cleans selected, seed Without base extraction and low-temperature stratification, nursery is directly ploughed deeply into basal dressing, mid or late April is broadcast in the way of implementation column 1 Kind, field management, top dressing of pouring water, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, weeding and maintenance.
Comparative example 2
This comparative example carries out nursery using seed processed in embodiment 1, is carried out using seedling program request method is covered, application rate is 15Kg/ mus.
Wherein, the overlay film program request follows the steps below: the fermentation of the fruit of acquisition is taken into seed, clean it is selected, according to The mode of implementation column 1 carries out base extraction, low-temperature stratification to seed and returns dry-cure, and not existing together is to apply in mid-April in site preparation In the nursery of fertilizer, with the black film of 140mm, with film spacing 40cm overlay film, late April uses dibbler with 2-3cm's on film Depth sowing, then covers sand, carries out field management, top dressing of pouring water according to the method in embodiment 1 later, and the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control is removed Grass and maintenance.
Experimental example
Experimental example 1
Statistically analyze method for culturing seedlings described in embodiment 1,5,8,9,12,14~17 and comparative example 1,2 with nursery as a result, As shown in table 1.
Table 1
Wherein, as can be seen from Table 1, method for culturing seedlings described in the embodiment of the present invention 1,5,8,9,12,14~17, sowing quantity Less, the height of annual seedling reaches as high as 30~50cm, and nursery stock amount reaches as high as 230,000 plants per acre, and seeding ratio exists 85% or more, 90% is reached as high as, illustrates that open country seedling method of the present invention is suitble to carry out large area cultivation to Nitraria tangutorum.
The method of direct sowing and seedling described in comparative example 1, although the height of annual seedling is higher, sowing quantity is up to 100Kg/ mus, be 5~7 times of the method for the invention, nursery stock amount and emergence rate are also significantly lower than the method for the invention;It is right Overlay film program request method for culturing seedlings described in ratio 2, emergence rate is high, but nursery stock amount only has 0.5 ten thousand plants/acre, is primarily due to children Seedling hypocotyl poor heat resistance is largely scalded dead or scald, causes planting percent very low, explanation should not use overlay film point after emergence It broadcasts method and carries out Nitraria tangutorum nursery.
In addition, of the present invention it can be seen from the method for culturing seedlings described in embodiment 1,5,8,9,12,14~17 and result Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings it is preferable to the seed repeatability effect of Different Provenances, it is applied widely.
It is described the invention in detail above in conjunction with detailed description and exemplary example, but these explanations are simultaneously It is not considered as limiting the invention.It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, Can be with various equivalent substitutions, modifications or improvements are made to the technical scheme of the invention and its embodiments, these each fall within the present invention In the range of.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of Nitraria tangutorum open country method for culturing seedlings, which is characterized in that the described method comprises the following steps:
Step 1, seed collection and processing;
Step 2, seeding and seedling raising;
Step 3, seedling management;
Step 4, it transplants.
2. the method according to claim 1, wherein the step 1 includes following sub-step:
Step 1-1 acquires the fruit of Nitraria tangutorum;
Step 1-2 carries out the fruit of acquisition to take kind of a processing;
Step 1-3, elite seed;
Step 1-4, handles seed;
Step 1-5, to treated, seed is cleaned;
Step 1-6 carries out cold stratification to the seed after cleaning;
Step 1-7, by step 1-6, treated that seed carries out back dry-cure.
3. according to the method described in claim 2, it is characterized in that, the processing is that seed is immersed in highly basic in step 1-4 In solution, the strong base solution is one in sodium hydroxide solution, potassium hydroxide solution, barium hydroxide solution or saturated limewater Kind is a variety of.
4. the method according to claim 1, wherein the step 2 includes following sub-step:
Step 2-1, selection of land seedling bed;
Step 2-2 handles seedbed;
Step 2-3, sowing.
5. according to the method described in claim 4, it is characterized in that, in step 2-2, tile on the seedbed prepared one layer by The mixture of biogas residue, vinegar grain and wet river sand composition, to improve soil organic matter content and increase porosity.
6. according to the method described in claim 5, it is characterized in that, the mass ratio of the biogas residue, vinegar grain and wet river sand be (2~ 4): (1~3): 4.
7. according to the method described in claim 4, it is characterized in that, in step 2-3, the sowing is included in that treated seedbed On open shallow ridges, then shallow ridges bottom tile one layer of seedling medium, after planting cover sand.
8. the method according to the description of claim 7 is characterized in that the seedling medium includes rice bran, plant ash, vermiculite, treasure Zhu Yan and zinc sulfate, weight ratio are (50~60): (25~40): (10~15): (10~15): (0.5~1).
9. the method according to claim 1, wherein the seedling management includes after-culture, weeding, chases after in step 3 Fertilizer and the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control,
Wherein, within entire growth period, the top dressing combines progress of pouring water, and preferably carries out 3 times.
10. according to the method described in claim 9, it is characterized in that, the fertilizer of the top dressing is urea, phosphorus diamines or compound fertilizer One of or a variety of, preferably compound fertilizer, it is preferable that the compound fertilizer includes the component of following weight proportion:
5~15 parts of urea
2~6 parts of phosphorus diamines
5~15 parts of fulvic acid concentrate.
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