CN110206604A - A kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device - Google Patents

A kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110206604A
CN110206604A CN201910438143.3A CN201910438143A CN110206604A CN 110206604 A CN110206604 A CN 110206604A CN 201910438143 A CN201910438143 A CN 201910438143A CN 110206604 A CN110206604 A CN 110206604A
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China
Prior art keywords
gas
cryogenic fluid
temperature
turbine
heat exchanger
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CN201910438143.3A
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Chinese (zh)
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翁志远
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Beijing Hongyuan Best Technology Co Ltd
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Beijing Hongyuan Best Technology Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201910438143.3A priority Critical patent/CN110206604A/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K13/00General layout or general methods of operation of complete plants
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K25/00Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for
    • F01K25/08Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for using special vapours
    • F01K25/10Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for using special vapours the vapours being cold, e.g. ammonia, carbon dioxide, ether
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K25/00Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for
    • F01K25/08Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for using special vapours
    • F01K25/10Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for using special vapours the vapours being cold, e.g. ammonia, carbon dioxide, ether
    • F01K25/103Carbon dioxide

Abstract

The present embodiments relate to a kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor devices, and the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid memory, cryogenic fluid supercharger, main heat exchanger, the cryogenic fluid including being sequentially communicated is constituted;The gas-turbine discharge duct outlets return to and connect cryogenic fluid memory entrance, form closed cycle;Working medium boiling point can be with down to subzero -196 DEG C of liquid nitrogen cryogenics working medium, first absorb the thermal energy of hot-air or water, in conjunction with the environment-friendly fuels combustion heating low-temperature electricity-generating working medium such as LNG, it forms the overcritical gas-turbine acting output mechanical energy of drive of high-pressure gas cryogenic fluid or drives electrical power generators, to solve the power and energy of the equipment such as automobile, train, ship;Applicant passes through nearly more than 20 years continuous research and probes, eventually finds a kind of efficient cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device, also finds a kind of newest sealing technique for solving gas-turbine shaft sealing leakage problem using gas-turbine cylinder body.

Description

A kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device
Technical field
The technical field of power generation more particularly to one of working medium is recycled and made with low temperature meson the present invention relates to low temperature heat energy The dynamical system and new energy motor device of kind heat energy utilization and combustion power generation.
Background technique
Current automobile is mostly fuel-engined vehicle, and needing constantly to add fuel oil can run, and is transported in the city of traffic congestion Row, effective thermal efficiency is very low, and especially hot summer, the investment of air-conditioning equipment more exacerbate the consumption of fuel oil;Cause to fire The efficiency of petrol car becomes more low.Engine noise is big, the tail gas pollution environment of discharge.Future is with international market fuel oil Energy shortage and environmental requirement, fuel vehicle will exit automobile manufacture market quickly, and replacing will be the automobile being driven by electricity.
Electric car, electric bus, electronic tourist bus vehicle have noise smaller, low noise, energy-saving and environmental protection, warp The advantages that Ji, fast, simple, easy to maintain, easy maintenance of structure of acceleration etc.;But that there is also course continuation mileages is short, charging is difficult, charging is slow etc. Problem.In addition, about 5 years power batteries just need to change, and the recycling of power battery is faced with cost recovery height, recovery technology Difficult predicament.
Hydrogen cell automobile surface, which is seen, meets energy conservation and environmental protection requirement;But hydrogen, which produces purification, need to consume huge energy, system Low efficiency;Hydrogen needs about 70MPa high pressure compressed also to need to consume energy, and further decreases efficiency;There are also hydrogen storages and hydrogen transport ring Also all there is very lossy, efficiency and further decrease in section and the filling link used;The lithium battery of relative maturity, hydrogen fuel Battery car storage cost is high, risk in transit is big, hydrogenation stations infrastructure etc. all needs high capital investment;According to american energy office Data are announced, are 5000 hours to the year two thousand twenty fuel cell system lifetime goal to be achieved;In hydrogen fuel cell power generation process In can use metal platinum and make catalyst, metal platinum is rare to cause price very high, such as following to carry out production hydrogen fuel cell on a large scale, Demand is bigger, and metal platinum cost can also more rare and Gao Chengben.There are also high-pressure hydrogen storing tank, super-pressure air compressor machine, hydrogen circulating pumps Equal key components and parts, technical difficulty is high, and industrial chain forms difficulty, and the hydrogenation stations construction of national substantial amounts, future investments are all pole Its is huge.
There are also the equipment such as train, steamer;The equators such as torridity summer, especially Africa are national, contain in hot-air big Calorimetric energy;More importantly the thermal energy contained in air or seawater is efficiently used, and is efficiently increased using fuel heat energy is carried Add course continuation mileage, is the application issue to be resolved.
In conventional electric power generation technology, except generating working medium is made using water, there are also a kind of Organic Rankine Cycle of low temperature, the power generations Technology uses about 15 DEG C of organic working mediums of boiling temperature, it can be achieved that the hot water and steam progress waste heat more than 80 DEG C (or even 60 DEG C) Power generation;The technology with make generating working medium principle with water and be substantially the same because using the organic working medium and Rankine of about 15 DEG C of boiling points Circulating generation, therefore can generate electricity to 80 DEG C even 60 DEG C or more of hot water and steam.
Low-temperature electricity-generating working medium using standard atmospheric pressure boiling point lower than 0 degree Celsius carries out super low temperature generation, internal and international All also in conceptual phase, after maximum difficult point is gas-turbine or expanding machine acting, the reduction of low-temperature steam exhaust becomes maximum pain Point.Under normal conditions, steam turbine acting after steam exhaust all use cooling tower by steam exhaust latent heat treatment cold air or cold water into environment In;But the steam exhaust temperature of the low-temperature electricity-generatings working medium such as liquid nitrogen will be lower than environment temperature from far away, being under normal circumstances can not be by pole Its low temperature latent heat in the cold air or cold water that can be discharged into environment, therefore also can not just condense and carry out Rankine cycle again.Such as For fruit using compressor compresses steam exhaust or with heat pump by steam exhaust latent heat, heat pump to environment temperature is simultaneously discharged into cold air or cold water In, the cost paid is again too high.The electric energy of power generation output is likely to electric energy consumed by inadequate compressor and heat pump;Cause This, also just there is no and go to study as people.Much it is engaged in generation technology and related researcher, study and contact Be all that generating working medium is done using water, to cryogenic liquid working, overwhelming majority personnel do not go to think, there are also people it is thought that not In the cards, some personnel also just no longer goes in-depth study it is thought that " perpetua mobilia ".
The embodiment of the present invention, not only can be with using the more low-temperature electricity-generating working medium such as carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid air of lower boiling Realize the acting power generation of lower temperature;CO2, liquid air, liquid nitrogen simultaneously, it is only several hundred yuans of per ton cost, closer than organic working medium 100000 yuan of costs are much lower.
It is the liquid working substance using extremely low temperature provided by the present embodiment;Such as liquid nitrogen, applied by cryogenic liquid pump High pressure into heat exchanger, in environment hot-air or water sufficiently exchange heat, liquid nitrogen absorb surrounding air thermal energy, be gasificated into rapidly It for high pressure gas, inputs and drives gas-turbine or expanding machine high speed rotation to do work, and drive generator high speed rotation power generation and defeated Electric energy out;The temperature of hot-air can also be rapidly decreased to about 0 DEG C (or even subzero -30 DEG C);
The extremely cryogenic fluid such as liquid nitrogen, liquid air after absorbing air heat energy, is gasificated into high pressure gas, and driving cryogenic fluid is super Critical gas-turbine or expanding machine high speed rotation do work and electrical power generators are driven to export, and the thermal energy contained in hot-air is changed For power output;The present invention can be reduced to the thermo-electric generation of cold air using torridity summer hot-air, in conjunction with LNG, methanol etc. Environment-friendly fuel burns and carries out efficient power generation acting, so that realization is continuously increased course continuation mileage purpose, to solve automobile, fire The power and energy of the motor devices such as vehicle, ship and the mileage of continuation of the journey;To solve these problems, applicant passes through more than nearly 20 Year continuous research and probe, eventually finds a kind of efficient cryogenic fluid supercritical generating technical method, while also finding a kind of solution Certainly Xinmi City's encapsulation technique of gas-turbine or expanding machine both ends of the shaft shaft sealing leakage.Steam turbine typically refers to water vapour working medium, because It is cryogenic gas meson in the application, does not have water vapour in working medium, therefore steam turbine is just changed to gas-turbine, other gas turbines Equipment is identical, no longer excessively repeats;
Summary of the invention
The embodiment of the present invention provides a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system and equipment, low including what is be sequentially communicated The overcritical gas-turbine of warm working medium memory, cryogenic fluid supercharger, main heat exchanger, cryogenic fluid is constituted;The cryogenic fluid is super Critical gas-turbine discharge duct outlets return to and connect the cryogenic fluid memory entrance, form circulation;
The high pressure gas temperature of the overcritical gas-turbine main steam line input of cryogenic fluid, it is necessary to be apparently higher than described The critical-temperature of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium;The steam exhaust temperature of the overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe output of cryogenic fluid, reaches institute State the critical-temperature of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium;
The gas pressure of the overcritical gas-turbine main steam line input of cryogenic fluid, it is necessary to be apparently higher than the low temperature The critical pressure of generating working medium;The steam exhaust pressure of the overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe output of cryogenic fluid, reaches or approaches The critical pressure of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium;
The overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid or expanding machine belong to a kind of high pressure gas turbomachinery, include but are not limited to Gas-turbine, pneumatic motor, gas turbine expander, gas screw expander;The cryogenic fluid gas-turbine or expanding machine are selected resistance to Cryogenic material includes but are not limited to austenitic cryogenic steel, ferritic steel for low temperature service;The overcritical gas turbine equipment of cryogenic fluid Construction, the physical characteristic of the density of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium, ingredient, temperature and pressure need to be met;
Only meet conditions above, the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid or expanding machine and the cryogenic fluid Electricity generation system or motor device can be operated normally;Therefore, this cryogenic fluid electricity generation system or motor-driven is not being determined In the case where equipment, the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid or expanding machine, and can not be studied and be manufactured;
The low-temperature electricity-generating working medium for reaching or approaching the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium critical pressure is stored in the cryogenic fluid and deposits In reservoir, pass through the cryogenic fluid supercharger adherence pressure;It is transported to and absorbs extraneous thermal energy, volume in the main heat exchanger Expansion rapidly forms high temperature and high pressure gas and is delivered in the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid, drives the cryogenic fluid overcritical The external output mechanical energy of gas-turbine high speed rotation drives generator high speed rotation externally to export electric energy;
The embodiments of the present invention are implemented as follows:
In a first aspect, the embodiment of the present invention provides a kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device, including The overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid memory, cryogenic fluid supercharger, main heat exchanger, the cryogenic fluid being sequentially communicated is constituted;Institute The overcritical gas-turbine discharge duct outlets of cryogenic fluid are stated, the cryogenic fluid memory entrance is returned and connect, form circulation;
The cryogenic fluid memory possesses pressure limiting and safe valve protection equipment, and the low temperature work with good thermo-insulation properties The pressure vessel of matter storage;The working medium stored is normal atmosphere pressure, and boiling temperature is lower than the low-temperature electricity-generating work of zero degrees celsius Matter;The cryogenic fluid being stored in the cryogenic fluid memory, pressure reach the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium critical pressure, therefore The cryogenic fluid memory must be the cryogenic fluid storage container that can bear pressure, at the same must also be arranged pressure limiting valve and Safe valve protection, while must also have good heat-insulating property;
The cryogenic fluid supercharger is the driving equipment of lifting fluid pressure;The cryogenic fluid supercharger is arranged in institute It states between cryogenic fluid memory and the main heat exchanger;
It preferably, further include having cryogenic liquid pump;The cryogenic liquid pump intake is connected to cryogenic fluid memory bottom The low-temperature electricity-generating worker quality liquid in portion;The cryogenic fluid supercharger entrance is connected to the hair of the low temperature at the top of the cryogenic fluid memory Electric Working medium gas;The cryogenic liquid pump discharge and cryogenic fluid supercharger outlet;
The main heat exchanger is arranged between the cryogenic fluid supercharger and the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid;Institute Stating main heat exchanger is the capital equipment to exchange heat with heat source;The main heat exchanger is divided into low temperature main heat exchanger and/or high temperature again Main heat exchanger or boiler;
The overcritical turbine inlet of cryogenic fluid connects the main heat exchanger outlet, the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid Discharge duct outlets;Connect the cryogenic fluid memory entrance;
The high pressure gas temperature of the overcritical gas-turbine main steam line input of cryogenic fluid, it is necessary to be apparently higher than described The critical-temperature of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium;The steam exhaust temperature of the overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe output of cryogenic fluid, reaches institute State the critical-temperature of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium;
The gas pressure of the overcritical gas-turbine main steam line input of cryogenic fluid, it is necessary to be apparently higher than the low temperature The critical pressure of generating working medium;The steam exhaust pressure of the overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe output of cryogenic fluid, reaches or approaches The critical pressure of the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium;
The low-temperature electricity-generating working medium for reaching or approaching the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium critical pressure is stored in the cryogenic fluid and deposits In reservoir, pass through the cryogenic fluid supercharger adherence pressure;It is transported to and absorbs extraneous thermal energy, volume in the main heat exchanger Expansion rapidly forms high temperature and high pressure gas and is delivered in the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid, drives the cryogenic fluid overcritical The external output mechanical energy of gas-turbine high speed rotation, or generator high speed rotation is driven externally to export electric energy;
At the same time, the high temperature and high pressure gas in the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid, temperature and pressure is also continuous Reduction, (the critical-temperature of liquid nitrogen working medium when the gas temperature in the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid is reduced to critical-temperature About -147 DEG C), when pressure reduction is to critical pressure (about 3.4Mpa), the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid does not just continue to do Function, but the directly externally steam exhaust of discharge critical-temperature;Although steam exhaust at this time is gas, but the density of steam exhaust is close to liquid Volume density is returned and is stored for future use in the cryogenic fluid memory;
Second aspect, in the embodiment of the present invention, the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid belongs to a kind of by high temperature and pressure gas Physical efficiency amount is converted into the rotating power machinery of mechanical work, also known as gas turbine, and the gas turbine includes but are not limited to gas Turbine, pneumatic motor, gas screw expander, gas turbine expander;
The construction of the overcritical gas turbine equipment of cryogenic fluid, need to meet density, ingredient, the temperature of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium The physical characteristic of degree and pressure;
The low temperature components of the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid need to use low temperature material, include but are not limited to Austria Family name's body hypothermia steel, ferritic steel for low temperature service;
The high pressure gas temperature of the overcritical gas-turbine main steam line input of cryogenic fluid, it is necessary to be apparently higher than described The critical-temperature of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium;The steam exhaust temperature of the overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe output of cryogenic fluid, reaches institute State the critical-temperature of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium;
It is worth noting that, the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid or the steam exhaust temperature of expander exhaust gas pipeline output, It also include the temperature near critically weighted;Critical-temperature is extremely accurate data, cannot actually be accomplished accurately, therefore need to wrap Include critically weighted temperature nearby;
Further, the steam exhaust temperature of the overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe output of the cryogenic fluid reaches the low temperature hair The critical-temperature of electrician's matter;Described to reach in addition to including the temperature near critically weighted, further including is more than critical-temperature;It is different Cryogenic fluid characteristic it is different, the critical-temperature of hydrogen and helium and normal boiling point temperature difference are little, and critical pressure Power very little, in this case, the steam exhaust temperature of the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid or the output of expander exhaust gas pipeline reaches very To be more than critical-temperature be easily, it is bigger even more than the amount of critical-temperature, be also included in the scope reached;
The gas pressure of the overcritical gas-turbine main steam line input of cryogenic fluid, it is necessary to be apparently higher than the low temperature The critical pressure of generating working medium;The steam exhaust pressure of the overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe output of cryogenic fluid, reaches or approaches The critical pressure of the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium;
It is worth noting that, the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid or the steam exhaust pressure of expander exhaust gas pipeline output, Reach or approach the critical pressure of the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium;It also include the pressure near critically weighted;Critical pressure is pole Its accurate data cannot actually accomplish accurate, it is therefore desirable to including the pressure limit near critical pressure point;
Further, the steam exhaust pressure of the overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe output of the cryogenic fluid, reaches or approaches The critical pressure of the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium;It is described close in addition to including the pressure near critically weighted, it further include having not reaching To the range of critical pressure;
Different subsequent process flow require be also it is different, when steam exhaust have other purposes or in the cryogenic fluid it is super It is provided with cryogenic fluid liquid or gas heat absorption device in the steam exhaust pipeline of critical gas-turbine exhaust pipe output, third can be passed through Low temperature meson absorbs excess energy in steam exhaust;Thus cause steam exhaust pressure lower than critical pressure, even below the amount of critical pressure It is bigger, be also included in reach or close to critical pressure scope;
Because of gas temperature and pressure that the cryogenic fluid gas-turbine main steam line is inputted, all significantly it is higher than institute State the critical-temperature and critical pressure of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium, therefore the cryogenic fluid gas-turbine is referred to as that cryogenic fluid is super to be faced Boundary's gas-turbine;
Preferably, outside the equipment of the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid, it is additionally provided with efficient thermal insulation material;Including but not It is only limitted to foamed material, vacuum insulation, fibrous material, mineral wool, high silica wool;The overcritical gas-turbine steam exhaust of cryogenic fluid Lower than environment, low temperature need to be protected.
The third aspect, the embodiment of the invention also includes there is steam exhaust regenerator, the cryogenic piping of the steam exhaust regenerator is located at Between cryogenic fluid supercharger and the main heat exchanger;The high-temperature pipe of the steam exhaust regenerator is located at that the cryogenic fluid is super to be faced Between boundary's gas-turbine and cryogenic fluid memory;The steam exhaust regenerator be separately provided or with the overcritical turbine unit of cryogenic fluid It closes.
Fourth aspect, the embodiment of the present invention also further include having combustion system, and the combustion system is by the fuel that is sequentially communicated Memory, controller, boiler are constituted;
The combustion system further includes the high temperature main heat exchanger or boiler tubing;
Fuel in the fuel storage device is transported in the boiler and fires after the adjusting of controller and control Burn, the high temperature heat of generation heats the high temperature main heat exchanger pipeline or boiler tubing, the high temperature main heat exchanger pipeline or Low-temperature electricity-generating working medium in boiler tubing is formed as high temperature and high pressure gas after heated, drives the overcritical turbine of the cryogenic fluid The external output mechanical energy of machine high speed rotation, or generator high speed rotation is driven externally to export electric energy;
Stored fuel, includes but are not limited to natural gas, methanol, ethyl alcohol, gasoline, bavin in the fuel storage device Any one of oil, liquefied petroleum gas, bio-fuel;
5th aspect, the embodiment of the present invention also further includes having the combustion system of low temperature liquid fuel, the cryogenic liquid combustion The combustion system of material is made of sequentially connected low temperature liquid fuel memory, heat exchanger, controller, boiler;The heat exchanger The integral multiple that quantity is 1 is arranged between the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid and the cryogenic fluid memory or described Between steam exhaust heat exchanger and the cryogenic fluid memory, and/or it is arranged in the low temperature liquid fuel memory;The combustion Expect that fuel stored in memory is low temperature liquid fuel;The geothermal liquid fuel includes but are not limited to liquid hydrogen, LNG liquid Body;
Low temperature liquid fuel is stored in the low temperature liquid fuel memory, through pipeline into the heat exchanger It exchanges heat with the high temperature steam exhaust in exhaust steam pipeline, or in the bottom of the low temperature liquid fuel memory, and/or in cryogenic liquid The heat exchanger is provided at the top of fuel storage device;The height of heat exchanger and the overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe output of cryogenic fluid Warm high pressure steam exhaust heat exchange enables high temperature and pressure steam exhaust condensation become liquid and returns in cryogenic fluid memory;
At the same time, the low temperature liquid fuel endothermic gasification in the low temperature liquid fuel memory becomes fuel gas, After the controller adjusts control, fuel gas, which is transported in the boiler, to burn, boiler high temperature master described in combustion heating Low-temperature electricity-generating working medium in heat exchanger tube, the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium in the high temperature main heat exchanger or boiler tubing absorb flammable High temperature and high pressure gas is formed after the high temperature heat that gas burning generates, input and drives the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid high Speed rotates external output mechanical energy or drives generator rotation externally output electric energy;
Further, outside the high temperature main heat exchanger and/or outside the flue of boiler, also it is enclosed with the low temperature main heat exchange Device, the low temperature main heat exchanger adequately absorb the thermal energy come out produced by gas fuel burning in boiler, adequately utilize All thermal energy caused by the gas fuel burning generate electricity;
Preferably, the low temperature main heat exchanger, also exchanges heat with other heat-producing devices, adequately absorbs other described hairs The thermal energy of hot equipment, while other heat-producing devices also being enabled to cool down;
Further, the low temperature main heat exchanger is also changed with mesons such as hot water in the hot-air or environment in environment Heat is absorbed the acting of the thermal energy in environment using the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium of extremely low temperature, further improves the system Generating efficiency and power generation output;
Since system makees generating working medium using the extremely cryogenic liquids such as the liquid nitrogen of low temperature, liquid air, it is fully able to natural gas Thermal energy caused by burning " it is net to blot squeezing ", and is completely used for generating electricity;It can also absorb and accumulate in torridity summer high temperature air simultaneously A part of thermal energy of hiding;Certainly not absorbing environment thermal energy can also be also to belong to technology scope provided in an embodiment of the present invention;
Further, the low temperature liquid fuel memory and cryogenic fluid stored in the cryogenic fluid memory When for identical cryogenic liquid, the cryogenic fluid memory and the low temperature liquid fuel memory merge into one it is identical Cryogenic liquid memory.
Further, in torridity summer, the low temperature main heat exchanger is arranged in the inside of the motor device, Lai Shixian Air-conditioning perhaps refrigerating function include but are not limited to be arranged at the top of automobile, train, vessel hotel and need it is fresh-keeping or The place of refrigeration equipment;For motor device, the energy consumption of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment is quite huge, and the cryogenic fluid is overcritical Electricity generation system or motor device using temperature down to -196 DEG C of extremely low temperature liquid nitrogen as generating working medium, due to cryogenic fluid temperature It spends extremely low, after cryogenic fluid supercharger adherence pressure, is delivered in the low temperature main heat exchanger, on the one hand with extremely low temperature Generating working medium realize air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment function;Still further aspect, after extremely the liquid nitrogen of low temperature absorbs ambient heat energy, After gasification forms the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid described in high input voltage, the overcritical gas-turbine high speed of the cryogenic fluid is driven to revolve Turn output mechanical energy or drives generator rotation output electric energy.
6th aspect, the embodiment of the present invention also further includes having control system and energy-storage system;
The overcritical external output mechanical energy of gas-turbine high speed rotation of cryogenic fluid, or drive generator high speed rotation Externally output electric energy;
The generator output connects the control system, and the control system connects motor, by the control system Control start and stop and the control motor speed of the motor;And then it controls start and stop, and control is described motor-driven The speed of service of equipment;
Further, the control system is also connected with energy-storage system;The energy-storage system includes but are not limited to super Capacitor energy storage system and/or battery energy storage system;
When the cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device start, by the super electricity in the energy-storage system Container energy-storage system and/or battery energy storage system provide electric power, drive cryogenic fluid supercharger or cryogenic liquid pump fortune Row, the cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device enter power generation program and start acting power generation;
Preferably, super capacitor energy storage system and battery energy storage system is arranged in the energy-storage system simultaneously;It is described super Capacitor energy-storage system can provide powerful power output when starting for equipment, and can also adapt to the charging of equipment again and again With electric discharge, and service life is very long;Subsequent electric energy storage of the battery energy storage system as the super capacitor energy storage system;When So, if the super capacitor energy storage system capacity is sufficiently large, battery energy storage can not also be set.
Preferably, the control system also controls the cryogenic fluid supercharger and/or the cryogenic liquid pump and/or institute State combustion system;For the larger transport devices such as ship or motor device, power is very big, therefore generally motor is not used to drive It is dynamic, but equipment, the control system and the storage are directly driven using the overcritical gas-turbine high speed rotation of the cryogenic fluid Energy system, provides the energy of driving for the cryogenic fluid supercharger and/or the cryogenic liquid pump, while can also pass through control The combustion system is made, and then controls vessel motion speed;
In the embodiment of the present invention, the cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device can be train, ship Oceangoing ship, warship etc. Large-scale Mobile equipment provide power;For these Large-scale Mobile equipment, it need to be set according to the actual situation Meter;Cryogenic fluid supercharger, cryogenic liquid pump also will be the huge equipment of power consumption, the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid it is defeated Power will be huger out;In this case, it is preferable that the overcritical gas-turbine high speed rotation of cryogenic fluid directly exports machine Tool can drive train, ship longtime running;The electric energy of driven generator output simultaneously provides train, all electricity consumptions of ship and connection storage Energy equipment, provides electric energy for ultracapacitor energy storage and/or battery energy storage system, in case when next train, ship equipment starting, Sufficient electric energy and electric energy storage can be provided for the cryogenic fluid supercharger, cryogenic liquid pump;Ensure train, ship etc. The various electrical energy demands of large scale equipment.The cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or the efficiency of motor device are very high, can increase The course continuation mileage of automobile train ship.
In terms of 7th, in the embodiment of the present invention, the cryogenic fluid memory is the pressure appearance for storing low-temperature electricity-generating working medium Device;Possess pressure limiting and safe valve protection equipment, shell is equipped with thermal insulation thermal insulation material;The meson stored is standard atmospheric pressure Under, boiling temperature is lower than the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium of zero degrees celsius;Include but are not limited to liquid nitrogen, methane, liquid air, liquid oxygen, liquid argon, Liquid hydrogen, any one or more combination of liquid helium;
The cryogenic fluid memory is the pressure vessel for storing low-temperature electricity-generating working medium, has certain voltage endurance capability;By It is not usually very high in the critical pressure of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium, therefore general cryogenic liquid storage tank can meet by improvement; In order to control the internal pressure of the cryogenic fluid memory, on the shell of the cryogenic fluid memory, also set up limited Pressure valve and/or safe valve protection equipment, can control the pressure and temperature of the cryogenic fluid memory inside by pressure limiting valve; Setting is also long to prevent vacuum insulation to be destroyed or shelve the time so simultaneously, and external heat is caused to enter cryogenic liquid storage tank In cause temperature and pressure to increase;It is not above the permission pressure of the cryogenic fluid memory, equipment is just very safe and reliable;
Cryogenic liquid gasification absorbs a large amount of latent heat of vaporization, and the temperature of the cryogenic liquid working can be also reduced rapidly after release Degree, in this way setting are just safer, and the personnel for being engaged in power generation are a bit strange to this, but the technology people for doing low temperature and space division This is not technical problem for member, is also all the very mature prior art, also just no longer excessively repeats herein;
Preferably, the cryogenic fluid memory, cryogenic liquid pump, cryogenic fluid supercharger, steam exhaust regenerator, main heat exchange The overcritical gas-turbine of device, cryogenic fluid, the Cryo Equipment or low-temperature components and corresponding connecting pipe are low temperature resistant material Material, includes but are not limited to austenitic cryogenic steel, ferritic steel for low temperature service;Preferably, the equipment or low-temperature components and corresponding Heat insulation layer is additionally provided with outside connecting pipe;The heat insulation layer has good heat-insulating property, includes but are not limited to vacuum insulation, gas Gel, foam, fibrous material, mineral wool, high silica wool;
It optionally, further include having ice chest, the ice chest is made of thermal insulation thermal insulation material, and the Cryo Equipment is put It sets in the ice chest;The ice chest is additionally provided with isolation;The ice chest is carried out by the outer cover against external environment of height insulation Insulation, the isolation are insulated and are isolated between the Cryo Equipment of different temperatures again.
Eighth aspect, in the embodiment of the present invention, the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid belongs to a kind of by high pressure gas energy Amount is converted into the rotating power machinery of mechanical work, also known as gas turbine, and therefore, the gas turbine includes but are not limited to gas Turbine, pneumatic motor, gas screw expander, gas turbine expander;
Further, the gas turbine uses low temperature material, includes but are not limited to austenitic cryogenic steel, ferrite Low-temperature steel;Further, the construction of the gas turbine need to meet density, ingredient, temperature and the pressure of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium The physical characteristic of power;
Traditional gas turbine is to make working medium using steam, and for high steam by nozzle, driving steam turbine impeller and rotor are high Speed rotation, the gases such as high-pressure carbon dioxide, high pressure nitrogen, pressure-air blow gas-turbine impeller of rotor by nozzle, similarly Gas turbine impeller rotor can be driven to rotate, it is high-pressure water vapor that turbine machine nozzle and impeller, which do not distinguish input, high-pressure carbon dioxide, Or pressure-air, high pressure nitrogen;As long as high-pressure fluid drives, the impeller of gas-turbine will rotate;The gas turbine Tool equipment, such as pneumatic motor, gas turbine expander, single-screw expander, twin-screw expander equipment are also just as, as long as It is to have high pressure gas input, regardless of the gas of meson, the rotor of gas-turbine or expanding machine all can high speed rotation.
The equipment such as the existing pneumatic motor of tradition, single-screw expander, twin-screw expander, gas turbine expander, in ontology It is slightly different in structure with steam turbine, but all belongs to gas turbine class equipment, and all belong to small gas turbine (only steam turbine substantially It is changeable, and be most widely used), but all traditional equipments are generally all applied to room temperature working medium, such as room temperature pressure-air or Organic generating working medium of person's high temperature water vapour or Organic Rankine Cycle, but answering for low temperature field is not all accounted for generally With.Low temperature and room temperature difference, some room temperature or high temperature steel are only applicable to room temperature and high-temperature field, but are applied to low temperature and lead Behind domain, it may appear that become fragile even breach a possibility that, it is that absolutely not can allow for that this, which is in practical situations,;It must select Low temperature material can solve the problems, such as this, include but are not limited to austenitic cryogenic steel, ferritic steel for low temperature service.
In addition, the cryogenic fluid gas turbine plant, it is also necessary to which traditional gas turbine plant existing equipment tail portion is " complete Remove in portion ", only retain the part of generating working medium critical-temperature or more;The high pressure gas of the cryogenic fluid gas turbine plant input Body, temperature and pressure all have to the critical-temperature for being significantly higher than low-temperature electricity-generating working medium;The cryogenic fluid gas turbine The steam exhaust of equipment output end discharge, temperature reach the critical-temperature of the cryogenic fluid;Steam exhaust pressure reaches the cryogenic fluid Critical pressure;
For the embodiment of the present invention, remodeling method is identical as the gas-turbine, and equipment volume will be smaller, driving It is powerful;Gas-turbine is changeable, and versatility is also stronger, and technology maturation, cost is also relatively low, and other gas turbine plants are in city Small number on field, emphasis of the embodiment of the present invention describe gas-turbine, and other equipment are identical, no longer excessive to repeat to repeat.
The cryogenic fluid expanding machine, pneumatic motor belong to gas turbine with the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid Tool, only the structure of apparatus body is slightly different;In embodiments of the present invention, the cryogenic fluid expanding machine, pneumatic motor it is defeated Enter end, output end, pipe connecting method and application method and parameter, with the complete phase of the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid Together, therefore scope provided by the embodiment of the present invention is also belonged to;
9th aspect, the embodiment of the present invention are also provided with a kind of using gas-turbine or expanding machine height of cylinder closed structure Gland seal system, the gas-turbine or expanding machine are made of stationary part and rotating part;The gas-turbine or expanding machine Boring mill Envelope system includes input terminal gland seal system and output end gland seal system;The overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid or expanding machine it is defeated Enter and hold gland seal system, including input terminal cylinder body, input end bearing and bearing block, input terminal shaft, main steam line;The input End bearing and bearing block include spring bearing and thrust bearing;
Further, in the outside of the input end bearing and bearing block, it is additionally provided with insulated case;The insulated case Divide upper insulated case and lower insulated case;The lower insulated case is located in the lower cylinder of input end bearing and bearing block position, And it combines closely with the lower cylinder of the gas-turbine or expanding machine;The input end bearing and bearing block, are mounted on the turbine In the lower insulated case under machine or expanding machine in cylinder;
Further, the lower insulated case and the upper insulated case are equipped with flange, tight by the flange and bolt Gu the inner cavity of the lower insulated case and the upper insulated case forms a closed adiabatic space;The input terminal turns Axis, the input end bearing and bearing block and lubricating oil are sealed in inside the adiabatic space that the insulated case is constituted;
Further, the contact position that the input terminal shaft is wrapped up in the insulated case, is additionally provided with insulated case Sealing, the insulated case sealing prevents the intracorporal bearing oil of insulated shell, from insulated case sealing place to external leakage;It is preferred that , between the insulated case and institute's main steam line, it is additionally provided with input terminal reserved space or pipeline, the input terminal is reserved Space or pipeline are located in lower cylinder, store the lubricating oil leaked out from insulated case sealing place, and pass through first pipe valve The dirty lubricating oil discharge leaked out described in goalkeeper;
Further, the output end of the gas-turbine or expanding machine includes gas-turbine or expander exhaust gas pipeline, output Hold cylinder body, output end bearing and bearing block, shaft coupling and generator;The gas-turbine or expanding machine, by output end bearing and axis Seat, shaft coupling and generator are held, the output end cylinder interior that the gas-turbine or expanding machine are arrived in setting is hidden;And to output End cylinder body does the improvement of installation generator position, in order to be suitble to placement gen-set;
Preferably, the output end of the gas-turbine or expanding machine input terminal and the gas-turbine or expanding machine is hidden It is arranged into the cylinder body of the gas-turbine or expanding machine, using the gas-turbine or the height airtightness of expanding machine cylinder body, carries out The axle envelope of both ends of the shaft avoids the cryogenic fluid, leaks from the axle envelope of the both ends of the shaft of the gas-turbine or expanding machine.
Preferably, the upper insulated case of the insulated case and lower insulated case are interior by the flange and bolt fastening Portion forms a closed adiabatic space, and lubricating oil injection hole is equipped at the top of the upper insulated case, enables the bearing and bearing Lubricating oil is injected inside the adiabatic space of seat;
Preferably, the insulated case further includes having lubricating oil output channel, the lubricating oil being connected with the insulated case Filter, lube oil cooler and grease pump;The cryogenic high pressure lubricating oil of the grease pump output, through lubricating oil input pipe Road is delivered to the intracorporal bearing of the insulated shell and bearing block;And the lubrication of clean constant temperature is provided for the bearing and bearing block Oil;The intracorporal high temperature of insulated shell and dirty lubricating oil, are exported, and be delivered to lubricating oil filter and profit by lubricating oil output channel Oil cooler cooling, then it is defeated by bearing through grease pump pressurization, form circulation;
Preferably, the lubricating oil filter, the lube oil cooler and the grease pump are arranged in the turbine Outside the cylinder body of machine;Or the cylinder interior of the gas-turbine or expanding machine is set, when being located at cylinder interior, there is heat exchanger tube Road and extraneous heat exchange, to ensure that lubricating oil temperature is constant;Preferably, outside the gas-turbine or the cylinder body of expander plant or Inside person, it is additionally provided with lubricating oil temperature probe, lubricating oil pressure probe, lubricants capacity probe and gas-turbine or expanding machine The pressure probe of cylinder interior;The safety of gas-turbine described in above-mentioned probe moment detection and interlock protection or expander plant.
It is worth noting that, for the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium of cost costly, the gas-turbine or expander plant The generating working medium of both ends of the shaft leaks, and not only reduces generating efficiency and generates leakage cost, while the supplement of cryogenic liquid working Also very troublesome.For the leakage problem for solving the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid or expander plant both ends of the shaft, applicant It is found by years of researches, the input terminal and output end of the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid or expanding machine is all hidden into low temperature In the overcritical gas-turbine of working medium or expander plant cylinder body, with height of cylinder airtightness (up to nearly 100% sealing), can thoroughly it solve The certainly leakage problem of the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid or expanding machine both ends of the shaft.In addition, for other rotating machineries, it is high Press fluid input and output end that can also use sealing technique identical with the cryogenic fluid gas turbine equipment and method, thus Realize and reach the nearly zero leakage of equipment gland seal system;These also belong to technical scope provided by the embodiment of the present invention.
The beneficial effect of the embodiment of the present invention is:
The embodiment of the present invention provides a kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device, including is sequentially communicated Cryogenic fluid memory, cryogenic fluid supercharger, the overcritical gas-turbine of main heat exchanger, cryogenic fluid constitute;The low temperature work The overcritical gas-turbine discharge duct outlets of matter return to and connect the cryogenic fluid memory entrance, form circulation;
Environment thermal energy is absorbed by using low-temperature electricity-generating working medium, and using the cryogenic fluid in the low temperature main heat exchanger Realize the cooling tower being not provided in refrigeration and system to extraneous Environment release thermal energy, cryogenic fluid electricity generation system Or the effective thermal efficiency of motor device improves, it is meant that possesses the electronic vapour of the cryogenic fluid electricity generation system or motor device Vehicle, train, ship can be more energy saving, and the thermal energy that fuel combustion generates adequately absorbs and utilize acting, effective thermal effect Rate is double, also means that the mobile device for possessing the low-temperature electricity-generating working substance system, can be realized the increase of course continuation mileage and turns over Times.
Detailed description of the invention
It, below will be to needed in the embodiment more clearly to illustrate the technical solution for illustrating the embodiment of the present invention Attached drawing is briefly described, it should be understood that the following drawings illustrates only certain embodiments of the present invention, therefore is not construed as Restriction to range for those of ordinary skill in the art without creative efforts, can also basis These attached drawings obtain other relevant attached drawings;This is easily done;
Fig. 1 is that the connection of a kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system provided in an embodiment of the present invention or motor device is shown It is intended to;
Fig. 2 is a kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or machine with steam exhaust regenerator provided in an embodiment of the present invention The connection schematic diagram of dynamic equipment;
Fig. 3 is a kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor-driven with combustion system provided in an embodiment of the present invention The connection schematic diagram of equipment;
Fig. 4 is that a kind of combustion system with low temperature liquid fuel provided in an embodiment of the present invention and cryogenic fluid are overcritical The connection schematic diagram of electricity generation system or motor device;
Fig. 5 is a kind of combustion system with low temperature liquid fuel provided in an embodiment of the present invention, and the heat exchanger setting exists Bottom in the low temperature liquid fuel memory;
Fig. 6 be a kind of combustion system with low temperature liquid fuel provided in an embodiment of the present invention, cryogenic fluid memory with Low temperature liquid fuel memory is identical cryogenic liquid memory;
Fig. 7 is a kind of common gas-turbine of low temperature nitrogen of bearing outside cylinder body, and steam exhaust temperature is marked down to (- 196 DEG C) of nitrogen The turbine configuration schematic diagram of quasi- boiling point is used as reference and comparison;
Fig. 8 is a kind of " cutting down traditional turbine drive end unit " provided in an embodiment of the present invention, and output end steam exhaust temperature reaches nitrogen The turbine configuration schematic diagram of gas (- 147 DEG C) critical-temperature;
Fig. 9 be it is provided in an embodiment of the present invention it is a kind of gas turbine equipment is inputted into end bearing, export end bearing and generator, It is placed into the intracorporal structural schematic diagram of gas-turbine cylinder;
Figure 10 for the embodiment of the present invention provide it is a kind of gas turbine equipment is inputted into end bearing, export end bearing and generator be equal It is placed into the gas-turbine cylinder body, and output end steam exhaust temperature reaches the cryogenic fluid gas of nitrogen (- 147 DEG C) critical-temperature Turbine structural schematic diagram;
Electricity generation system part icon:
1- cryogenic fluid memory;2- cryogenic fluid supercharger;3- cryogenic liquid pump;4- main heat exchanger;401- low temperature master Heat exchanger;402- boiler (burner);The overcritical gas-turbine of 5- cryogenic fluid (or expanding machine);6- generator;600- control system System;601- motor;602- energy-storage system;7- steam exhaust regenerator;701- steam exhaust regenerator cryogenic pipe;702- steam exhaust regenerator High temperature conduit;900- low temperature liquid fuel memory;9- heat exchanger (multiple);901- low temp fuel pipeline;902- high temperature steam exhaust Pipeline;903- controller;904- throttle valve;
The icon of cryogenic fluid gas-turbine part:
(gas turbine plants such as expanding machine are that apparatus body is slightly different from the gas-turbine, to spy of the embodiment of the present invention Changed for sign it is identical, therefore no longer excessive repetition repeats)
20- gas-turbine main steam line;21- gas-turbine exhaust pipe;101- gas-turbine shaft;102- insulated case; 103- inputs end bearing and bearing block;104- axle envelope;105- gas turbine equipment cylinder body;106- impeller of rotor;107- gas-turbine every Plate;108- output end axle envelope;9- output end insulated case;10- exports end bearing and bearing block;11- shaft coupling;12- generator; 13- third pipeline valve;14- third pipe outlet;The outlet of 15- second pipe;16- second pipe valve;17- output end is reserved Space or pipeline;18- output end reserves thermal insulation areas;19- input terminal reserves thermal insulation areas;The sealing of 22- insulated case;23- input terminal Reserved space or pipeline;24- first pipe valve;The outlet of 25- first pipe;26- lubricating oil output channel;The storage of 27- lubricating oil Storage;28- lubricating oil filter;29- lube oil cooler;30- grease pump;31- lubricating oil high input voltage pipeline;32- is defeated The sealing of outlet insulated case;
Specific embodiment
In order to make the object, technical scheme and advantages of the embodiment of the invention clearer, below in conjunction with the embodiment of the present invention In attached drawing, technical scheme in the embodiment of the invention is clearly and completely described, it is clear that described embodiment is A part of the embodiment of the present invention, instead of all the embodiments.The present invention being usually described and illustrated herein in the accompanying drawings is implemented The component of example can be arranged and be designed with a variety of different configurations.
Fig. 1 is that the connection of a kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system provided in an embodiment of the present invention or motor device is shown It is intended to;In Fig. 1, if the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium stored in the cryogenic fluid memory 1 is critical-temperature under critical pressure For -147 DEG C of liquid nitrogen or liquid air;When the cryogenic fluid in the cryogenic fluid memory 1 is in critical state or supercritical state When state, difference disappears between gas phase and liquid phase, latent heat 0;It is added high pressure, is delivered to described by the cryogenic fluid supercharger 2 In main heat exchanger 4, as heated in hot water heat exchanger, about -147 DEG C of nitrogen temperature promotion reaches 30 DEG C or more;Pressure reaches 5Mpa or more is inputted and is driven overcritical 5 high speed rotation of the gas-turbine acting of the cryogenic fluid, output mechanical energy or drive hair 6 high speed rotation of motor exports electric energy;At the same time, the high temperature and high pressure gas in the overcritical gas-turbine 5 of the cryogenic fluid, temperature It is also constantly being reduced with pressure, (the liquid nitrogen when the gas temperature in the overcritical gas-turbine 5 of cryogenic fluid is reduced to critical-temperature About -147 DEG C of the critical-temperature of working medium), when pressure reduction is to critical pressure (about 3.4Mpa), the overcritical turbine of cryogenic fluid Machine 5 does not just continue to do work, but the directly externally steam exhaust of discharge critical-temperature and critical pressure;
Though steam exhaust at this time is gas, the density of steam exhaust is mentioned close to fluid density by the cryogenic fluid supercharger 2 Boosting power, is delivered in the main heat exchanger 4 and continues to heat, nitrogen temperature reaches 30 DEG C or more;Pressure reaches 5Mpa or more, input And drive overcritical 5 high speed rotation of the gas-turbine acting of the cryogenic fluid, output mechanical energy or drive 6 high speed rotation of generator Export electric energy;So constantly recycle;
The output of generator 6 connects the control system 600, the connection of control system 600 and drive motor 601, the start and stop of the motor 601 and the revolving speed of the control motor 601 are controlled by the control system 600;
Further, the control system 600 is also connected with energy-storage system 602;The energy-storage system 602 includes but not only It is limited to super capacitor energy-storage system and/or battery energy storage system;
Preferably, the control system 600 also controls the cryogenic fluid supercharger 2 and/or the Low Temperature Liquid (in Fig. 2) Body pump 3 and/or the combustion system.
Fig. 2 is a kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or machine with steam exhaust regenerator provided in an embodiment of the present invention The connection schematic diagram of dynamic equipment;
As shown in Fig. 2, the output end of the overcritical gas-turbine 5 of cryogenic fluid is additionally provided with steam exhaust regenerator 7, the steam exhaust Regenerator cryogenic piping 701 is arranged between the cryogenic fluid supercharger 2 and the main heat exchanger 4;The steam exhaust regenerator High-temperature pipe 702 is arranged between the overcritical gas-turbine 5 of the cryogenic fluid and the cryogenic fluid memory 1;The steam exhaust The effect of regenerator 7 is extra high temperature in the high temperature steam exhaust for exporting overcritical 5 exhaust pipe of gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid It is on the one hand weary convenient for the high pressure of more low temperature in the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium that energy replacement is exported to the cryogenic fluid supercharger 2 Steam flow body returns spare in the cryogenic fluid memory 1;In addition, the overcritical 5 exhaust pipe institute of gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid Extra high temperature energy in the steam exhaust of output, and be re-used, it is not wasted;
Fig. 3 is a kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor-driven with combustion system provided in an embodiment of the present invention The connection schematic diagram of equipment;
The boiler 402 further includes having combustion system, the combustion system by be sequentially communicated fuel storage device 900, control Device 903 and burner or boiler 402 processed are constituted;
Fuel in the fuel storage device 900 is transported to the combustion after the adjusting of controller 903 and control It burns in burner or boiler 402, the high temperature heat amount of generation heats 402 pipeline of boiler, low in 402 pipeline of boiler Warm generating working medium is formed as high temperature and high pressure gas after heated, drives overcritical 5 high speed rotation of gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid external Output mechanical energy, or 6 high speed rotation of generator is driven externally to export electric energy;
Stored fuel in the fuel storage device 900, include but are not limited to natural gas, methanol, ethyl alcohol, gasoline, Any one of diesel oil, liquefied petroleum gas, bio-fuel;
Fig. 4 is that a kind of combustion system with low temperature liquid fuel provided in an embodiment of the present invention and cryogenic fluid are overcritical The connection schematic diagram of electricity generation system or motor device;
The combustion system of low temperature liquid fuel described in Fig. 4 is by sequentially connected low temperature liquid fuel memory 900, heat exchange Device 9 (multiple), controller 903, burner or boiler 402 are constituted;The integral multiple that 9 quantity of heat exchanger is 1 is arranged in institute It states between the overcritical gas-turbine 5 of cryogenic fluid and the cryogenic fluid memory 1 or the steam exhaust heat exchanger high-temperature pipe 702 Between outlet and the cryogenic fluid memory 1,
The low temperature liquid fuel includes but are not limited to LNG liquid, liquid hydrogen;
Low temperature liquid fuel is stored in the low temperature liquid fuel memory 900, passes through pipeline to the heat exchange It exchanges heat in device 9 with the high temperature steam exhaust in exhaust steam pipeline, the heat exchanger 9 and overcritical 5 exhaust pipe of gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid are defeated High temperature and pressure steam exhaust heat exchange out enables high temperature and pressure steam exhaust condensation become liquid and returns in cryogenic fluid memory 1;
At the same time, the low temperature liquid fuel endothermic gasification in the low temperature liquid fuel memory 900 becomes combustible gas Body, after the controller 903 adjusts control, fuel gas, which is transported in the burner or boiler 402, to burn, heating The high temperature main heat exchanger pipeline perhaps the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium high temperature main heat exchanger pipeline in 402 pipeline of boiler or Low-temperature electricity-generating working medium in boiler 402 forms high temperature and high pressure gas after absorbing the high temperature heat that gas fuel burning generates, and inputs And it drives the external output mechanical energy of overcritical 5 high speed rotation of gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid or generator 6 is driven to rotate externally Export electric energy;
Fig. 5 is a kind of combustion system with low temperature liquid fuel provided in an embodiment of the present invention, and the heat exchanger setting exists Bottom in the low temperature liquid fuel memory;
It is distinguished with Fig. 4, if Fig. 5 adds a heat exchanger 9,900 bottom of low temperature liquid fuel memory is arrived in setting, And/or the heat exchanger 9 is set at the top of low temperature liquid fuel memory 900 and is vented with the overcritical gas-turbine 5 of cryogenic fluid The high temperature steam exhaust heat exchange of pipeline output enables high temperature and pressure steam exhaust condensation become liquid and returns in cryogenic fluid memory 1;
Fig. 6 be a kind of combustion system with low temperature liquid fuel provided in an embodiment of the present invention, cryogenic fluid memory with Low temperature liquid fuel memory is identical cryogenic liquid memory;
It is distinguished with Fig. 5, as shown in fig. 6, in the low temperature liquid fuel memory 900 and the cryogenic fluid memory 1 When stored cryogenic fluid (such as low temperature liquid fuel LNG) is identical cryogenic liquid, the cryogenic fluid memory 1 and institute It states low temperature liquid fuel memory 900 and merges into an identical cryogenic liquid memory 1;Increase throttle valve 904 simultaneously, passes through The throttle valve 904 controls, and realizes the pressure for keeping needing in cryogenic fluid memory 1.
Fig. 7 is a kind of common gas-turbine of low temperature nitrogen of bearing outside cylinder body, and steam exhaust temperature is marked down to (- 196 DEG C) of nitrogen The turbine configuration schematic diagram of quasi- boiling point is used as reference and comparison;
As shown in fig. 7, the gas turbine equipment of traditional approach, 101 bearings at both ends of gas-turbine shaft, including input end bearing and Bearing block 103, and output end bearing and bearing block 10 and shaft coupling 11 and generator 12, are generally all located at gas turbine equipment The outside of cylinder body 105;The shaft end seal at 101 both ends of gas-turbine shaft is by input terminal axle envelope 104 and output end axle envelope 108 It realizes, traditional axle envelope has toothed belt vapour seal, brandon steam-glanding, honeycomb steam seal, brush steam seal, soft tooth packing, elastic toothed belt vapour seal; Though gas-turbine equipped with axle envelope but there are still leakage problem, the leakage rate of existing large-size steam turbine sealing gland per hour up to 10 tons with On.This leakage is also very big, especially expensive cryogenic liquid working, and shaft end gland seal leakage will be very painful.
A kind of low temperature nitrogen working medium gas-turbine of traditional rankine cycle shown in Fig. 7, gas-turbine main steam line 20, input Gas temperature be 0 DEG C or more, steam does work in gas turbine equipment, and temperature also constantly reduces, when temperature drops to institute in Fig. 1 - 147 DEG C of critical-temperature positions (latent heat 0) of label just begin in steam exhaust latent when gas temperature is lower than nitrogen critical-temperature Heat, and as steam exhaust temperature reduces, the latent heat contained in nitrogen also will be increasing, the temperature of gas-turbine exhaust pipe 21 - 196 DEG C of boiling temperatures of nitrogen are reduced to, latent heat reaches 199kj/kg, because of steam exhaust temperature very low temperature, huge low-grade latent heat It can be difficult to discharge, therefore Rankine cycle is also just difficult to carry out, this is also the main original that cryogenic fluid power generation is difficult to realize Cause.
Fig. 8 is a kind of " cutting down traditional turbine drive end unit " provided in an embodiment of the present invention, and output end steam exhaust temperature reaches nitrogen The turbine configuration schematic diagram of gas (- 147 DEG C) critical-temperature;
The gas-turbine input terminal of Fig. 8 and Fig. 7, the first half and output end master section of gas-turbine ontology and traditional gas Turbine is identical, but the gas-turbine exhaust stage blade and second last stage blade " all being cut down ", the steam exhaust temperature that exhaust pipe is exported Degree reaches or (about -147 DEG C) critical-temperature of slightly higher than nitrogen, and the volume of the gas turbine equipment will also reduce very much;
Gas-turbine main steam line described in Fig. 8 20 still inputs (0 DEG C or more) high pressure nitrogen, passes through the gas-turbine sheet High temperature and pressure nitrogen energy conversion is high-speed rotating mechanical energy by body, and high pressure nitrogen constantly does work in gas-turbine, temperature It also can constantly reduce with pressure, face when the overcritical gas-turbine temperature of the cryogenic fluid is reduced to (- 147 DEG C) that Fig. 5 is marked After boundary's temperature spot, the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid is expelled directly out the high temperature steam exhaust of (- 147 DEG C), pressure from exhaust pipe About critical pressure (about 3.4MPa);Density at this time is maximum, possesses the density of near liquid, latent heat 0, gas phase and liquid phase it Between difference disappear;
Fig. 9 be it is provided in an embodiment of the present invention it is a kind of gas turbine equipment is inputted into end bearing, export end bearing and generator, It is placed into the intracorporal structural schematic diagram of gas-turbine cylinder;
Problem is leaked to solve gas turbine equipment both ends of the shaft, applicant is by nearly 20 years the study found that gas-turbine is defeated Enter end and output end is hidden into gas-turbine cylinder body, with the gas-turbine height of cylinder closed structure (up to 100% sealing), solution The leakage problem of the certainly described gas-turbine both ends of the shaft;
As shown in figure 9, being turned left the input terminal of the be illustrated as gas turbine equipment with high pressure admission mouth 20 and top A line; It is the gas turbine equipment ontology between main steam line 20 and exhaust steam pipeline 21, such as the part B institute among A line in figure and C line Show;Exhaust steam pipeline 21 and top C line turn right illustrated be the gas turbine equipment output end;
Gas-turbine as shown in Figure 9, insulated case 102 divides insulated case and lower insulated case, and (Fig. 9 show gas-turbine Lower insulated case);The end position of bearings of gas-turbine shaft 101 is set, the lower insulated case is located in lower cylinder body, and It combines closely with the lower cylinder body of gas-turbine cylinder body 105;The input end bearing and bearing block 103 are located at the insulated case 102 Lower insulated case in, support 101 weight of gas-turbine shaft, there are also thrust bearing limitation gas-turbine shaft 101 move axially;Absolutely The contact position of hot shell 102 and gas-turbine shaft 101, is equipped with insulated case sealing 22, and the insulated case sealing 22 prevents Bearing oil in insulated case 102 externally generates leakage from insulated case sealing 22;
Optionally, axle envelope 104 is additionally provided between high pressure admission mouth 20 and input terminal, optionally, the axle envelope 104 and insulation It between shell 102, is additionally provided with input terminal and reserves thermal insulation areas 19, it is therefore an objective to isolation and the temperature for reducing the input of High Pressure Steam Host Piping 20 Degree, influences the input end bearing and bearing block 103 of insulated case 102 and the inside;Due to the upper insulated case of insulated case 102 It is closed structure with lower insulated case, pressure is identical as 20 input pressure of high pressure admission mouth, therefore the input of high pressure admission mouth 20 High pressure gas is difficult to enter into inside insulated case 102.There are also axle envelopes 104 and insulated case sealing 22 simultaneously;The insulated shell Body sealing 22 is two also settable, and the high temperature and high pressure gas that setting can be such that main steam line 20 inputs in this way hardly enters, simultaneously Also the lubricating oil that can avoid in insulated case 102 is difficult to leak out;
Optionally, it is reserved between thermal insulation areas 19 in insulated case sealing 22 and input terminal, is additionally provided with input terminal reserved space Or pipeline 23, the input terminal reserved space or pipeline 23 are isolated, while being stored and being leaked out from insulated case sealing 22 Lubricating oil, and the lubricating oil of the leakage is discharged by first pipe valve 24 and first pipe outlet 25;
Preferably, as shown in figure 9, the outside of the insulated case 102 and lower cylinder body 105, is additionally provided with and the insulated shell The connected lubricating oil output channel 26 of body 102, lubrication oil reservoir 27, lubricating oil filter 28, lube oil cooler 29 and profit Oil pump 30 and lubricating oil high input voltage pipeline 31, by the lubricating oil high input voltage pipeline 31 by abundance, completely, it is low (controllable temperature) lubricating oil of temperature, is delivered in the insulated case 102, is supplied to input end bearing and bearing block 103, fills Foot, clean, the lubricating oil guarantee of low temperature;Ensuring to input end bearing and bearing block 103 being capable of safety and stability.
The lubrication oil reservoir 27, lubricating oil filter 28, lube oil cooler 29, can be combined, then lead to Grease pump 30 and lubricating oil high input voltage pipeline 31 are crossed, lubricating oil is delivered to the bearing and axis in the insulated case 102 Hold seat 103;
Optionally, the lubricating oil filter 28, lube oil cooler 29 and grease pump 30 may be provided in gas turbine equipment Cylinder body 105 outside;It can also be located at the cylinder interior of gas-turbine, when the institute in cylinder interior is arranged in lube oil cooler 29 Stating in lube oil cooler 29 has pipeline to contact with the external world, is flowed by the meson in pipeline, lubricating oil heat in cylinder body is passed It is delivered to outside cylinder body, by returning to cylinder interior after heat exchanger cooling.
Preferably, the input terminal of the gas-turbine and output end are put into inside the cylinder body 105 of gas turbine equipment, use institute The shaft end seal that the height airtightness structure (nearly 100% sealing) of gas-turbine cylinder body carries out gas-turbine shaft 101 is stated, high pressure is avoided Gas leaks from the axle envelope at 101 both ends of gas-turbine shaft.The output end embodiment of the gas-turbine is as follows: output end Bearing and bearing block 10 are located at the position far from output end axle envelope 108;Preferably, output end reserves thermal insulation areas 18;Output end axis It holds and is located in output end insulated case 9 with bearing block 10, output end insulated case 9 is identical as input end structure, insulated shell under point The lower cylinder body of body and upper insulated case, the lower insulated case and gas turbine equipment cylinder body 105 is combined closely, and is insulated on output end By flange and bolt fastening, inside forms a closed adiabatic space for shell and lower insulated case;Optionally, described exhausted Hot case top sets lubricating oil injection hole, enables and injects lubricating oil in the adiabatic space of the bearing and bearing block 10;Specific implementation It is identical as input terminal, no longer excessively repeat;It should be noted that output end insulated case 9 and shaft 101 are gathered around, there are two contact position It sets, therefore there are two output end insulated case sealings 32, is separately positioned on two to be in contact with shaft 101 as shown in Figure 3 and connects Touch position;The output end insulated case sealing 32 prevents the bearing oil in output end insulated case 9 from being insulated from output end To external leakage at housing seal 32;The shaft end of output end gas-turbine shaft 101 is additionally provided with turn of shaft coupling 11 and generator 12 Axis carries out shaft coupling, facilitates the maintenance and replacement of generator 12;
Preferably, output end reserved space or pipeline 17 are separately positioned on the lower cylinder body 105 of 9 two sides of output end insulated case It is interior, the lubricating oil leaked out from output end insulated case sealing 32 is stored, and pass through second pipe valve 16 and third pipeline The lubricating oil leaked out is discharged valve 13;It needs to illustrate, output end generator 12 produces electricl energy, by being located at gas turbine equipment cylinder Connecting terminal on body 105 is drawn, and will not influence the sealing performance of the gas-turbine.
The gentle turbine exhaust pipeline 21 of the gas-turbine High Pressure Steam Host Piping 20 is all the method excellent using airtight performance Blue and fastened by screw is not in leakage, therefore gas turbine equipment provided by the embodiment of the present invention possesses multi-sealed measure. It is worth noting that, rotating shaft sealing system provided in an embodiment of the present invention is for other rotating machineries, high pressure gas is defeated Enter end and output end, can also use sealing technique identical with the gas turbine equipment and method, to realize and reach shaft The nearly zero leakage of sealing system, also belongs to the scope.The technology is relatively independent, has independent technique feature, is quoting these When technology, it is also desirable to obtain applicant's approval.
Figure 10 for the embodiment of the present invention provide it is a kind of gas turbine equipment is inputted into end bearing, export end bearing and generator be equal It is placed into the gas-turbine cylinder body, and output end steam exhaust temperature reaches the cryogenic fluid gas of nitrogen (- 147 DEG C) critical-temperature Turbine structural schematic diagram;
In Figure 10, shaft end seal is carried out using gas turbine equipment cylinder body, the sealing performance of the system (can reach nearly 100%) It is identical as Fig. 9 to can achieve close to zero leakage;Low-temperature electricity-generating working medium can not only reduce expensive low temperature close to zero leakage Generating working medium is lost, while can also improve the whole generating efficiency of the electricity generation system and dynamical system;
As shown in Figure 10, the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid provided in an embodiment of the present invention, when temperature drops to generating working medium The critical state (about -147 DEG C, pressure about 3.4MPa critical pressure) of nitrogen, does not just continue to do work, but directly passes through low temperature The overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe 21 of working medium is discharged, therefore the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid has small in size, and power is strong Strength, advantage at low cost;Cryogenic fluid electricity generation system or the effective thermal efficiency of motor device improve, it is meant that possess the low temperature The electric car of working medium electricity generation system or motor device, train, ship can be more energy saving, and the thermal energy that fuel combustion generates fills That divides is absorbed and utilized acting, while can also absorb surrounding air energy using low-temperature electricity-generating working medium, and effective thermal efficiency is double, Mean the motor device for possessing the system, can be realized the increase of course continuation mileage and double.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device, which is characterized in that including the low temperature work being sequentially communicated The overcritical gas-turbine of matter memory, cryogenic fluid supercharger, main heat exchanger, cryogenic fluid is constituted;The cryogenic fluid is overcritical Gas-turbine discharge duct outlets return to and connect the cryogenic fluid memory entrance, form circulation;
The cryogenic fluid memory setting limited valve and safe valve protection equipment, and the low temperature work with high-efficiency insulated insulation The pressure vessel of matter storage;The working medium stored is normal atmosphere pressure, and boiling temperature is lower than the low-temperature electricity-generating work of zero degrees celsius Matter;
The cryogenic fluid supercharger is the driving equipment of lifting fluid pressure;The cryogenic fluid supercharger is arranged described low Between warm working medium memory and the main heat exchanger;
It further, further include having cryogenic liquid pump;The cryogenic liquid pump intake is connected to cryogenic fluid memory bottom Low-temperature electricity-generating worker quality liquid;The cryogenic liquid pump discharge is connected to steam exhaust regenerator cryogenic piping entrance;The Low Temperature Liquid Body pump is separately provided, or combines with the cryogenic fluid supercharger;
Preferably, the cryogenic fluid supercharger outlet is connected with the cryogenic liquid pump discharge;Or the cryogenic fluid increases The outlet of press outlet connection steam exhaust regenerator cryogenic piping, the cryogenic liquid pump connect the steam exhaust regenerator cryogenic piping and enter Mouthful;
The main heat exchanger is arranged between the cryogenic fluid supercharger and the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid;The master Heat exchanger is the capital equipment to exchange heat with heat source;The main heat exchanger is divided into low temperature main heat exchanger again and/or high temperature master changes Hot device or boiler;
The entrance of the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid connects the main heat exchanger outlet, the overcritical turbine of cryogenic fluid Machine discharge duct outlets;Connect cryogenic fluid memory entrance;
The high pressure gas temperature of the overcritical gas-turbine main steam line input of cryogenic fluid, it is necessary to be apparently higher than the low temperature The critical-temperature of generating working medium;The steam exhaust temperature of the overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe output of cryogenic fluid, reaches described low The critical-temperature of warm generating working medium;
The gas pressure of the overcritical gas-turbine main steam line input of cryogenic fluid, it is necessary to be apparently higher than the low-temperature electricity-generating The critical pressure of working medium;The steam exhaust pressure of the overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe output of cryogenic fluid, reaches or approaches described The critical pressure of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium;
The low-temperature electricity-generating working medium for reaching or approaching the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium critical pressure is stored in the cryogenic fluid memory In, pass through the cryogenic fluid supercharger adherence pressure;It is transported to and absorbs extraneous thermal energy in the main heat exchanger, volume is rapid Expansion forms high temperature and high pressure gas and is delivered in the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid, drives the overcritical turbine of the cryogenic fluid The external output mechanical energy of machine high speed rotation, or generator high speed rotation is driven externally to export electric energy;
The overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid belongs to a kind of rotation that high temperature and high pressure gas energy is converted into mechanical work and moves Power is mechanical, and also known as gas turbine, the gas turbine include but are not limited to gas-turbine, pneumatic motor, gas screw expander, gas Body turbo-expander;
The construction of the overcritical gas turbine equipment of cryogenic fluid, need to meet the density of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium, ingredient, temperature, with And the physical characteristic of pressure;
The low temperature components of the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid need to use low temperature material, include but are not limited to austenite Low-temperature steel, ferritic steel for low temperature service;
Outside the equipment of the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid, it is equipped with efficient thermal insulation material;Include but are not limited to foamed material, Vacuum heat-insulating plate, fibrous material, mineral wool, high silica wool.
2. cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system according to claim 1 or motor device, which is characterized in that further include Have a steam exhaust regenerator, the steam exhaust regenerator cryogenic piping setting the cryogenic fluid supercharger and the main heat exchanger it Between;Steam exhaust regenerator high-temperature pipe setting the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid and the cryogenic fluid memory it Between;The steam exhaust regenerator cryogenic piping adequately exchanges heat with the steam exhaust regenerator high-temperature pipe, and common combination becomes one The steam exhaust regenerator of high efficient heat exchanging;The steam exhaust regenerator be separately provided or with the overcritical turbine unit of the cryogenic fluid It closes.
3. cryogenic fluid electricity generation system according to claim 1 to 2 or motor device, which is characterized in that the high temperature master changes Hot device or boiler further include having combustion system, and the combustion system is by the fuel storage device, controller, boiler structure that are sequentially communicated At;The boiler is made of hearth combustor and the high temperature main heat exchanger pipeline;
Fuel in the fuel storage device is transported in the boiler and burns after the adjusting of controller and control, produces Raw high temperature heat amount heats the high temperature main heat exchanger pipeline or boiler tubing, the high temperature main heat exchanger pipeline or boiler Low-temperature electricity-generating working medium in pipeline forms high temperature and high pressure gas after heated, drives the overcritical gas-turbine high speed of the cryogenic fluid External output mechanical energy is rotated, or generator high speed rotation is driven externally to export electric energy;
Stored fuel, includes but are not limited to natural gas, methanol, ethyl alcohol, gasoline, diesel oil, liquid in the fuel storage device Any one of liquefied oil gas, bio-fuel;
Further, fuel stored in the fuel storage device is low temperature liquid fuel;The geothermal liquid fuel include but It is not limited only to liquid hydrogen, LNG liquid;
Further, the low temperature liquid fuel memory and cryogenic fluid stored in the cryogenic fluid memory are phase With cryogenic liquid when, the cryogenic fluid memory and the low temperature liquid fuel memory merge into an identical low temperature Liquid memory.
4. cryogenic fluid electricity generation system according to claim 1 to 3 or motor device, which is characterized in that further include having low temperature Fluid combustion system, the combustion system of the low temperature liquid fuel by sequentially connected low temperature liquid fuel memory, Heat exchanger, controller and boiler are constituted;The integral multiple that the heat exchanger quantity is 1 is arranged in the overcritical gas of the cryogenic fluid Between turbine and the cryogenic fluid memory or between the steam exhaust heat exchanger and the cryogenic fluid memory, and/or It is arranged in the low temperature liquid fuel memory;
The low temperature liquid fuel includes but are not limited to LNG liquid, liquid hydrogen;
Low temperature liquid fuel is stored in the low temperature liquid fuel memory, by pipeline into the heat exchanger with it is weary High temperature steam exhaust heat exchange in steam pipe road, or the bottom of the low temperature liquid fuel memory is provided with the heat exchanger, and/ Or the heat exchanger is also equipped at the top of low temperature liquid fuel memory;The heat exchanger and the overcritical turbine of cryogenic fluid The high temperature and pressure steam exhaust heat exchange of machine exhaust pipe output enables high temperature and pressure steam exhaust condensation become liquid and returns to cryogenic fluid memory In;
At the same time, the low temperature liquid fuel in the low temperature liquid fuel memory absorbs the overcritical turbine of cryogenic fluid After the thermal energy of the high temperature steam exhaust of machine exhaust pipe output, it is gasificated as fuel gas, it is flammable after the controller adjusts control Gas, which is transported in the boiler, to burn, and heats the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium in the boiler high temperature main heat exchanger pipeline, described After low-temperature electricity-generating working medium in boiler high temperature pipeline absorbs the high temperature heat that gas fuel burning generates, high temperature and pressure gas is formed Body inputs and drives the external output mechanical energy of the overcritical gas-turbine high speed rotation of the cryogenic fluid or drives generator rotation pair Outer output electric energy;
Further, outside the high temperature main heat exchanger or boiler, low temperature main heat exchanger, the low temperature main heat exchanger are also enclosed with The thermal energy that gas fuel burning in boiler produces is fully absorbed, thermal energy caused by the gas fuel burning is made full use of To carry out power generation acting;
Preferably, the low temperature main heat exchanger, also exchanges heat with other heat-producing devices, adequately absorbs other described fevers and sets Standby thermal energy, while other heat-producing devices also being enabled to cool down;
Further, the low temperature main heat exchanger also exchanges heat with mesons such as hot water in the hot-air or environment in environment, benefit The acting of the thermal energy in environment is absorbed with the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium of extremely low temperature, further improves the power generation effect of the system Rate and power generation output;
Further, in torridity summer, the low temperature main heat exchanger is arranged in the inside of the motor device, Lai Shixian air-conditioning Perhaps refrigerating function include but are not limited to automobile, train, vessel hotel top and need it is fresh-keeping or refrigeration set Standby place.
5. cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device described in -4 according to claim 1, which is characterized in that described Cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device further include having control system and energy-storage system;
The overcritical external output mechanical energy of gas-turbine high speed rotation of cryogenic fluid, or drive generator high speed rotation external Export electric energy;
The generator output connects the control system, and the control system connects motor, controlled by the control system Make start and stop and the control motor speed of the motor;
Further, the control system is also connected with energy-storage system;The energy-storage system includes but are not limited to super capacitor Energy-storage system and/or battery energy storage system;
Preferably, the control system also controls the cryogenic fluid supercharger and/or the cryogenic liquid pump and/or the combustion Burning system.
6. cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device described in -4 according to claim 1, which is characterized in that described Cryogenic fluid memory, the low temperature liquid fuel memory, for the pressure vessel for storing cryogenic fluid;Possess pressure limiting valve and peace Full valve protects equipment, and shell is additionally provided with efficient heat-insulating material;The meson stored is normal atmosphere pressure, boiling temperature Lower than the cryogenic fluid of zero degrees celsius;
Cryogenic fluid memory, cryogenic fluid supercharger, cryogenic liquid pump, the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid, steam exhaust regenerator, The Cryo Equipment or low-temperature components and corresponding connecting pipe are low temperature material, include but are not limited to Ovshinsky body hypothermia Steel, ferritic steel for low temperature service;
Outside the Cryo Equipment or low-temperature components and corresponding connecting pipe, it is additionally provided with heat insulation layer;The heat insulation layer tool There is good heat-insulating property, includes but are not limited to vacuum insulation, aeroge, foamed material, fibrous material, mineral wool, high silicon Oxygen cotton;
It further include having ice chest, the ice chest is made of thermal insulation thermal insulation material, and the Cryo Equipment is placed on described cold In case;The ice chest is additionally provided with isolation;The ice chest is insulated by the outer cover against external environment of thermal insulation, it is described every From being insulated and be isolated between the Cryo Equipment of different temperatures again.
7. cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system according to claim 1 or motor device, which is characterized in that further include There is a kind of gas turbine equipment that axle envelope is carried out with gas-turbine cylinder body, the gas-turbine is made of stationary part and rotating part;Institute Stating gas-turbine cylinder body gland seal system includes input terminal gland seal system and output end gland seal system;
The input terminal gland seal system of the gas-turbine, including input terminal cylinder body, input end bearing and bearing block, input terminal shaft, Main steam line;The input end bearing and bearing block include spring bearing and thrust bearing;
In the outside of input end bearing and bearing block, it is additionally provided with insulated case;The upper insulated case of the insulated case point is under Insulated case;The lower insulated case be located at input end bearing and bearing block position lower cylinder in, and with the gas-turbine Lower cylinder is combined closely;The input end bearing and bearing block are mounted under the gas-turbine in the lower insulated case in cylinder;
The lower insulated case and the upper insulated case are equipped with flange, by the flange and bolt fastening, the lower insulation The inner cavity of shell and the upper insulated case forms a closed adiabatic space;The input terminal shaft, the input terminal axis Hold with bearing block and lubricating oil, be sealed in inside the adiabatic space that the insulated case is constituted;
The contact position of the input terminal shaft is wrapped up in the insulated case, is additionally provided with insulated case sealing, the insulation Housing seal prevents the intracorporal bearing oil of insulated shell, from insulated case sealing place to external leakage.
8. cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system according to claim 7 or motor device and the gas turbine equipment, It is characterized in that, the upper insulated case of the insulated case and lower insulated case pass through the flange and bolt fastening, internal shape It is provided with lubricating oil injection hole at a closed adiabatic space, and at the top of the upper insulated case, enables the bearing and axis It holds and injects lubricating oil inside the adiabatic space of seat;
The insulated case further includes having the lubricating oil output channel being connected with the insulated case, lubricating oil filter, lubrication Oil cooler and grease pump;The cryogenic high pressure lubricating oil of the grease pump output, is delivered to institute through lubricating oil input duct State the intracorporal bearing of insulated shell and bearing block;And the lubricating oil of clean constant temperature is provided for the bearing and bearing block;Insulated case Interior high temperature and dirty lubricating oil, is exported, and be delivered to lubricating oil filter and lube oil cooler by lubricating oil output channel Cooling forms circulation using grease pump pressurized delivered to bearing;
The lubricating oil filter, the lube oil cooler and the grease pump are arranged in outside the cylinder body of the gas-turbine Portion;Or the cylinder interior of the gas-turbine is set, when being located at cylinder interior, there are heat exchange pipeline and extraneous heat exchange, to protect It is constant to hinder lubricating oil temperature;
The cylinder interior of the gas turbine equipment or outside are additionally provided with lubricating oil temperature probe, lubricating oil pressure probe, lubricating oil The pressure probe of amount probe and the gas-turbine cylinder interior;
Preferably, axle envelope is provided between the gas-turbine main steam line and input terminal insulated case;Preferably, the insulation Between shell and institute's main steam line, it is provided with input terminal reserved space or pipeline, the input terminal reserved space or pipeline It is located in the lower cylinder, stores the lubricating oil leaked out from insulated case sealing place, and will let out by first pipe valve The dirty lubricating oil discharge spilt.
9. being set according to cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device described in claim 7-8 and the gas-turbine It is standby, which is characterized in that the output end of the gas-turbine, include gas-turbine exhaust pipe, output end cylinder body, output end bearing and Bearing block, shaft coupling and generator;The gas-turbine will export end bearing and bearing block, shaft coupling and generator, hide Output end cylinder interior to the gas-turbine is set;
The output end of the gas-turbine input terminal and the gas-turbine is hidden in setting to the gas-turbine cylinder body, utilizes institute The height closed structure for stating gas-turbine cylinder body, both ends of the shaft is sealed, and avoids the cryogenic fluid from the gas-turbine shaft two It is leaked at the axle envelope at end.
10. the technique of a kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device is suitable for any one of claim 1-9 The cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device and the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid or expanding machine; Include the following steps:
Such as the liquid that the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium stored in the cryogenic fluid memory is under critical pressure, and critical-temperature is -147 DEG C Nitrogen or liquid air;When the cryogenic fluid in the cryogenic fluid memory is in critical state or supercriticality, gas phase with Difference between liquid phase disappears, latent heat 0;It is added high pressure, is delivered in the main heat exchanger by the cryogenic fluid supercharger, As heated in hot water heat exchanger, about -147 DEG C of nitrogen temperature promotion reaches 30 DEG C or more;Pressure reaches 5Mpa or more, and input is simultaneously Drive the overcritical gas-turbine high speed rotation acting of the cryogenic fluid, output mechanical energy or drive generator high speed rotation output Electric energy;
At the same time, the high temperature and high pressure gas in the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid, temperature and pressure are also constantly dropping It is low, when the gas temperature in the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid is reduced to critical-temperature (critical-temperature of liquid nitrogen working medium about- 147 DEG C), when pressure reduction is to critical pressure (about 3.4Mpa), the overcritical gas-turbine of cryogenic fluid does not just continue to do work, But the directly externally steam exhaust of discharge critical-temperature and critical pressure;Though steam exhaust at this time is gas, density is close close to liquid Degree, again by the cryogenic fluid supercharger adherence pressure, is delivered in the main heat exchanger and continues to heat, nitrogen temperature reaches 30 DEG C or more;Pressure reaches 5Mpa or more, inputs and drives the overcritical gas-turbine high speed rotation acting of the cryogenic fluid, export machine Tool can or drive generator high speed rotation to export electric energy;So constantly recycle;
The overcritical gas-turbine output end of cryogenic fluid is additionally provided with steam exhaust regenerator, and the steam exhaust regenerator cryogenic piping is set It sets between the cryogenic fluid supercharger and the main heat exchanger;The steam exhaust regenerator high-temperature pipe is arranged in the low temperature Between the overcritical gas-turbine of working medium and the cryogenic fluid memory;The effect of the steam exhaust regenerator is by the cryogenic fluid In the high temperature steam exhaust of overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe output, extra high temperature energy displacement is defeated to the cryogenic fluid supercharger In low-temperature electricity-generating working medium out, on the one hand returned convenient for the high pressure steam exhaust fluid of more low temperature standby in the cryogenic fluid memory With;In addition, high temperature energy extra in the steam exhaust that the overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe of cryogenic fluid is exported, and by again It utilizes;
The main heat exchanger further includes having combustion system, the fuel in fuel storage device, the adjusting through fuel supply and controller, Low-temperature electricity-generating working medium after the fuel is ignited, in boiler tubing described in combustion heating;Low-temperature electricity-generating working medium described in pipeline By thermosetting high temperature and high pressure gas, the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid or expanding machine high speed rotation output mechanical energy are driven, Or generator high speed rotation is driven externally to export electric energy;The fuel include but are not limited to natural gas, ethyl alcohol, gasoline, diesel oil, Oil gas, coal gas, bio-fuel;
It further, further include the combustion system for having low temperature liquid fuel, the combustion system is by the cryogenic liquid that is sequentially communicated Fuel storage device, heat exchanger, controller and boiler are constituted;The integral multiple that the heat exchanger quantity is 1 is arranged in the low temperature Between the overcritical gas-turbine of working medium and the cryogenic fluid memory or the steam exhaust heat exchanger is stored with the cryogenic fluid Between device, and/or it is arranged in the low temperature liquid fuel memory;
The low temperature liquid fuel includes but are not limited to LNG liquid, liquid hydrogen;
Low temperature liquid fuel is stored in the low temperature liquid fuel memory, by pipeline into the heat exchanger with it is weary High temperature steam exhaust heat exchange in steam pipe road, or the bottom of the low temperature liquid fuel memory is provided with heat exchanger and top Equipped with the heat exchanger;The high temperature and pressure steam exhaust of the heat exchanger and the overcritical gas-turbine exhaust pipe output of the cryogenic fluid Heat exchange enables high temperature and pressure steam exhaust be condensed into liquid and returns in the cryogenic fluid memory;
At the same time, the low temperature liquid fuel endothermic gasification in the low temperature liquid fuel memory becomes fuel gas, through institute After stating controller adjusting control, fuel gas, which is transported in the boiler, to burn, and heats the boiler high temperature main heat exchanger pipe Low-temperature electricity-generating working medium in road, the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium in the boiler high temperature main heat exchanger pipeline absorb gas fuel burning and produce High temperature and high pressure gas is formed after raw high temperature heat, input and the overcritical gas-turbine high speed rotation of cryogenic fluid is driven externally to export Mechanical energy drives generator rotation externally output electric energy;
Further, the high temperature main heat exchanger or the boiler are outer with outside the boiler flue, are also enclosed with low temperature master and change Hot device, the low temperature main heat exchanger adequately absorb all heat come out produced by gas fuel burning in the boiler-burner Energy, power generation of adequately being done work using all thermal energy come out produced by the gas fuel burning;
Preferably, the low temperature main heat exchanger, the also equipment with other fevers exchange heat, and adequately absorb other described fevers The thermal energy of equipment, while other heat-producing devices also being enabled to cool down;
Further, the low temperature liquid fuel memory and cryogenic fluid stored in the cryogenic fluid memory are phase With cryogenic liquid when, the cryogenic fluid memory and the low temperature liquid fuel memory merge into an identical low temperature Liquid memory;
Further, the overcritical gas-turbine of the cryogenic fluid or the external output mechanical energy of expanding machine high speed rotation, or drive Generator high speed rotation externally exports electric energy;
The generator output connects the control system, and the control system connects motor, controlled by the control system The start and stop of the motor and the revolving speed for controlling motor;
Further, the control system is also connected with energy-storage system;The energy-storage system includes but are not limited to super capacitor Energy-storage system and/or battery energy storage system;
Preferably, the control system also controls the cryogenic fluid supercharger and/or the cryogenic liquid pump and/or control institute State combustion system;
In torridity summer, on the one hand the cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device pass through the low temperature liquid nitrogen Generating working medium absorbs the thermal energy acting power generation of environment hot-air or water;Further, in torridity summer, by the low temperature main heat exchange The inside of the motor device is arranged in realize air-conditioning or refrigerating function in device, includes but are not limited to automobile, train, ship The top in main cabin and need fresh-keeping or refrigeration equipment place;
In addition, heat high temperature main heat exchanger or boiler by fuel combustion entrained by equipment, the overcritical hair of cryogenic fluid is allowed Electric system or motor device can more powerful output mechanical energy or power generation outputs;The system is additionally provided with electric energy control system And energy storage device, electric energy, electric energy in simultaneity factor are provided by energy storage for the cryogenic fluid supercharger and/or cryogenic liquid pump Storage and release electric energy, meet adjusting and control of the system to motor speed;
For the Large-scale Mobiles equipment such as ship, it is preferred that the cryogenic fluid gas-turbine or expanding machine high speed rotation, externally Direct output mechanical energy;Also driven generator output electric energy provides train simultaneously, ship uses and connect energy storage device, is super Capacitor energy-storage system and/or battery energy storage system provide electric energy, in case can be institute when next train, ship equipment starting It states cryogenic liquid pump and compressor electric motor provides sufficient electric energy and electric energy storage;Ensure that the large scale equipments such as train, ship are each Kind electrical energy demands;Due to not releasing energy to the external world in this system, effective thermal efficiency is very high;Electronic vapour can be obviously increased Vehicle, train, ship endurance.
CN201910438143.3A 2019-05-24 2019-05-24 A kind of cryogenic fluid supercritical generating system or motor device Pending CN110206604A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110937095A (en) * 2019-12-13 2020-03-31 江苏科技大学海洋装备研究院 Cargo ship using LNG-battery hybrid power propulsion system

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110937095A (en) * 2019-12-13 2020-03-31 江苏科技大学海洋装备研究院 Cargo ship using LNG-battery hybrid power propulsion system

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