CN110192487A - A kind of management method of fertile mandarin orange earsh - Google Patents

A kind of management method of fertile mandarin orange earsh Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110192487A
CN110192487A CN201910471778.3A CN201910471778A CN110192487A CN 110192487 A CN110192487 A CN 110192487A CN 201910471778 A CN201910471778 A CN 201910471778A CN 110192487 A CN110192487 A CN 110192487A
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tip
year
earsh
soil
tree
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CN110192487B (en
Inventor
陈东奎
陈香玲
黄其椿
刘要鑫
黄勇明
彭良志
李果果
张兰
欧智涛
廖惠红
赵洪涛
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Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B1/00Superphosphates, i.e. fertilisers produced by reacting rock or bone phosphates with sulfuric or phosphoric acid in such amounts and concentrations as to yield solid products directly
    • C05B1/02Superphosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F3/00Fertilisers from human or animal excrements, e.g. manure
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • C05G3/80Soil conditioners

Abstract

The present invention relates to fertile mandarin orange production technical fields, disclose a kind of management method of fertile mandarin orange earsh, comprising the following steps: (1) fertilizing method of earsh: to the application in fertilizing method point plantation 3 years of earsh, and carrying out expansion cave every year and improve the soil;(2) shaping and trimming method: earsh will periodically be done surely after field planting, and the tip is put in shaping and bud picking;(3) control the management management method of flowers and fruits: earsh takes flower and fruit thinning measure in the 2nd year spring of plantation;(4) soil management method: the method combined using mulch and tree disk covering;(5) method of water management: taking tap drain to be deeper than gutter, and gutter is deeper than the principle of compartment ditch.The present invention is able to solve generally fertile mandarin orange susceptible canker during earsh, and the work that do not carry out improving the soil easily causes tree body fruiting rate not high, the slow technical problem of fruit tree growth.

Description

A kind of management method of fertile mandarin orange earsh
Technical field
The present invention relates to fertile mandarin orange production management technical fields, more particularly, to a kind of management method of fertile mandarin orange earsh.
Background technique
Fertile mandarin orange is the cenospecies of " temple " tangerine orange Yu " Dan Xi " red tangerine.The kind belongs to late-maturing Citrus after Cross Pollination kind.It is raw Growing way is strong, tree crown initial stage be in nature globular model, as a result after gradually open a business, have short thorn on branch.Fertile mandarin orange early fruiting and high yield, in Guang Xinan Rather, to reach 50-100kg, fruit tree strain in 5 years is produced to reach 100-150kg, high yield period per mu yield the strain yield of 3 years fruit trees Up to 3500kg or more, area big orchard harvest time needs a large amount of manpower and material resources.In addition, not only taste is fragrant and sweet for fertile mandarin orange, also have There is very high nutritive value, it contains dissolubility solid content 13.3%, Titrable acid 0.58%, and 12.76 grams/100 milliliters of inverted sugar, 6.84 grams/100 milliliters of reduced sugar, 23.69 milligrams/100 milliliters of Vc content, Gu sour ratio 22.9.Edible rate 76.62%, crushing juice rate 59.56%.
Fertile mandarin orange is known as earsh after field planting to before yielding positive results.Since fertile mandarin orange is very easy into flower, into fruiting period Key is treelet tree crown, the culture of branch structure.In the case where rich water abundance, generally plant 2~3 years or so, into examination Fruiting period.And fertile mandarin orange susceptible canker during earsh, and general southern fertile mandarin orange orchard is in barren Eucalyptus Stand and sugarcane Replant on the ground, soil is made preparation for ploughing and sowing that work is not in place, and general earsh does not carry out work of improving the soil, easily cause tree body fruiting rate it is not high, Fruit tree growth is slow.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of management method of fertile mandarin orange earsh, generally fertile mandarin orange is solved during earsh Susceptible canker, the work that do not carry out improving the soil easily cause tree body fruiting rate not high, the slow technical problem of fruit tree growth.
In order to achieve the above objectives, a kind of management method of fertile mandarin orange earsh is provided, comprising the following steps:
(1) fertilizing method of earsh: to applying in fertilizing method point plantation 3 years of earsh, and expansion cave is carried out every year Improve the soil:
A. kind plants the 1st year fertilizing method: for earsh after the first time tip turns green, the balanced type for being 0.3% with mass concentration is water-soluble Fertilizer, every plant is applied 4.5~5kg;Rudiment is applied once for 15 days before taking out the tip by the green fertilizing method of the first time tip turn, by for the first time after cutting certainly The tip turns green fertilizing method, and Shi Yici, each dose gradually increase 0.5kg again;Start in early March, select front and back of raining, 30~50g urea or 50g biological organic fertilizer are monthly alternately applied, is at least applied fertilizer 5 times within 1 year;It is anti-in conjunction with pest and disease damage that each tip strengthens the tip phase Control 1~2 foliar fertilizer of root outer spraying, when fertilising will be 15~20 centimeters away from trunk;
B. kind plants the 2nd year fertilizing method: the Shi Dongfei before the Spring Festival, improves the soil progresss in conjunction with cave is expanded, every plant every time alternating apply and apply 50 ~100 grams of urea or 100~150 grams of biological organic fertilizers, every plant of each urea amount of application are no more than 100g;It will be away from tree when fertilising It is 15~20 centimeters dry;Each dose gradually increases 0.5kg;It at least applies fertilizer 5 times within 1 year;
C. kind plants the 3rd year fertilizing method: if not planning within the 3rd year fruiting after plantation, fertilizing method is the same as the 2nd year fertilising side of plantation Method;
D. it carries out expanding the method that cave is improved the soil every year: outside tree crown drip, the and then outer rim progress of original improve the soil cave or ditch Open cave or trench, the depth of cave or ditch is 50~80cm, and width is 0.5~1m, makes to see root system;Annual rotation is improved the soil position, It carries out, is carried out in the one or both sides of plant, and complete full garden before high yield and improve the soil by stages year by year;The soil amelioration material is by weight Portion rate includes: 20-30 parts of crude fibre organic matters, 60-70 parts of decomposed manure of livestock and poultry, 1-10 parts of bran fertilizer, by every plant of layering application Soil amelioration material is divided into 2~3 layers by 20~30kg of soil amelioration material, every layer plus appropriate lime, top layer be added calcium superphosphate 0.5~ 1kg;
(2) shaping and trimming method: earsh will periodically be done surely after field planting, the tip is put in shaping and bud picking:
A. the method done surely: after field planting survives, the full place's cutting back of bud is done surely in the middle part of 30~50cm from the ground, branch;After cutting back It is shaping strip between 10~15cm below clip bud, is trunk below shaping strip;Branch, the bud needs sprouted on the trunk It erases in time, trunk is kept to have the height of 30cm or more after entering operation;
B. the method for shaping: First Year selects 3~4 consistent branch of growing way of different direction to be trained level-one master in shaping strip Branch;Later every time tip selects and remain that 3~4 growing ways are uniform, and the branch being reasonably distributed is short to cut and leave 20 when each tip is aging ~25cm and include 6~8 leaves branch, promote next group young sprout sprout, so as to form second level, three-level, level Four major branch;Prepare The tree that the coming year goes into operation, is unable to cutting back after autumn growth is aging;The plant upright to branch, will with cord after young sprout is aging or before sprouting Major branch pulls into 50 ° or so, unlocks cord after restoring 45 °, 25~30 days after lightening restrictions on, tree crown is made to open a business;
C. the method that the tip is put in bud picking: each base tip appropriate pinching from before cutting, it is aging to accelerate branch;After branch is aging, 20 are stayed~ 25cm limb simultaneously leaves 6~8 leaves and carries out cutting backs, promotees next group young sprout and sprouts, sprouting it is long to 5~6cm when dredge went in time More weak buds, consider when bud thinning bud raw direction, only stay 2~3 healthy and strong buds being reasonably distributed on every base tip;Each bud thinning When each site select and remain the uniform young sprout of growing way;So circulation enters until culture autumn growth is more than 100 or more when going into operation First period;The arrangement of time of tip phase: the 1st year after field planting, 5 tips are stayed every year within the 2nd year, put the tip time: the spring tip 2 months, summer shoot 5 Month the first tenday period of a month, the 2nd summer shoot is by the end of May to early June, autumn growth mid-August, by the end of September to early October;Young age bearing-age tree stays within 3rd year 3 tips, put the tip time: the spring tip 2 months, summer shoot late June to early July, autumn growth late August to September early and middle ten days;
(3) control the management management method of flowers and fruits: earsh takes flower and fruit thinning measure in the 2nd year spring of plantation:
A. spray plant growth regulator and pour water: spray mass fraction is the red of 50ppm when the last time tip starts aging in winter Mould acid and 250ppm add urea, spray 1~2 time;The nitrogenous fertilizer if winter drought will pour water or be affixed by keeps tree vigo(u)r vigorous, can be effectively controlled Next spring blooms, and inspires a large amount of spring tip nutrition branches;
B. instant nitrogenousfertilizer and thin flower bud fruit thinning are applied: applying within 9~12 days instant nitrogenousfertilizer before spring takes out the spring tip, accelerates Spring-shoot growth, weaken Bud, growth of young;If the above measure is not all handled properly, and have become it is colored, need it is artificial extract bud, young fruit in time, Promote quickly to take out the tip;
(4) soil management method: the method combined using mulch and tree disk covering:
A. the method for covering with ground sheeting: mulch selects black film or silver grey film or anti-meadow cloth or water suction flannelette;Covering with ground sheeting Quan Yuanjin Row only stays small part Naked dew around trunk not cover;Covering with ground sheeting was only suitable for using 2~3 years, and tree crown removes after expanding, in favor of Root growth;
B. it sets the method for disk covering: the tree disk under tree crown being carried out littering covering, is littered with a thickness of 10~20cm;It to increase newly every year Covering supplements the part for rotting to decompose;
(5) method of water management: taking tap drain to be deeper than gutter, and gutter is deeper than the principle of compartment ditch, i.e., tap drain not less than 60 × 60cm, gutter are not less than 40 × 40cm, and compartment ditch is not less than 20 × 20cm;Simultaneously hillside fields by earthen backfill to compartment face to avoid slope Ground hangs root, not drought-enduring, resistance to ridge;Spring and summer rainy season will exclude ponding in time;Autumn and winter meet drought and to pour water in time, cover moisturizing;It is secondary The tree of fruiting is wanted to pay attention to control water after autumn growth is aging in year, to inhibit the winter tip and promote bud differentiation.
Particularly, the crude fibre organic matter is green manure or tree branches and leaves or weeds or mountain grass.
Particularly, the foliar fertilizer is 0.4%-0.5% solution of zinc sulfate.
Particularly, the covering is ground cloth or straw or straw or sugarcane leaf or mountain grass.
Particularly, the described biological organic fertilizer includes: 6-10 parts of mushroom residue by ratio of weight and the number of copies, and 4-6 parts of dried peppermint leaf, chicken manure 4-8 parts, 8-10 parts of corn stover;0.5-3 parts of natto powder.
Particularly, the balanced type Water soluble fertilizer that the mass concentration is 0.3% is applied by the leaching of water-fertilizer integral facility.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:
1. the amount of application of fertilizing method of the invention and soil management method control nitrogenous fertilizer, can prevent earsh from suffering from canker; Effective soil layer can be expanded, fertilizing soil is retained getting fat, prevents erosion, and improves soil organic matter content, improves soil acid Basicity increases the soil fertility of nearly root system, so that fertile mandarin orange root system is sufficiently extended, forms deep, wide, close powerful root mass, Guarantee the growth of aerial part;The earsh speed of growth is good.
It is sprouted 2. shaping and trimming method of the invention promotees young sprout, quickly forms tree crown to realize;Can retain extend branch and Auxiliary support branch turns out the excellent female branch more yielded positive results, and fruiting rate is high, and as a result best in quality, yield is high.
3. water management of the invention is able to suppress the winter tip and promotes bud differentiation.
Specific embodiment
The preferred embodiment of the present invention is described in detail below so that advantages and features of the invention can be easier to by It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that so as to make a clearer definition of the protection scope of the present invention.
Embodiment:
On December 10th, 2015 uses the management method of above-mentioned fertile mandarin orange earsh in the city proper and areas just outside its gates town village Jiu Lian, Wuming area, Nanning City, including Following steps:
(1) fertilizing method of earsh: to the application in fertilizing method point plantation 3 years of earsh, and to be expanded every year Improve the soil in cave:
A. kind plants the 1st year fertilizing method: for earsh after the first time tip turns green, the balanced type for being 0.3% with mass concentration is water-soluble Fertilizer is applied by the leaching of water-fertilizer integral facility, and every plant is applied 5kg;Rudiment applies one by the green fertilizing method of the first time tip turn in 15 days before taking out the tip Secondary, by the green fertilizing method of the first time tip turn, Shi Yici, each dose gradually increase 0.5kg again after cutting certainly;In early March Start, select front and back of raining, monthly alternately applies 50g urea or 50g biological organic fertilizer, which wraps by ratio of weight and the number of copies It includes: 10 parts of mushroom residue, 6 parts of dried peppermint leaf, 8 parts of chicken manure, 10 parts of corn stover;3 parts of natto powder.It at least applies fertilizer 5 times within 1 year;Every time The tip strengthens the tip phase in conjunction with 2 foliar fertilizers of prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control root outer spraying, and foliar fertilizer is 0.4%-0.5% solution of zinc sulfate;When fertilising It will be away from trunk 20cm.
B. kind plants the 2nd year fertilizing method: the Shi Dongfei before the Spring Festival, improves the soil progresss in conjunction with cave is expanded, every plant every time alternating apply 100g urea or 150g biological organic fertilizer are applied, every plant of each urea amount of application is no more than 100g;When fertilising will away from trunk 15~ 20cm;Each dose gradually increases 0.5kg;It applies fertilizer 8 times within 1 year.
C. kind plants the 3rd year fertilizing method: if not planning within the 3rd year fruiting after plantation, fertilizing method applied fertilizer with plantation the 2nd year Method.
D. carry out expanding the method that cave is improved the soil every year: outside tree crown drip, and then the outer rim of original ditch of improving the soil is carried out Trench, the depth of ditch are 70cm, width 1m, and it can be seen that root;Annual rotation is improved the soil position, is carried out by stages year by year, The two sides of plant carry out, and complete full garden before high yield and improve the soil;The soil amelioration material includes: 20 parts of crude fibres by ratio of weight and the number of copies Organic matter, 70 parts of decomposed manure of livestock and poultry, 10 parts of bran fertilizer apply soil amelioration material 30kg by every plant of layering, soil amelioration material are divided into 3 Calcium superphosphate 1kg is added in layer, every layer plus appropriate lime, top layer;Crude fibre organic matter is tree branches and leaves.
(2) shaping and trimming method: earsh will periodically be done surely after definite value, and the tip is put in shaping and bud picking:
A. the method done surely: after field planting survives, the full place's cutting back of bud is done surely in the middle part of 40cm from the ground, branch;Clip after cutting back It is shaping strip between 10~15cm below bud, is trunk below shaping strip;Branch, the bud sprouted on the trunk need timely It erases, trunk is kept to have the height of 30cm or more after entering operation.
B. the method for shaping: First Year selects 3~4 consistent branch of growing way of different direction to be trained one in shaping strip Grade major branch;Later every time tip selects and remain that 3~4 growing ways are uniform, and the branch being reasonably distributed is short to cut and stay when each tip is aging It descends 20~25cm and includes the branch of 6~8 leaves, promote next group young sprout and sprout, so as to form second level, three-level, level Four major branch;It is quasi- The tree that the standby coming year goes into operation, short cannot cut after autumn growth is aging;The plant upright to branch, is drawn major branch with cord after young sprout is aging At 50 ° or so, cord is unlocked after restoring 45 °, 25~30 days after lightening restrictions on, tree crown is made to open a business.
C. the method that the tip is put in bud picking: each base tip appropriate pinching from before cutting, it is aging to accelerate branch;After branch is aging, stay 20~25cm limb and leave 6~8 leaves carry out it is short cut, promote next group young sprout and sprout, sprouting it is long to 5~6cm when dredge in time Remove excessive weak bud, when bud thinning consider bud raw direction, only stay 2~3 healthy and strong buds being reasonably distributed on every base tip;Every time The uniform young sprout of growing way is selected and remain in each site when bud thinning;So circulation, until culture autumn growth is more than 100 or more when going into operation, Into first period;The arrangement of time of tip phase: the 1st year after field planting, 5 tips are stayed every year within the 2nd year, put the tip time: the spring tip 2 months, the summer In tip the first tenday period of a month in May, the 2nd summer shoot is by the end of May to early June, autumn growth mid-August, by the end of September to early October;3rd year young age bearing-age tree 3 tips are stayed, are put the tip time: the spring tip 2 months, summer shoot late June to early July, the autumn growth last ten-days period in August to September early and middle ten days.
(3) control the management management method of flowers and fruits: earsh takes flower and fruit thinning measure in the 2nd year spring of plantation:
A. spray plant growth regulator and pour water: spray mass fraction is the red of 50ppm when the last time tip starts aging in winter The urea of mould acid and 250ppm, sprays 1~2 time;If winter drought is affixed by nitrogenous fertilizer, keeps tree vigo(u)r vigorous, can be effectively controlled next spring It blooms, inspires a large amount of spring tip nutrition branches.
B. instant nitrogenousfertilizer and thin flower bud fruit thinning are applied: applying within 9~12 days instant nitrogenousfertilizer before spring takes out the spring tip, accelerates Spring-shoot growth, Weaken bud, growth of young;If the above measure is not all handled properly, and has become colored, need artificial to extract bud, children in time Fruit promotes quickly to take out the tip.
(4) soil management method: the method combined using mulch and tree disk covering:
A. the method for covering with ground sheeting: mulch selects black film;The full garden of covering with ground sheeting carries out, and small part Naked around trunk is only stayed to reveal not Lid;Covering with ground sheeting was only suitable for using 2~3 years, and tree crown removes after expanding, in favor of root growth.
B. it sets the method for disk covering: the tree disk under tree crown being carried out littering covering, is littered with a thickness of 10~20cm;It wants every year Newly-increased covering, supplements the part for rotting to decompose;Covering is straw.
(5) method of water management: taking tap drain to be deeper than gutter, and gutter is deeper than the principle of compartment ditch, i.e. tap drain is not less than 60 × 60cm, gutter are not less than 40 × 40cm, and compartment ditch is not less than 20 × 20cm;Simultaneously hillside fields by earthen backfill to compartment face to avoid Hillside fields hangs root, not drought-enduring, resistance to ridge;Spring and summer rainy season will exclude ponding in time;Autumn and winter meet drought and to pour water in time, cover moisturizing; Next year wants the tree of fruiting to pay attention to control water after autumn growth is aging, to inhibit the winter tip and promote bud differentiation.
The resident time, First Year tree crown, second year tree crown, of the present embodiment and fertile mandarin orange implantation methods are described below 3 years tree crowns, result number and yield.
As shown in table 1 below, on January 2nd, 2016 is military in Nanning City on the same day with the fertile mandarin orange implantation methods compared for the present embodiment It is colonized in the different location in the city proper and areas just outside its gates the Ming Qu town village Jiu Lian, the identical situation of surface slope.On January 3rd, 2017 to fertile mandarin orange Earsh carries out the measurement of tree crown after field planting First Year, and the fertile mandarin orange earsh for irrigating mandarin orange earsh management method using the present embodiment is flat Equal plant height, average north and south crown length and average thing crown length are significantly greater than the fertile mandarin orange young age using general fertile mandarin orange earsh implantation methods Tree;The measurement of tree crown and the statistics of single plant yield after carrying out field planting second year to fertile mandarin orange earsh on January 3rd, 2018 use The fertile mandarin orange earsh that the present embodiment irrigates mandarin orange earsh management method be averaged plant height, average north and south crown length, be averaged thing crown length and list Strain yield and the gap of the fertile mandarin orange earsh using general fertile mandarin orange earsh implantation methods further widen;January 3 in 2019 Day to fertile mandarin orange earsh carry out field planting third year after tree crown measurement and single plant yield statistics when, using the present embodiment irrigate mandarin orange children The single plant yield of the fertile mandarin orange earsh of age tree management method realizes leap progress, average plant height, average north and south crown length and average east Western crown length has also drawn certain distance with the fertile mandarin orange earsh using general fertile mandarin orange earsh implantation methods.
1 the present embodiment of table irrigates the contrast table of mandarin orange implantation methods and fertile mandarin orange implantation methods field planting tree crown and yield
Note: plant height, north and south crown length, thing crown length and the single plant yield of table 1 are all the above-mentioned average value of fertile mandarin orange per acre.
Detection obtains, uses the canker disease incidence of the earsh of the present embodiment young age tree method for 1.3%;Using general The canker disease incidence of the earsh of earsh management method is 19.3%.
To sum up, the present embodiment irrigate mandarin orange earsh management method effectively prevent canker, can fertilizing soil, water conservation getting fat, It prevents erosion, fertile mandarin orange root system is enable sufficiently to be extended, the earsh speed of growth is good, and fruiting rate is high, as a result quality Excellent, yield is high.
Although describing embodiments of the present invention, patent owner to do within the scope of the appended claims Various deformations or amendments out as long as it does not exceed the scope of protection described in the claims to the invention all should be of the invention Within protection scope.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of management method of fertile mandarin orange earsh, which comprises the following steps:
(1) fertilizing method of earsh: to the application in fertilizing method point plantation 3 years of earsh, and to be expanded every year Improve the soil in cave:
A. kind plants the 1st year fertilizing method: for earsh after the first time tip turns green, the balanced type for being 0.3% with mass concentration is water-soluble Fertilizer, every plant is applied 4.5~5kg;Rudiment is applied by by the green fertilizing method of the first time tip turn once, by first after cutting certainly for 15 days before taking out the tip The secondary tip turns green fertilizing method, and Shi Yici, each dose gradually increase 0.5kg again;Start in early March, before choosing is rained Afterwards, 30~50g urea or 50g biological organic fertilizer are monthly alternately applied, is at least applied fertilizer 5 times within 1 year;Each tip strengthens the tip phase in conjunction with disease pest Evil prevention and treatment 1~2 foliar fertilizer of root outer spraying, when fertilising, will be away from 15~20cm of trunk;
B. kind plants the 2nd year fertilizing method: the Shi Dongfei before the Spring Festival, improves the soil progresss in conjunction with cave is expanded, every plant every time alternating apply and apply 50 ~100g urea or 100~150g biological organic fertilizer, every plant of each urea amount of application are no more than 100g;It will be away from trunk 15 when fertilising ~20cm;Each dose gradually increases 0.5kg;It at least applies fertilizer 5 times within 1 year;
C. kind plants the 3rd year fertilizing method: if not planning within the 3rd year fruiting after plantation, fertilizing method is the same as the 2nd year fertilising side of plantation Method;
D. it carries out expanding the method that cave is improved the soil every year: outside tree crown drip, the and then outer rim progress of original improve the soil cave or ditch Open cave or trench, the depth of cave or ditch is 50~80cm, and width is 0.5~1m, makes to see root system;Annual rotation is improved the soil position, It carries out, is carried out in the one or both sides of plant, and complete full garden before high yield and improve the soil by stages year by year;The soil amelioration material is by weight Portion rate includes: 20-30 parts of crude fibre organic matters, 60-70 parts of decomposed manure of livestock and poultry, 1-10 parts of bran fertilizer, by every plant of layering application Soil amelioration material is divided into 2~3 layers by 20~30kg of soil amelioration material, every layer plus appropriate lime, top layer be added calcium superphosphate 0.5~ 1kg;
(2) shaping and trimming method: earsh will periodically be done surely after field planting, the tip is put in shaping and bud picking:
A. the method done surely: after field planting survives, the full place's cutting back of bud is done surely in the middle part of 30~50cm from the ground, branch;After cutting back It is shaping strip between 10~15cm below clip bud, is trunk below shaping strip;Branch, the bud needs sprouted on the trunk It erases in time, trunk is kept to have the height of 30cm or more after entering operation;
B. the method for shaping: First Year selects 3~4 consistent branch of growing way of different direction to be trained level-one master in shaping strip Branch;Later every time tip selects and remain that 3~4 growing ways are uniform, and the branch being reasonably distributed is short to cut and leave 20 when each tip is aging ~25cm and include 6~8 leaves branch, promote next group young sprout sprout, so as to form second level, three-level, level Four major branch;Prepare to come The tree that year goes into operation, short cannot cut after autumn growth is aging;The plant upright to branch, after young sprout is aging or the preceding cord of sprouting will be led Branch pulls into 50 ° or so, unlocks cord after restoring 45 °, 25~30 days after lightening restrictions on, tree crown is made to open a business;
C. the method that the tip is put in bud picking: each base tip appropriate pinching from before cutting, it is aging to accelerate branch;After branch is aging, 20 are stayed~ 25cm limb and leave 6~8 leaves carry out it is short cut, promote next group young sprout and sprout, sprouting it is long to 5~6cm when dredge went in time More weak buds, consider when bud thinning bud raw direction, only stay 2~3 healthy and strong buds being reasonably distributed on every base tip;Each bud thinning When each site select and remain the uniform young sprout of growing way;So circulation enters until culture autumn growth is more than 100 or more when going into operation First period;The arrangement of time of tip phase: the 1st year after field planting, 5 tips are stayed every year within the 2nd year, put the tip time: the spring tip 2 months, summer shoot May In the first tenday period of a month, the 2nd summer shoot is by the end of May to early June, autumn growth mid-August, by the end of September to early October;Young age bearing-age tree stays 3 times within 3rd year The tip is put the tip time: the spring tip 2 months, summer shoot late June to early July, autumn growth late August to September early and middle ten days;
(3) control the management management method of flowers and fruits: earsh takes flower and fruit thinning measure in the 2nd year spring of plantation:
A. spray plant growth regulator and pour water: spray mass fraction is the red of 50ppm when the last time tip starts aging in winter The urea of mould acid and 250ppm, sprays 1~2 time;The nitrogenous fertilizer if winter drought will pour water or be affixed by keeps tree vigo(u)r vigorous, can be effectively controlled Next spring blooms, and inspires a large amount of spring tip nutrition branches;
B. instant nitrogenousfertilizer and thin flower bud fruit thinning are applied: instant nitrogenousfertilizer is applied within 9~12 days before spring takes out the spring tip, if the above measure does not all have Handle properly, and have become it is colored, need it is artificial extract bud, young fruit in time, promote quickly to take out the tip;
(4) soil management method: the method combined using mulch and tree disk covering:
A. the method for covering with ground sheeting: mulch selects black film or silver grey film or anti-meadow cloth or water suction flannelette;Covering with ground sheeting Quan Yuanjin Row only stays small part Naked dew around trunk not cover;Covering with ground sheeting was only suitable for using 2~3 years, and tree crown takes out after expanding, in favor of Root growth;
B. it sets the method for disk covering: the tree disk under tree crown should be carried out to litter covering, littered with a thickness of 10~20cm;It is new every year Increase covering, supplements the part for rotting to decompose;
(5) method of water management: taking tap drain to be deeper than gutter, and gutter is deeper than the principle of compartment ditch, i.e., tap drain not less than 60 × 60cm, gutter are not less than 40 × 40cm, and compartment ditch is not less than 20 × 20cm;Simultaneously hillside fields by earthen backfill to compartment face to avoid slope Ground hangs root, not drought-enduring, resistance to ridge;Spring and summer rainy season will exclude ponding in time;Autumn and winter meet drought and to pour water in time, cover moisturizing;It is secondary The tree of fruiting is wanted to pay attention to control water after autumn growth is aging in year, to inhibit the winter tip and promote bud differentiation.
2. a kind of management method of fertile mandarin orange earsh according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the crude fibre organic matter For green manure or tree branches and leaves or weeds or mountain grass.
3. a kind of management method of fertile mandarin orange earsh according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the foliar fertilizer is 0.4%-0.5% solution of zinc sulfate.
4. a kind of management method of fertile mandarin orange earsh according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the covering is ground cloth Or straw or straw or sugarcane leaf or mountain grass.
5. a kind of management method of fertile mandarin orange earsh according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the described biological organic fertilizer It by ratio of weight and the number of copies include: 6-10 parts of mushroom residue, 4-6 parts of dried peppermint leaf, 4-8 parts of chicken manure, 8-10 parts of corn stover;Natto powder 0.5- 3 parts.
6. a kind of management method of fertile mandarin orange earsh according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the mass concentration is 0.3% balanced type Water soluble fertilizer is applied by the leaching of water-fertilizer integral facility.
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CN111527964A (en) * 2020-04-14 2020-08-14 广西大学 Alternate updating method for Or citrus shade garden
CN112425433A (en) * 2020-11-17 2021-03-02 四川光辉好口碑农业发展有限公司 High-quality and high-yield planting method for blood oranges in taluoke
CN114503841A (en) * 2022-02-25 2022-05-17 昭通市农业科学院(昭通市农业科学技术推广中心) Orange balanced fruiting shaping and trimming method

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CN107743810A (en) * 2017-09-28 2018-03-02 钟山县龙岛种养专业合作社 A kind of implantation methods of navel orange
CN108834727A (en) * 2018-08-01 2018-11-20 湖南农业大学 Rice field, which replants citrus, prevents the cultivation method for matching of soil top backwater
CN108966990A (en) * 2018-06-18 2018-12-11 钟山佳园生态农业有限公司 A kind of tribute mandarin orange non-polluted planting method

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105145249A (en) * 2015-09-07 2015-12-16 重庆霈泽农业发展有限公司 Citrus planting method
CN107743810A (en) * 2017-09-28 2018-03-02 钟山县龙岛种养专业合作社 A kind of implantation methods of navel orange
CN108966990A (en) * 2018-06-18 2018-12-11 钟山佳园生态农业有限公司 A kind of tribute mandarin orange non-polluted planting method
CN108834727A (en) * 2018-08-01 2018-11-20 湖南农业大学 Rice field, which replants citrus, prevents the cultivation method for matching of soil top backwater

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111527964A (en) * 2020-04-14 2020-08-14 广西大学 Alternate updating method for Or citrus shade garden
CN112425433A (en) * 2020-11-17 2021-03-02 四川光辉好口碑农业发展有限公司 High-quality and high-yield planting method for blood oranges in taluoke
CN114503841A (en) * 2022-02-25 2022-05-17 昭通市农业科学院(昭通市农业科学技术推广中心) Orange balanced fruiting shaping and trimming method

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