CN110192486B - Method for preventing and treating virus diseases of jujube trees - Google Patents

Method for preventing and treating virus diseases of jujube trees Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110192486B
CN110192486B CN201910332484.2A CN201910332484A CN110192486B CN 110192486 B CN110192486 B CN 110192486B CN 201910332484 A CN201910332484 A CN 201910332484A CN 110192486 B CN110192486 B CN 110192486B
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jujube
tree
virus
diseases
disease
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CN110192486A (en
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白剑宇
洪霓
李宏
王雁翔
翟立峰
罗达
程平
张新浩
刘正兴
崔燕华
刘燕
刘艳祥
张燕南
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Economic Forest Research Institute Xinjiang Academy Of Forestry
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Economic Forest Research Institute Xinjiang Academy Of Forestry
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for preventing and treating jujube tree virus diseases, and relates to the technical field of agriculture. The method comprises the following steps: (1) in the sprouting period: irrigating roots of trees for 1 time by using bacillus amyloliquefaciens GLD-191 microbial inoculum; (2) before the flowering phase: spraying mixed solution of avermectin, perchloric acid, thistle and chlorofluorocarbon on the whole overground part of the jujube tree, the soil on the lower canopy layer and the weeds under the canopy; (3) before full-bloom stage: killing jujube diseases and simultaneously mixing amino-oligosaccharin for tree body spraying; (4) full-bloom stage: performing secondary root irrigation by using 0.5% bacillus amyloliquefaciens GLD-191 microbial inoculum 300-400 times liquid; (5) the rapid growth period of the jujube fruits is as follows: adopting azocyclotin suspending agent, amino-oligosaccharin and bacillus amyloliquefaciens 191 to mix and prepare a liquid; (6) performing field management in the mature period and the later period of the fruits, trimming in autumn, cleaning a garden, and spraying a lime sulphur mixture. The method can reduce pesticide residue, improve the quality of the red dates, ensure the safety of the ecological environment and have simple operation.

Description

Method for preventing and treating virus diseases of jujube trees
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of agriculture, in particular to a method for preventing and treating jujube tree virus diseases.
Background
The planting area of the Xinjiang red dates is about 670 mu, and the Xinjiang red dates are mainly distributed in Aksu, Kuerle, Kashi and Tian four states of south Xinjiang. The state of four areas in southern Xinjiang has become the world's largest production base for red dates and a new industry of local farmers for delightful and rich purposes.
The virus disease of jujube trees is an international new disease occurring on jujube trees in Aksu area of Xinjiang. The pathogen is a new species in the catalpa cyclovirous, and is temporarily named Jujube Emaravir. The disease mainly damages leaves and fruits of the jujube trees, causes symptoms of leaf yellowing, curling, fruit malformation and the like, and has the characteristics of high propagation speed, serious damage, difficult control and the like. In 2016, the disease is found for the first time in Aksu area of Xinjiang, and the occurrence area is only limited to individual jujube gardens in Aksu city and Wenshou county and occurs sporadically. 2017 and 2018, the disease is rapidly spread and spread, the disease occurs in different degrees in the eight counties and the one city in the Aksu region, and the average incidence rate of the jujube trees is 3 percent. Wherein virus diseases of jujube trees in jujube gardens in Aksu city, Wenshou county, Kuche county and Shaya county in Aksu region are outbreak to cause disasters, the average incidence rate is above 25%, the incidence rate of jujube trees in individual plots is up to 100%, the distortion rate of fruit trees is above 55%, the yield loss is above 60%, and even partial jujube gardens are in outweighed.
The jujube virus disease is called jujube cancer, the outbreak and the disaster of the disease cause high attention of local governments, and once the disease is further spread and spread, the disease can seriously threaten the red jujube industry in Xinjiang and even China. Based on the serious harm of the disease to the Xinjiang jujube trees and the potential threat to the safety of the Xinjiang jujube industry, a Xinjiang jujube virus disease research team is established by the economic and forestry research institute of Xinjiang academy of sciences and the expert students of Chinese academy of sciences, Huazhong university of agriculture and the like, and scientific and technological challenges are developed according to the pathogeny of the jujube virus disease, the disease infection cycle rule and the disease blockage prevention and control key technology. On the premise of accurately identifying the pathogenic type and classification status thereof, the method carries out dynamic tracking monitoring on the field occurrence in 2 years aiming at pathogenic viruses and virus-transmission mediators (jujube gall mites) and explores the key point of disease control. Aiming at the key time nodes of disease and virus-transmission medium prevention and control, a method combining disease prevention and pest control is adopted to carry out medicament screening experiments. As is known, plant virus diseases are difficult to eradicate completely, an efficient prevention and control agent is not available at present, pesticide damage and pesticide residue of the jujube trees can be caused by multiple pesticide application, the ecological environment is damaged, the health of human beings is influenced, and particularly, a large amount of flowers and fruits can be caused by pesticide spraying on crowns of the jujube trees in the flowering period, and the fruit setting rate is influenced.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above, the embodiment of the invention provides a method for preventing and treating jujube virus diseases, which mainly aims to solve the problem of potential threat of the jujube virus diseases to Xinjiang jujube in Xinjiang jujube production, ensure the safety of Xinjiang jujube industry while effectively controlling the further propagation and spread of the jujube virus diseases, and simultaneously achieve the purposes of reducing pesticide residues, improving the quality of the jujube and ensuring the safety of ecological environment.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention mainly provides the following technical scheme:
in one aspect, the present invention provides a method for preventing and treating jujube tree virus diseases, which comprises the following steps:
(1) irrigating roots of jujube trees in the sprouting period: in the early and middle ten days of 4 months, the jujube tree is in the sprouting stage, the root irrigation technology is adopted in the sprouting stage for preventing and treating jujube virus diseases, and the root irrigation is carried out for 1 time by selecting a 400-fold liquid tree body of 0.5 percent amylase bacillus GLD-191 microbial inoculum 300;
(2) preventing diseases and controlling insects before the date tree flowering period: in the last 4 th-last 5 th month, avermectin and perchloric acid and thiacloprid and perchloric acid are uniformly sprayed to the whole overground part of the jujube tree, the soil of the lower crown layer and the weeds under the crown, so as to prevent and control the toxicity-transferring mediator jujube gall mites and other pests which harm different insect states of the jujube tree;
(3) disease control before full bloom of jujube trees: before the date tree enters the full-bloom stage in the middle ten days of the 5 th month, the date tree is killed, and meanwhile, amino-oligosaccharin is mixed for tree body spraying;
(4) and (3) prevention and treatment of the virus disease of the jujube trees in the full-bloom stage: in late ten days of 5 months to the end of 6 months, the jujube tree starts to enter a full-bloom stage and is also a disease-manifestation stage of jujube virus diseases, and the crown is prohibited from spraying to prevent and control plant diseases and insect pests in the period; continuously adopting 0.5 percent amylase bacillus GLD-191 microbial inoculum 300-and 400-fold liquid for secondary root irrigation to prevent and control the virus in the tree body aiming at the virus disease;
(5) and (3) prevention and treatment of virus diseases in the rapid growth period of the jujube fruit: in late 7 th month-9 th month, which is the rapid growth period of jujube fruits, azocyclotin suspending agent, amino-oligosaccharin and bacillus amyloliquefaciens 191 are mixed to prepare a liquid, and crown spraying is carried out to prevent and control jujube virus diseases, virus-transmission mediator jujube gall mites and red spider pests, so that the purpose of preventing and controlling diseases and pests is achieved;
(6) and (4) performing field management on the fruits in the mature period and the later period, wherein conventional management measures of pruning the jujube trees in autumn, cleaning the fields and spraying a lime sulphur mixture are adopted.
Preferably, the jujube trees are planted in Xinjiang.
Preferably, the root irrigation technology in the step (1) is specifically operated as follows: digging a soil pit with the diameter of 1 meter and the depth of 30 centimeters below the jujube tree crown, pouring 20 liters of prepared and statically placed bacillus amyloliquefaciens GLD-191 solution for 2 hours into the dug pit, and irrigating roots of the jujube tree for 1 time to prevent and control virus diseases.
Preferably, the step (2) is to adopt abamectin high chlorine 1500 times liquid and thiacloprid high chlorine 1500 times liquid to mix; the control is carried out once every 7 days and is continuously carried out for 2 times.
Preferably, the jujube sterilization in the step (3) is to spray trees with 2000 times of kasugamycin solution and 800 times of amino-oligosaccharin solution for 1 time every 7 days and continuously spray the trees for 2 times.
Preferably, the step (5) adopts 1500 times of azocyclotin suspending agent, 900 times of amino-oligosaccharin solution and 800 times of bacillus amyloliquefaciens solution to mix.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
aiming at the fact that the virus disease of the jujube trees is outbreak and disastrous, the invention provides a method for preventing and controlling the virus of the jujube trees by irrigating roots with a microbial agent and spraying tree bodies, emphasizes the green prevention and control of 'bacteria control with bacteria', and achieves the purposes of avoiding spraying the pesticide in the flowering phase, improving the fruit setting rate, reducing the pesticide residue and ensuring the improvement of the quality of the jujube trees and the safety of the ecological environment. The microbial preparation amylolytic spore GDL191 is used for root irrigation and timely foliar spraying to prevent and control the jujube tree virus; medicaments such as jujube disease sterilization (kasugamycin) and the like are adopted to timely prevent and control virus-transmitting mediators and other jujube tree diseases and insect pests, and meanwhile, modes such as reasonable trimming, scissors disinfection at any time and the like are adopted to stop cross infection and cut off propagation paths, so that the disease resistance of jujube trees is improved. Aiming at the condition that the pesticide spraying in the flowering phase can reduce the fruit setting rate of the jujube trees and generate pesticide damage, the root irrigation of the pesticide in the spring jujube trees in the sprouting phase is adopted to prevent and control diseases, and meanwhile, the prevention and control step of pesticide spraying on the trees in the flowering phase is avoided. The invention has simple and convenient technical operation, grasps the key point of disease prevention and control, adopts the prevention and control method of spraying on the roots and the overground tree bodies, can effectively control the infection sources, cuts off the transmission path and achieves the aim of controlling the rapid transmission and spread of the diseases.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a diagram showing the cell layout of a jujube tree virus disease prevention and control experiment provided in example 1 of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a formula chart for calculating a disease index according to example 1 of the present invention.
Detailed Description
To further illustrate the technical means and effects of the present invention adopted to achieve the predetermined objects, the following detailed description of the embodiments, technical solutions, features and effects according to the present invention will be given with preferred embodiments. The particular features, structures, or characteristics may be combined in any suitable manner in the embodiments or embodiments described below.
Example 1
A method for preventing and treating jujube tree virus diseases comprises the following steps:
1) irrigating roots of jujube trees in the sprouting period: according to different climatic conditions of different years, the date trees have slightly different sprouting periods; the date tree in Aksu area of Xinjiang has the sprouting period of more than 4 months and middle ten days; therefore, in the sprouting period of the jujube trees, 350 times of the bacillus amyloliquefaciens GLD-191 is prepared by a secondary dilution method, and is statically placed for 2 hours after being uniformly mixed; digging a soil pit with the diameter of 1 meter and the depth of 30 centimeters below the jujube tree crown, pouring 20 liters of prepared and statically placed bacillus amyloliquefaciens GLD-191 solution into the dug pit for 1 time of root irrigation of the jujube tree to prevent and control virus diseases;
2) preventing diseases and controlling insects before the date tree flowering period: according to the different ages of the jujube trees, the jujube trees mostly start from the top and middle ten days of 4 months, in the first half month of the flowering period of the jujube trees, aiming at the whole overground part of the jujube trees, the soil of the lower crown surface layer and the weeds under the crown, avermectin and perchloric 1500 times liquid are uniformly sprayed and mixed, jujube gall mites and other pests (jujube thrips, green plant bugs, leafhoppers and the like) which damage different insect states of the jujube trees are prevented and controlled once every 7 days, the continuous prevention and control is carried out for 2 times, and the pests such as the jujube gall mites can be effectively prevented and controlled;
3) disease control before full bloom of jujube trees: before the date tree enters the full-bloom stage in the middle ten days of the 5 th month, tree spraying is carried out by adopting 2000 times of liquid of date disease sterilization (kasugamycin) and 800 times of liquid of amino oligosaccharin, spraying is carried out for 1 time every 7 days, spraying is continuously carried out for 2 times, and the tree vigor is enhanced while common diseases such as fruit shrinking disease, black spot disease and the like are prevented and controlled;
4) and (3) prevention and treatment of the virus disease of the jujube trees in the full-bloom stage: in late ten days of 5 months to the end of 6 months, the jujube tree begins to enter a full-bloom stage and is also a disease-manifestation stage of jujube virus diseases, and the crown is prohibited from spraying to prevent and control plant diseases and insect pests in the period. In this period, continuously repeating the step 1) to carry out secondary root irrigation to prevent and control the virus disease of the jujube tree;
5) and (3) prevention and treatment of virus diseases in the rapid growth period of the jujube fruit: in the early 7 th month to the beginning of 9 months, the jujube fruits are in a rapid growth period, in order to reduce the abnormal fruit ratio, the azocyclotin suspending agent is adopted for secondary dilution, the mixture is mixed after 1500 times of solution, the amino oligosaccharin 900 times of solution and the amylase bacillus 191800 times of solution are adopted, and the mixed solution is used for spraying the tree crowns to prevent and control the jujube virus diseases, the virus-transmitting mediator jujube gall mites, red spiders and other pests, so that the purpose of disease and pest prevention is achieved;
6) and (4) performing field management on the fruits in the mature period and the later period, wherein conventional management measures of pruning the jujube trees in autumn, cleaning the fields and spraying a lime sulphur mixture are adopted.
To better illustrate the effect of the method of example 1 of the present invention, the following field experiment was performed.
Example 2
The test site is selected in ten thousand mu jujube orchard in Wenshun county in Aksu region, a jujube orchard with the age of 7 years is selected as a test object, the jujube variety is gray jujube, and the planting mode is that the row spacing is 4 multiplied by 2; the test area is 60 mu, the soil fertility is medium, and jujube tree virus diseases occur in relatively heavy plots; the experiment starts from 4 months and ten days every year, 5 acres of land are respectively removed from the left side and the right side of the land block to be used as protection rows, the middle 50 acres of land are used as test land and are divided into 5 areas, 10 acres of land are arranged in each area, and 3 times of treatment repetition and 2 controls are arranged. The specific experimental cell setting schematic diagram is shown in fig. 1.
Timely counting the incidence rate of the current-year jujube head branches in the fruit mature period in autumn, taking a plant as a unit for each treatment and comparison, sampling at 5 points, setting 1 central plant tree at each point, and investigating 10 jujube trees in the circle center area range by taking the central plant as the circle center to obtain 50 trees in total; the total of all treatments and repetitions was investigated for 250 trees, and the disease rate, the diseased branch rate per tree and the disease progression were recorded; disease conditions are graded according to the disease rate of the Chinese date and the twig in the current year, and specific grading standards are shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1 grading Standard of viral diseases of jujube Tree
The disease index formula is shown in fig. 2.
Control effect (%) - (CK-PT) × 100/CK;
in the formula, CK and PT are disease indexes of a control area and a test treatment area respectively, and the prevention and treatment effect is calculated by adopting a formula of base numbers of diseases which are not investigated before treatment.
The experimental results show that: the average incidence rate of the jujube virus diseases in the control area is 58.6 percent, and the disease index is 6.85; the disease index of the test area treated by the method of example 1 is averagely 1.94, and the average prevention and treatment effect is 71.68 percent; the data show that the method has better inhibiting effect on the virus disease of the jujube tree, can be used for preventing and treating the virus disease of the jujube tree in the practical production of the red jujube in Aksu area, and can improve the yield of the red jujube.
The method aims at the occurrence and infection rules of the virus diseases of the jujube trees in Aksu area of Xinjiang, combines the growth and development characteristics of the jujube trees, and performs disease control with pertinence; the screened microbial agent (0.5% bacillus amyloliquefaciens GLD-191) for efficiently preventing and treating the jujube tree virus has obvious effect on preventing and treating the jujube tree virus disease no matter the microbial agent is applied to root irrigation or leaf surface spraying after full bloom, and simultaneously solves the problems that the fruit setting rate is reduced due to pesticide spraying in the flowering period of the jujube tree, and even the serious yield loss is caused by improper pesticide application.
The insect-proof medicament combination (avermectin, perchloro, thiacloprid and perchlorofluorine) before the full bloom stage of the jujube tree not only prevents and controls the gall mites of the toxicity-transmitting mediator jujube, but also has efficient prevention and control effects on other pests which harm the jujube tree.
The disease prevention medicament combination (jujube disease killing + amino-oligosaccharin) can achieve the aim of preventing and treating other jujube tree diseases by using the conventional medicaments for multiple times through 1-time spraying prevention and treatment, and simultaneously solves the problem of pesticide residue caused by using the conventional medicaments for multiple times.
The method can efficiently prevent and control the virus diseases of the jujube trees, is the most effective prevention and control technology at present, solves the problem of serious yield loss of the red jujubes caused by the pesticide spraying in the flowering phase, has simple and convenient operation, low cost and high prevention effect, is the most effective method for solving the virus diseases of the jujube trees in Xinjiang, and has very high practical application value.
The embodiments of the present invention are not exhaustive, and those skilled in the art can select them from the prior art.
The above disclosure is only for the specific embodiments of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any person skilled in the art can easily conceive of the changes or substitutions within the technical scope of the present invention, and shall be covered by the scope of the present invention. Therefore, the protection scope of the present invention shall be subject to the protection scope of the above claims.

Claims (6)

1. A method for controlling viral diseases in jujube trees, comprising the steps of:
(1) irrigating roots of jujube trees in the sprouting period: in the early and middle ten days of 4 months, the jujube tree is in the sprouting stage, the root irrigation technology is adopted in the sprouting stage for preventing and treating jujube virus diseases, and the root irrigation is carried out for 1 time by selecting a 400-fold liquid tree body of 0.5 percent bacillus amyloliquefaciens GLD-191 microbial inoculum 300-;
(2) preventing diseases and controlling insects before the date tree flowering period: in the last ten days of 4 months to the last ten days of 5 months, aiming at the whole overground part of the jujube tree, the soil of the lower crown surface layer and the weeds under the crown, avermectin and perchloric acid and thiacloprid are uniformly sprayed to prevent and control jujube gall mites and other pests which harm the jujube tree in different insect states;
(3) disease control before full bloom of jujube trees: before the date tree enters the full-bloom stage in the middle ten days of the 5 th month, the date tree is killed, and meanwhile, amino-oligosaccharin is mixed for tree body spraying;
(4) and (3) prevention and treatment of the virus disease of the jujube trees in the full-bloom stage: in late ten days of 5 months to the end of 6 months, the jujube tree starts to enter a full-bloom stage and is also a disease-manifestation stage of jujube virus diseases, and the crown is prohibited from spraying to prevent and control plant diseases and insect pests in the period; continuously adopting 0.5 percent bacillus amyloliquefaciens GLD-191 microbial inoculum 300-containing 400-fold liquid for secondary root irrigation to prevent and control the virus in the tree body aiming at the virus disease;
(5) and (3) prevention and treatment of virus diseases in the rapid growth period of the jujube fruit: in late 7 th month-9 th month, which is the rapid growth period of the jujube fruits, azocyclotin suspending agent, amino-oligosaccharin and bacillus amyloliquefaciens GLD-191 are mixed to prepare a liquid, and crown spraying is carried out to prevent and control jujube virus diseases, virus-transmission mediator jujube gall mites and red spider pests, so that the purpose of disease, pest and prevention is achieved;
(6) and (4) performing field management on the fruits in the mature period and the later period, wherein conventional management measures of pruning the jujube trees in autumn, cleaning the fields and spraying a lime sulphur mixture are adopted.
2. The method for preventing and treating viral diseases of jujube trees according to claim 1, wherein the jujube trees are planted in Xinjiang.
3. The method for preventing and treating jujube tree virus diseases according to claim 1, wherein the root irrigation technique of the step (1) is specifically operated as follows: digging a soil pit with the diameter of 1 meter and the depth of 30 centimeters below the jujube tree crown, pouring 20 liters of prepared and statically placed bacillus amyloliquefaciens GLD-191 solution for 2 hours into the dug pit, and irrigating roots of the jujube tree for 1 time to prevent and control virus diseases.
4. The method for preventing and treating the virus disease of the jujube trees according to claim 1, wherein the step (2) is to mix the abamectin high chlorine 1500-fold liquid and the thiacloprid high chlorine 1500-fold liquid; the control is carried out once every 7 days and is continuously carried out for 2 times.
5. The method for preventing and treating jujube tree virus diseases according to claim 1, wherein the jujube disease sterilization in the step (3) adopts 2000 times of kasugamycin solution; the kasugamycin 2000-fold liquid and the amino-oligosaccharin 800-fold liquid are mixed to be sprayed on the tree body, 1 time of spraying is carried out every 7 days, and 2 times of spraying is continuously carried out.
6. The method for preventing and treating jujube tree virus diseases according to claim 1, wherein step (5) adopts 1500 times of azocyclotin suspension, 900 times of amino-oligosaccharin and 800 times of GLD-191 of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for mixing.
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