CN110170614B - Precoated sand shell mold casting process - Google Patents

Precoated sand shell mold casting process Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110170614B
CN110170614B CN201910531680.2A CN201910531680A CN110170614B CN 110170614 B CN110170614 B CN 110170614B CN 201910531680 A CN201910531680 A CN 201910531680A CN 110170614 B CN110170614 B CN 110170614B
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casting
sand
shell mold
precoated sand
parts
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CN110170614A (en
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黄昌弟
赵仕聪
苏银进
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Zhejiang Ousai Auto Part Casting Co ltd
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Zhejiang Ousai Auto Part Casting Co ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C1/00Compositions of refractory mould or core materials; Grain structures thereof; Chemical or physical features in the formation or manufacture of moulds
    • B22C1/16Compositions of refractory mould or core materials; Grain structures thereof; Chemical or physical features in the formation or manufacture of moulds characterised by the use of binding agents; Mixtures of binding agents
    • B22C1/20Compositions of refractory mould or core materials; Grain structures thereof; Chemical or physical features in the formation or manufacture of moulds characterised by the use of binding agents; Mixtures of binding agents of organic agents
    • B22C1/22Compositions of refractory mould or core materials; Grain structures thereof; Chemical or physical features in the formation or manufacture of moulds characterised by the use of binding agents; Mixtures of binding agents of organic agents of resins or rosins
    • B22C1/2233Compositions of refractory mould or core materials; Grain structures thereof; Chemical or physical features in the formation or manufacture of moulds characterised by the use of binding agents; Mixtures of binding agents of organic agents of resins or rosins obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • B22C1/2246Condensation polymers of aldehydes and ketones
    • B22C1/2253Condensation polymers of aldehydes and ketones with phenols
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22CFOUNDRY MOULDING
    • B22C9/00Moulds or cores; Moulding processes
    • B22C9/02Sand moulds or like moulds for shaped castings

Abstract

The invention discloses a precoated sand shell mold casting process, which relates to a casting process, and adopts the technical scheme that the process comprises the following steps: s1 shell making: s2 boxing: putting the shell mold into a box body, filling steel shots between the outer part of the shell mold and the inner wall of the box body, and compacting; s3 casting: pouring molten iron into the inner cavity of the shell mold, cooling after pouring, and molding a casting; s4 discharge: pouring out the casting, the waste sand and the steel shots in the box body together, separating the casting, cleaning and inspecting the surface of the casting, and warehousing after the casting is qualified; s5 recovery: separating the waste sand and the steel shots, and recycling the steel shots for reuse; the precoated sand comprises the following components in parts by weight: 100 portions of crude sand and 110 portions of crude sand; 3-5 parts of heat-resistant phenolic resin; 1.2-1.5 parts of a curing agent; 0.1-0.3 part of lubricant; 0.03-0.06 part of coupling agent. After the shell mold is contacted with high-temperature molten iron, precoated sand is not easy to decompose to generate a large amount of gas, the gas evolution is low, on one hand, adverse effects on castings are not easy to generate, and on the other hand, harm to the health of workers is reduced.

Description

Precoated sand shell mold casting process
Technical Field
The invention relates to a casting process, in particular to a precoated sand shell mold casting process.
Background
Casting is a method in which liquid metal is cast into a casting cavity that conforms to the shape of a part, and after it is cooled and solidified, a part or a blank is obtained. The shell mold casting is a casting mode, and the casting is produced by utilizing the thin shell casting mold, so that the method has the advantages of convenience in production, high efficiency, small sand consumption, high dimensional precision and the like. The shell casting mold is formed by covering coated sand on a metal template heated to 180-280 ℃ and hardening, wherein the coated sand is the molding sand with a layer of solid resin film coated on the surface of sand grains before molding. The precoated sand shell type casting process is particularly suitable for the gradual batch and mass production of various metals in small and medium sizes, and is widely applied to the casting of automobile parts in recent years.
Chinese patent No. CN107321919B discloses a novel casting process of a brake drum of a semitrailer, which comprises the following steps: manufacturing an inner shell and a sprue cup, adjusting the temperature of an iron mold, molding sand, turning over a box for inspection, assembling a shell mold, filling iron shots, pouring and cooling, turning over the box, discharging parts and recovering components, magnetically separating and screening, and removing dust and cleaning.
Compared with the traditional molding sand filling method, the shell mold casting process has the advantages of high steel shot recovery rate, dust pollution reduction, quick cooling and the like. However, the following technical drawbacks still exist: the precoated sand contains phenolic resin and urotropine, is easy to decompose under the action of high temperature to generate harmful gases such as ammonia, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide and the like, and causes harm to the health of workers, so that improvement is needed.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the technical defects, the invention aims to provide a precoated sand shell mold casting process, which reduces the release amount of harmful gas and reduces the influence on the health of workers.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme:
a casting process of a precoated sand shell mold comprises the following steps:
s1 shell making: preparing precoated sand, covering the precoated sand on a metal template, heating the metal template to 180-280 ℃ to obtain an upper shell mold and a lower shell mold, and bonding the upper shell mold and the lower shell mold together to form a complete shell mold;
s2 boxing: putting the shell mold into a box body, filling steel shots between the outer part of the shell mold and the inner wall of the box body, and compacting;
s3 casting: pouring molten iron into the inner cavity of the shell mold, cooling after pouring, and molding a casting;
s4 discharge: pouring out the casting, the waste sand and the steel shots in the box body together, separating the casting, cleaning and inspecting the surface of the casting, and warehousing after the casting is qualified;
s5 recovery: separating the waste sand and the steel shots, and recycling the steel shots for reuse;
the precoated sand comprises the following components in parts by weight:
100 portions of crude sand and 110 portions of
3-5 parts of heat-resistant phenolic resin
1.2 to 1.5 portions of curing agent
0.1 to 0.3 portion of lubricant
0.03-0.06 part of coupling agent.
By adopting the technical scheme and the steel shot filling method, dust is reduced, the occupational health of staff is ensured, the steel shot can be recycled, and resources are saved.
The precoated sand adopted for shell mold manufacturing uses heat-resistant phenolic resin, and after the shell mold contacts with high-temperature molten iron, the precoated sand is not easy to decompose to generate a large amount of gas, so that the gas generation is low, on one hand, the adverse effect on a casting is not easy to generate, and on the other hand, the harm to the health of workers is reduced.
The invention is further configured to: the preparation process of the heat-resistant phenolic resin comprises the following steps:
firstly, mixing 20-24 parts of phenol and 10-12 parts of water by weight, and heating to 65-70 ℃ until the phenol is completely dissolved;
secondly, adding cassava starch into the phenol solution and uniformly stirring, wherein the mol ratio of the cassava starch to the phenol is 1: (1.2-1.4), adjusting the pH to 1.2-1.8 by using hydrochloric acid, heating to 110 ℃ for heat preservation for 50-60min, then heating to 150 ℃ for reflux reaction for 40-60 min;
thirdly, adding 1.6-2 parts of 3-fluorophthalic acid, heating to 185 ℃ and reacting for 60-70min under the condition of heat preservation;
and fourthly, cooling to 150-.
By adopting the technical scheme, the hydrolysate of the cassava starch is used as a substitute of formaldehyde, the raw materials are pollution-free and low in price, and the formaldehyde release amount of the coated sand is greatly reduced. The addition of the 3-fluorophthalic acid can combine with redundant phenol to reduce the release amount of phenol, and can combine with hydroxyl of the phenolic resin to introduce benzene rings and fluorine atoms with higher bond energy to improve the heat resistance of the phenolic resin, so that carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide generated by pyrolysis are reduced, the thermal expansion coefficient is reduced, the hydrophobicity of the phenolic resin is improved, and the troubles of strength reduction and gas evolution increase caused by moisture absorption of the precoated sand are effectively avoided. The addition of the nano silicon dioxide improves the heat resistance and the strength of the phenolic resin.
The invention is further configured to: the curing agent is urotropin.
By adopting the technical scheme, the curing effect of the phenolic resin is good.
The invention is further configured to: the precoated sand also comprises 0.6-0.8 part of calcium oxide.
By adopting the technical scheme, on one hand, redundant acid is neutralized, and on the other hand, the curing reaction is promoted.
The invention is further configured to: the raw sand is silica sand.
By adopting the technical scheme, the silica sand is high temperature resistant and has small thermal expansion coefficient.
The invention is further configured to: the lubricant is calcium stearate.
By adopting the technical scheme, the calcium stearate can prevent the precoated sand from caking, increase the fluidity and improve the demolding property.
The invention is further configured to: the coupling agent is KH 550.
Through adopting above-mentioned technical scheme, KH550 can improve the intensity of tectorial membrane sand.
The invention is further configured to: the preparation method of the precoated sand comprises the following steps:
firstly, heating the raw sand to the temperature of 900-;
step two, taking out the raw sand, cooling to 130-140 ℃, adding heat-resistant phenolic resin, and mixing the sand for 50-60 s;
step three, cooling to 105-;
and step four, adding a lubricant and a coupling agent, and stirring for 30-40s to obtain the precoated sand.
By adopting the technical scheme, the thermal expansion rate and the gas evolution rate of the raw sand are reduced after high-temperature roasting.
In conclusion, the invention has the following beneficial effects: the formula of the precoated sand is optimized and improved, so that the precoated sand has excellent heat resistance, low thermal expansion rate and low gas evolution, and is beneficial to ensuring the quality of castings and reducing the adverse effect of harmful gas on the health of workers.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic flow chart of the first to third embodiments.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
The first embodiment is as follows:
s1 shell making: preparing precoated sand and manufacturing a metal template required by a corresponding casting, covering the precoated sand on the metal template by using a sand shooting machine, heating the metal template to 180 ℃, hardening the precoated sand to obtain an upper shell mold and a lower shell mold, and bonding the upper shell mold and the lower shell mold together to form a complete shell mold;
s2 boxing: putting the shell mold into a box body, filling steel shots between the outer part of the shell mold and the inner wall of the box body, and compacting;
s3 casting: pouring molten iron into the inner cavity of the shell mold, blowing air for cooling after pouring is finished, and molding a casting;
s4 discharge: pouring out the casting, the waste sand and the steel shots in the box body together, separating the casting by using a shakeout machine, cleaning and inspecting the surface of the casting, and warehousing after the casting is qualified;
s5 recovery: and magnetically separating the waste sand and the steel shots, and recycling the steel shots for reuse.
Example two:
s1 shell making: preparing precoated sand and manufacturing a metal template required by a corresponding casting, covering the precoated sand on the metal template by using a sand shooting machine, heating the metal template to 280 ℃, hardening the precoated sand to prepare an upper shell mold and a lower shell mold, and bonding the upper shell mold and the lower shell mold together to form a complete shell mold;
s2 boxing: putting the shell mold into a box body, filling steel shots between the outer part of the shell mold and the inner wall of the box body, and compacting;
s3 casting: pouring molten iron into the inner cavity of the shell mold, blowing air for cooling after pouring is finished, and molding a casting;
s4 discharge: pouring out the casting, the waste sand and the steel shots in the box body together, separating the casting by using a shakeout machine, cleaning and inspecting the surface of the casting, and warehousing after the casting is qualified;
s5 recovery: and magnetically separating the waste sand and the steel shots, and recycling the steel shots for reuse.
Example three:
s1 shell making: preparing precoated sand and manufacturing a metal template required by a corresponding casting, covering the precoated sand on the metal template by using a sand shooting machine, heating the metal template to 230 ℃, hardening the precoated sand to prepare an upper shell mold and a lower shell mold, and bonding the upper shell mold and the lower shell mold together to form a complete shell mold;
s2 boxing: putting the shell mold into a box body, filling steel shots between the outer part of the shell mold and the inner wall of the box body, and compacting;
s3 casting: pouring molten iron into the inner cavity of the shell mold, blowing air for cooling after pouring is finished, and molding a casting;
s4 discharge: pouring out the casting, the waste sand and the steel shots in the box body together, separating the casting by using a shakeout machine, cleaning and inspecting the surface of the casting, and warehousing after the casting is qualified;
s5 recovery: and magnetically separating the waste sand and the steel shots, and recycling the steel shots for reuse.
Example four:
the precoated sand in the first to third embodiments comprises the following components in parts by weight:
100 parts of silica sand with the granularity of 100 meshes;
3 parts of heat-resistant phenolic resin;
1.2 parts of urotropin;
0.6 part of calcium oxide;
0.1 part of calcium stearate;
KH 5500.03 parts.
The preparation process of the heat-resistant phenolic resin comprises the following steps:
step one, mixing 20 parts of phenol and 10 parts of water by weight, and heating to 65 ℃ until the phenol is completely dissolved;
secondly, adding cassava starch into the phenol solution and uniformly stirring, wherein the mol ratio of the cassava starch to the phenol is 1: 1.2, regulating the pH value to 1.2 by using hydrochloric acid, heating to 100 ℃, preserving heat for 50min, then heating to 140 ℃, and carrying out reflux reaction for 40 min;
thirdly, adding 1.6 parts of 3-fluorophthalic acid, heating to 180 ℃, and carrying out heat preservation reaction for 60 min;
and fourthly, cooling to 150 ℃, vacuumizing, dehydrating and drying for 6min, adding 2.4 parts of nano silicon dioxide, uniformly stirring, discharging while the mixture is hot, and cooling to room temperature to obtain the heat-resistant phenolic resin.
The preparation method of the precoated sand comprises the following steps:
firstly, according to the weight parts required by the formula, firstly heating silica sand to 900 ℃ for 30 min;
taking out the silica sand, cooling to 130 ℃, adding heat-resistant phenolic resin, and mixing the sand for 50 s;
cooling to 105 ℃, adding urotropine and calcium oxide, and stirring for 20 s;
and step four, adding calcium stearate and KH550, and stirring for 30s to obtain the precoated sand.
Example five:
the precoated sand in the first to third embodiments comprises the following components in parts by weight:
110 parts of silica sand with the granularity of 100 meshes;
5 parts of heat-resistant phenolic resin;
1.5 parts of urotropin;
0.8 part of calcium oxide;
0.3 part of calcium stearate;
KH 5500.06 parts.
The preparation process of the heat-resistant phenolic resin comprises the following steps:
firstly, mixing 24 parts of phenol and 12 parts of water by weight, and heating to 70 ℃ until the phenol is completely dissolved;
secondly, adding cassava starch into the phenol solution and uniformly stirring, wherein the mol ratio of the cassava starch to the phenol is 1: 1.4, regulating the pH value to 1.8 by using hydrochloric acid, heating to 110 ℃, preserving heat for 60min, then heating to 150 ℃, and carrying out reflux reaction for 60 min;
thirdly, adding 2 parts of 3-fluorophthalic acid, heating to 185 ℃, and reacting for 70min under the condition of heat preservation;
and fourthly, cooling to 160 ℃, vacuumizing, dehydrating and drying for 10min, adding 2.8 parts of nano silicon dioxide, uniformly stirring, discharging while the mixture is hot, and cooling to room temperature to obtain the heat-resistant phenolic resin.
The preparation method of the precoated sand comprises the following steps:
firstly, according to the weight parts required by the formula, firstly heating silica sand to 1100 ℃ for 40 min;
taking out the silica sand, cooling to 140 ℃, adding heat-resistant phenolic resin, and mixing the sand for 60 s;
cooling to 115 ℃, adding urotropine and calcium oxide, and stirring for 25 s;
and step four, adding calcium stearate and KH550, and stirring for 40s to obtain the precoated sand.
Example six:
the precoated sand in the first to third embodiments comprises the following components in parts by weight:
105 parts of silica sand with the granularity of 100 meshes;
4 parts of heat-resistant phenolic resin;
1.4 parts of urotropin;
0.7 part of calcium oxide;
0.2 part of calcium stearate;
KH 5500.04 parts.
The preparation process of the heat-resistant phenolic resin comprises the following steps:
firstly, mixing 22 parts by weight of phenol and 11 parts by weight of water, and heating to 68 ℃ until the phenol is completely dissolved;
secondly, adding cassava starch into the phenol solution and uniformly stirring, wherein the mol ratio of the cassava starch to the phenol is 1: 1.3, regulating the pH value to 1.5 by using hydrochloric acid, heating to 105 ℃, preserving heat for 55min, then heating to 145 ℃, and carrying out reflux reaction for 50 min;
thirdly, adding 1.8 parts of 3-fluorophthalic acid, heating to 183 ℃, and carrying out heat preservation reaction for 65 min;
and fourthly, cooling to 155 ℃, vacuumizing, dehydrating and drying for 8min, adding 2.6 parts of nano silicon dioxide, uniformly stirring, discharging while the mixture is hot, and cooling to room temperature to obtain the heat-resistant phenolic resin.
The preparation method of the precoated sand comprises the following steps:
firstly, according to the weight parts required by the formula, firstly heating silica sand to 1000 ℃ for 35 min;
taking out the silica sand, cooling to 135 ℃, adding heat-resistant phenolic resin, and mixing the sand for 55 s;
cooling to 110 ℃, adding urotropine and calcium oxide, and stirring for 23 s;
and step four, adding calcium stearate and KH550, and stirring for 35 seconds to obtain the precoated sand.
Example seven:
in contrast to example six, the precoated sand did not include calcium oxide.
Comparative example one:
in contrast to the sixth example, no 3-fluorophthalic acid was added during the preparation of the heat resistant phenolic resin.
Comparative example two:
different from the sixth embodiment, no nano silicon dioxide is added in the preparation process of the heat-resistant phenolic resin.
Comparative example three:
in contrast to example six, the heat resistant phenolic resin was changed to a commercially available 2123 phenolic resin.
Testing the performance of the precoated sand:
the thermal expansion coefficient of the coated sand was measured according to the method described in the test method for high temperature performance of coated sand of JB/T13037-2017, and the results are reported in Table 1.
The gas evolution of the precoated sand was measured by a method of loading in the precoated sand for casting in JB/T8583-2008, and the results are reported in Table 1.
TABLE 1 precoated sand Performance test results recording sheet
The present embodiment is only for explaining the present invention, and it is not limited to the present invention, and those skilled in the art can make modifications of the present embodiment without inventive contribution as needed after reading the present specification, but all of them are protected by patent law within the scope of the claims of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. The casting process of the precoated sand shell mold is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
s1 shell making: preparing precoated sand, covering the precoated sand on a metal template, heating the metal template to 180-280 ℃ to obtain an upper shell mold and a lower shell mold, and bonding the upper shell mold and the lower shell mold together to form a complete shell mold;
s2 boxing: putting the shell mold into a box body, filling steel shots between the outer part of the shell mold and the inner wall of the box body, and compacting;
s3 casting: pouring molten iron into the inner cavity of the shell mold, cooling after pouring, and molding a casting;
s4 discharge: pouring out the casting, the waste sand and the steel shots in the box body together, separating the casting, cleaning and inspecting the surface of the casting, and warehousing after the casting is qualified;
s5 recovery: separating the waste sand and the steel shots, and recycling the steel shots for reuse;
the precoated sand comprises the following components in parts by weight:
100 portions of crude sand and 110 portions of
3-5 parts of heat-resistant phenolic resin
1.2 to 1.5 portions of curing agent
0.1 to 0.3 portion of lubricant
0.03-0.06 part of coupling agent;
the preparation process of the heat-resistant phenolic resin comprises the following steps:
firstly, mixing 20-24 parts of phenol and 10-12 parts of water by weight, and heating to 65-70 ℃ until the phenol is completely dissolved;
secondly, adding cassava starch into the phenol solution and uniformly stirring, wherein the mol ratio of the cassava starch to the phenol is 1: (1.2-1.4), adjusting the pH to 1.2-1.8 by using hydrochloric acid, heating to 110 ℃ for heat preservation for 50-60min, then heating to 150 ℃ for reflux reaction for 40-60 min;
thirdly, adding 1.6-2 parts of 3-fluorophthalic acid, heating to 185 ℃ and reacting for 60-70min under the condition of heat preservation;
and fourthly, cooling to 150-.
2. The precoated sand shell mold casting process according to claim 1, wherein: the curing agent is urotropin.
3. The precoated sand shell mold casting process according to claim 2, wherein: the precoated sand also comprises 0.6-0.8 part of calcium oxide.
4. The precoated sand shell mold casting process according to claim 1, wherein: the raw sand is silica sand.
5. The precoated sand shell mold casting process according to claim 1, wherein: the lubricant is calcium stearate.
6. The precoated sand shell mold casting process according to claim 1, wherein: the coupling agent is KH 550.
7. The precoated sand shell mold casting process according to claim 6, wherein: the preparation method of the precoated sand comprises the following steps:
firstly, heating the raw sand to the temperature of 900-;
step two, taking out the raw sand, cooling to 130-140 ℃, adding heat-resistant phenolic resin, and mixing the sand for 50-60 s;
step three, cooling to 105-;
and step four, adding a lubricant and a coupling agent, and stirring for 30-40s to obtain the precoated sand.
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CN110666103A (en) * 2019-10-31 2020-01-10 张翔 Precoated sand shell mold casting process
CN110846559A (en) * 2019-11-21 2020-02-28 温州市瓯海朝光阀门机械铸件厂 Rhinestone polishing and grinding machine casting and casting method thereof
CN111408689B (en) * 2020-04-02 2021-03-05 邯郸慧桥复合材料科技有限公司 Bucket tooth shell mold casting method

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