CN110155350B - Control method of unmanned aerial vehicle landing device - Google Patents

Control method of unmanned aerial vehicle landing device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110155350B
CN110155350B CN201910327504.7A CN201910327504A CN110155350B CN 110155350 B CN110155350 B CN 110155350B CN 201910327504 A CN201910327504 A CN 201910327504A CN 110155350 B CN110155350 B CN 110155350B
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unmanned aerial
aerial vehicle
landing
module
ultrasonic
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CN110155350A (en
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甘培源
梅聪聪
张林婷
王安文
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Northwest University
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Northwest University
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64DEQUIPMENT FOR FITTING IN OR TO AIRCRAFT; FLIGHT SUITS; PARACHUTES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF POWER PLANTS OR PROPULSION TRANSMISSIONS IN AIRCRAFT
    • B64D45/00Aircraft indicators or protectors not otherwise provided for
    • B64D45/04Landing aids; Safety measures to prevent collision with earth's surface
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/18Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using ultrasonic, sonic, or infrasonic waves

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  • Aviation & Aerospace Engineering (AREA)
  • Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
  • General Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
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Abstract

The invention discloses a control method of an unmanned aerial vehicle landing device, which comprises a landing platform arranged on the ground, a landing control module arranged on an unmanned aerial vehicle, a landing data processing module connected with the landing platform, and an ultrasonic positioning module; the ultrasonic positioning module comprises four receiving ends and a transmitting end, and a spatial rectangular pyramid is formed in real time in the landing process of the unmanned aerial vehicle to realize accurate positioning; the three-dimensional coordinate information obtained by the model is sent to the flight auxiliary control device through the data transfer station, the landing attitude of the unmanned aerial vehicle is ensured to be corrected in real time in the landing mode, and accurate landing is realized.

Description

Control method of unmanned aerial vehicle landing device
Technical Field
The invention relates to the unmanned aerial vehicle technology, in particular to a control method of an unmanned aerial vehicle landing device.
Background
The multi-rotor aircraft is a rotor aircraft heavier than air, the total lift force (dominant aerodynamic force) of the rotors is determined by the rotation speed of the rotors, the lift force direction is determined by the three-degree-of-freedom angular motion of a three-dimensional moment controller generated by the rotation speed differential of the rotors, and finally the three-dimensional linear motion of the aircraft is controlled by the lift force magnitude and the direction.
As the last ring after the task is finished, the automation degree of unmanned aerial vehicle landing is always a very important flight control problem. Statistical data show that most flight accidents occur in the takeoff and landing stage, and the first time during takeoff and landing is the landing accident rate. In the process, the real-time accurate positioning of the moving target is a problem to be solved urgently. In the existing research, a plurality of positioning modes such as GPS positioning, visual positioning and the like are successively applied to various flight devices. However, the positioning device of the GPS is not high enough in positioning accuracy (difficult to reach a centimeter/millimeter level), or high in cost while meeting the requirement of positioning accuracy, and meanwhile, the positioning accuracy is easily interfered by the environment, so that the GPS positioning device is not suitable for use; the positioning equipment based on the vision technology has the problems of light restriction, sight distance limitation, high cost and the like; therefore, based on the above technology, especially, the device for positioning the moving target cannot be widely applied, which results in the limitation of the development and popularization of the unmanned aerial vehicle technology.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a control method of an unmanned aerial vehicle landing device, which is used for solving the problem that the unmanned aerial vehicle landing platform in the prior art cannot accurately position the unmanned aerial vehicle, so that the unmanned aerial vehicle landing method has no accurate input value, and the unmanned aerial vehicle cannot land safely.
In order to realize the task, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
an unmanned aerial vehicle landing device comprises a landing platform arranged on the ground, a landing control module arranged on the unmanned aerial vehicle, a landing data processing module connected with the landing platform, and an ultrasonic positioning module;
the ultrasonic positioning module is connected with the landing data processing module and is used for acquiring position data of the unmanned aerial vehicle in the landing process;
the landing data processing module is connected with the landing control module and used for obtaining real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle according to the position data;
the landing control module is used for controlling the unmanned aerial vehicle to land on the landing platform according to the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle;
the ultrasonic positioning module comprises an ultrasonic transmitting sub-module arranged on the unmanned aerial vehicle and an ultrasonic receiving sub-module arranged on the landing platform;
the ultrasonic transmitting submodule comprises an ultrasonic transmitting probe, a transmitting end controller and a third wireless submodule;
the ultrasonic receiving submodule comprises four ultrasonic receiving probes, a receiving end controller and a first wireless submodule;
the ultrasonic transmitting probe is respectively connected with the four ultrasonic receiving probes and is used for acquiring position data of the unmanned aerial vehicle in the landing process;
and the third wireless submodule and the first wireless submodule are respectively connected with the landing data processing module and used for sending the position data to the landing data processing module.
Further, the landing data processing module comprises a data processing controller, a second wireless sub-module and a first LoRa wireless communication sub-module, wherein the second wireless sub-module and the first LoRa wireless communication sub-module are connected with the data processing controller;
the second wireless sub-module is used for being connected with the first wireless module and the third wireless sub-module in the ultrasonic wave sending sub-module and receiving the position data;
the data processing controller is used for obtaining real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle according to the position data;
first loRa wireless communication submodule be used for with landing control module connect, will unmanned aerial vehicle true coordinate send for landing control module.
Further, the landing control module comprises a landing control processor and a second LoRa wireless communication sub-module;
the second LoRa wireless communication sub-module is used for being connected with the first LoRa wireless communication sub-module and receiving the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle;
the landing control processor is used for controlling the unmanned aerial vehicle to land on the landing platform according to the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle.
Further, the upper surface of landing platform still be provided with wireless charging module, wireless charging module be located the center of landing platform.
A control method of an unmanned aerial vehicle landing device is used for landing control of an unmanned aerial vehicle by using the unmanned aerial vehicle landing device, wherein four ultrasonic receiving probes form a square, and the four ultrasonic receiving probes are respectively a first ultrasonic receiving probe, a second ultrasonic receiving probe, a third ultrasonic receiving probe and a fourth ultrasonic receiving probe;
the control method is executed according to the following steps:
step 1, when the unmanned aerial vehicle starts to return and falls into a space above a landing platform (1) and is vertically projected by the landing platform (1), setting the current time T to be 1;
step 2, at the current time T, obtaining four position data between the four ultrasonic receiving probes and the ultrasonic transmitting probe, wherein the four position data are respectively a first distance value S between a first ultrasonic receiving probe and the ultrasonic transmitting probe 1 A second distance value S between a second ultrasonic receiving probe and the ultrasonic transmitting probe 2 A third distance value S between a third ultrasonic receiving probe and the ultrasonic transmitting probe 3 And a third distance value S between a fourth ultrasonic wave receiving probe and the ultrasonic wave transmitting probe 4
Step 3, obtaining four groups of unmanned aerial vehicle initial coordinates at the current time T according to the four position data, wherein the four groups of unmanned aerial vehicle initial coordinates are respectively first initial coordinates (x) 1 ,y 1 ,z 1 ) Second initial coordinate (x) 2 ,y 2 ,z 2 ) Third initial coordinate (x) 3 ,y 3 ,z 3 ) And a fourth initial coordinate (x) 4 ,y 4 ,z 4 ):
Figure GDA0003691805760000041
Wherein, L is a distance value between two adjacent ultrasonic receiving probes;
step 4, processing the initial coordinates of the four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T to obtain the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T;
and 5, sending the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the current time T to a landing control module, controlling the unmanned aerial vehicle to descend by using a landing algorithm, enabling T to be T +1, returning to the step 2 until the unmanned aerial vehicle lands on the landing platform, and ending.
Further, the processing four sets of initial coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the current time T to obtain the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the current time T includes:
when T is less than or equal to 3, directly carrying out mean value processing on the initial coordinates of the four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T to obtain the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T;
when T >3, obtain the unmanned aerial vehicle true coordinate when current moment T, specifically include:
step A, obtaining the distance between the initial coordinates of four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current moment T and the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the last moment T-1 to obtain four groups of coarse spacing distances, wherein the unit is m;
and B, obtaining a standard distance D between the current time T and the last time T-1 unmanned aerial vehicle coordinate by adopting a formula I, wherein the unit is m:
D=(v T-2 +a T-3 t) × t formula I
Wherein v is T-2 The unit is m/s, which is the average speed of the unmanned aerial vehicle in the interval between the T-2 moment and the T-3 moment; a is a T-3 The unit of the acceleration of the unmanned aerial vehicle is m in two intervals of the T-3 moment and the T-2 moment and the T-1 moment 2 S; t is the time between the current time T and the last time T-1, and the unit is s;
step C, calculating the difference between the four groups of coarse spacing distances obtained in the step A and the standard distance D obtained in the step B to obtain four groups of difference values, wherein the unit is m;
d, arranging the four groups of difference values from small to large according to the numerical values, and selecting initial coordinates of the three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T corresponding to the previous three difference values as intermediate coordinates of the three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T;
and E, carrying out mean value processing on the intermediate coordinates of the three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T to obtain the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following technical effects:
1. according to the landing device of the unmanned aerial vehicle, the ultrasonic positioning module is arranged, the ultrasonic transmitting probe installed on the unmanned aerial vehicle and the four ultrasonic receiving probes arranged on the ground are arranged in the ultrasonic positioning module, the transmitting probe and the receiving probes are matched to form a spatial pyramid in the space, and the accurate positioning of the unmanned aerial vehicle can be realized by solving the spatial pyramid, so that the accurate control of the landing process of the unmanned aerial vehicle is realized;
2. according to the unmanned aerial vehicle landing device, the first LoRa wireless communication submodule and the second LoRa wireless communication submodule are arranged, so that long-distance communication between the ground and the unmanned aerial vehicle is realized, and the LoRa wireless communication has the characteristic of low power consumption, so that the influence on the cruising ability of the unmanned aerial vehicle can be reduced as much as possible, and the unmanned aerial vehicle can be ensured to stably descend;
3. according to the unmanned aerial vehicle landing device, the wireless charging module is arranged, so that the unmanned aerial vehicle can be wirelessly charged after landing, and the energy of the unmanned aerial vehicle can be timely supplemented;
4. according to the control method of the unmanned aerial vehicle landing device, the unmanned aerial vehicle is indirectly positioned by solving the spatial pyramid, so that the unmanned aerial vehicle is accurately positioned, and the unmanned aerial vehicle landing process is accurately controlled;
5. the control method of the landing device of the unmanned aerial vehicle utilizes the real coordinate calculation mode of the unmanned aerial vehicle of removing the coordinate values with large fluctuation and calculating the mean value, the four coordinate rough values obtained firstly are a multi-data description of the unmanned aerial vehicle selecting different receiver combinations under the same state, these four coordinate raw values are themselves more accurate than a single coordinate description for a variety of reasons such as sensor errors, calculation errors (due to rounding off or direct rounding off of variables in the code as they are saved), environmental factors, the screening of the four coordinate rough values is to reasonably predict and compare the subsequent coordinate values by utilizing the continuity of the flight state in the landing process of the unmanned aerial vehicle, the average value of the three coordinate rough values with the minimum error, namely, the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle can reflect the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle to obtain the accurate real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic view of an internal structure of a landing apparatus for an unmanned aerial vehicle according to an embodiment of the present invention;
figure 2 is a schematic representation of a drone process provided in one embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 3 is a schematic view of a landing platform provided in an embodiment of the present invention.
The reference numbers in the figures represent: 1-landing platform, 2-wireless charging module, 3-small round hole and 4-big round hole.
Detailed Description
The rotary-wing unmanned aerial vehicle is endowed with the mission of operation with more strict execution conditions due to the great advantages of vertical take-off and landing: for example, on-vehicle unmanned aerial vehicle, express delivery unmanned aerial vehicle, the special needs of trades such as patrol unmanned aerial vehicle, it independently accurate the descending in appointed small area region to need the unmanned aerial vehicle body, this needs unmanned aerial vehicle can independently look for the landing platform, independently receiving wind-force, rotor descending air current etc. external influences carry out accurate flight gesture under and adjust, unmanned aerial vehicle among the prior art descending device all is according to real-time positioning, control unmanned aerial vehicle descends, unmanned aerial vehicle automatic landing control process main control unmanned aerial vehicle gesture among the prior art, height and speed, PID algorithm adjusts the rotation rate of each rotor commonly used in order to control above-mentioned variable.
The specific control process is as follows:
1. acquiring attitude angles (including a roll angle, a pitch angle and a yaw angle) of a gyroscope in flight control, and controlling each attitude angle by using a PID (proportion integration differentiation) controller to ensure the stability of the unmanned aerial vehicle;
2. according to the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle, the real-time horizontal position, the height and the speed of the unmanned aerial vehicle can be obtained. Speed is also controlled with a PID controller;
firstly, the unmanned aerial vehicle flies to the position right above a landing point at a fixed height in a stable state, the specific method is that the difference processing is carried out on the current coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle and the coordinate of an expected landing point, the control height difference in the obtained differences in three directions is kept unchanged, and the rotating speed of each rotor wing of the unmanned aerial vehicle is determined by the differences in two horizontal directions. Secondly, the unmanned aerial vehicle vertically lands, and when the height of the unmanned aerial vehicle is larger, the unmanned aerial vehicle is accelerated to the maximum landing speed on the premise of ensuring the stable state of the unmanned aerial vehicle; when the unmanned aerial vehicle lands to the height needing to be decelerated, the unmanned aerial vehicle starts to decelerate until the speed of a landing point is zero, the output of the motor is closed, and the unmanned aerial vehicle finally lands.
But unmanned aerial vehicle location among the prior art is realized by the technique that GPS etc. can't realize the short distance location in order to obtain unmanned aerial vehicle true coordinate, leads to unmanned aerial vehicle positioning accuracy among the prior art not high, consequently makes unmanned aerial vehicle's landing control ideal inadequately, consequently has disclosed an unmanned aerial vehicle landing device in this embodiment, utilizes positioner to realize accurate location.
The device comprises a landing platform 1 arranged on the ground, a landing control module arranged on the unmanned aerial vehicle, a landing data processing module connected with the landing platform 1 and an ultrasonic positioning module;
the ultrasonic positioning module is connected with the landing data processing module and used for acquiring position data of the unmanned aerial vehicle in the landing process;
the landing data processing module is connected with the landing control module and used for obtaining the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle according to the position data;
the landing control module is used for controlling the unmanned aerial vehicle to land on the landing platform 1 according to the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle.
In this embodiment, as shown in fig. 1, through increasing "one sends out four receipts" supersound orientation module in order to realize accurate location on unmanned aerial vehicle landing device, because four ultrasonic wave receiving submodule pieces and an ultrasonic wave sending submodule piece that "one sends out four receipts" supersound orientation device includes constitute the space pyramid in real time at unmanned aerial vehicle landing in-process and realize accurate location, obtain position data.
In this embodiment, the landing platform 1 is made of a material with a certain strength, for example, a metal material such as steel or aluminum alloy, or a material such as wood board or hard plastic, which can support the unmanned aerial vehicle after landing, and the landing platform body is square or rectangular, and the shortest side length is greater than 40cm and not less than 120% of the largest side length of the land occupation area after landing the unmanned aerial vehicle.
Specifically, the ultrasonic positioning module comprises an ultrasonic transmitting submodule installed on the unmanned aerial vehicle and an ultrasonic receiving submodule arranged on the landing platform 1;
the ultrasonic wave sending submodule comprises an ultrasonic wave transmitting probe, a transmitting end controller and a third wireless submodule;
the ultrasonic receiving submodule comprises four ultrasonic receiving probes, a receiving end controller and a first wireless submodule;
the ultrasonic transmitting probe is respectively connected with the four ultrasonic receiving probes and is used for acquiring position data of the unmanned aerial vehicle in the landing process;
the third wireless sub-module and the first wireless sub-module are respectively connected with the landing data processing module and used for sending the position data to the landing data processing module.
In this embodiment, the transmitting end controller and the receiving end controller are used for controlling ultrasonic waves to start transmitting and receiving at the same time so as to obtain accurate position data, the transmitting end controller and the receiving end controller are microcontrollers and can be modules such as an FPGA and an MCU, and in this embodiment, an enhanced 51-single-chip microcomputer STC12LE5612AD is selected;
the first wireless module and the third wireless sub-module may adopt a WIFI technology, a bluetooth technology, and the like, and in this embodiment, the Si4432 wireless module is adopted as the first wireless module and the third wireless sub-module.
In this embodiment, the position data is distance data between four ultrasonic receiving sub-modules and one ultrasonic transmitting sub-module, as shown in fig. 1, the landing data processing module is further configured to send specific command information with a length of 16 bits to the first wireless module and the third wireless sub-module, and receive a measured distance feedback signal, as shown in fig. 2, so as to obtain four distances S between the ultrasonic transmitting probe and the four ultrasonic receiving probes, respectively 1 、S 2 、S 3 And S 4 The position data of the unmanned aerial vehicle can be obtained by solving the spatial pyramid; therefore, in this embodiment, a landing data processing module capable of solving the spatial pyramid is provided to obtain the position data of the unmanned aerial vehicle, and specifically, the position coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle can be obtained in the landing data processing module by using a mathematical modeling calculation method; four ultrasonic receiving sub-modules and one ultrasonic transmitterThe method comprises the steps that a transmitting submodule forms a real-time space rectangular pyramid in the landing process of the unmanned aerial vehicle, a certain receiving part is set as a coordinate origin, a space rectangular coordinate system is established, the length of the bottom side of the space rectangular pyramid, namely the distance between every two of four ultrasonic receiving submodules, the length of the edge of the space rectangular pyramid, namely the four distances from an ultrasonic transmitting submodule to the four ultrasonic receiving submodules, is known, the space rectangular pyramid is converted into a geometric problem, the three-dimensional coordinate of the top point of the space rectangular pyramid, namely the three-dimensional coordinate of an ultrasonic transmitting submodule, namely the real-time three-dimensional coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle can be solved, and the real-time three-dimensional coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle is sent to a landing data processing module by using a first wireless module and a third wireless submodule.
In the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 2, the distance is S 1 The ultrasonic receiving probe establishes a space rectangular coordinate system as an origin, and S is taken 1 、S 2 And S 3 For example, the following ternary quadratic equation is presented:
Figure GDA0003691805760000111
and solving to obtain a three-dimensional coordinate Point 1 of the unmanned aerial vehicle.
Same pair S 2 、S 3 And S 4 ;S 1 、S 2 And S 4 ;S 1 、S 3 And S 4 The three sets of data can obtain three corresponding sets of coordinates Point 2, Point 3 and Point 4, and the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle can be obtained by processing the four sets of coordinates.
The four sets of coordinates can be processed by calculating a mean value, a median value and the like to obtain real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle.
In this embodiment, the real coordinate of unmanned aerial vehicle is sent to the descending control module again to the descending data processing module, ensures to revise unmanned aerial vehicle's landing gesture in real time, realizes its accurate descending.
According to the invention, through the arranged ultrasonic positioning module, the ultrasonic transmitting probe arranged on the unmanned aerial vehicle and the four ultrasonic receiving probes arranged on the ground are arranged in the ultrasonic positioning module, the transmitting probe and the receiving probes are matched to form a spatial pyramid in the space, and the spatial pyramid is solved to realize the accurate positioning of the unmanned aerial vehicle, so that the accurate control of the landing process of the unmanned aerial vehicle is realized.
Optionally, the landing data processing module includes a data processing controller, and a second wireless sub-module and a first LoRa wireless communication sub-module connected to the data processing controller;
the second wireless sub-module is used for being connected with the first wireless module and the second wireless sub-module in the ultrasonic wave sending sub-module and receiving the position data;
the data processing controller is used for obtaining the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle according to the position data;
first loRa wireless communication submodule piece is used for being connected with descending control module, sends unmanned aerial vehicle true coordinate for descending control module.
In this embodiment, the landing data processing module is equivalent to a data transfer station, the four position data collected in the one-transmission four-reception ultrasonic positioning module are received into the data processing controller by using the second wireless sub-module, and the data processing controller calculates the four position data to obtain the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle; and then, the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle are sent to the landing control module by utilizing the first LoRa wireless communication submodule.
In this embodiment, the data processing controller may adopt a 51-series single chip microcomputer, an STM 32-series single chip microcomputer, and the like, and preferably selects an STM32F103 single chip microcomputer as the data processing controller; the second wireless transmission module can adopt a bluetooth module, a WIFI module and the like, and preferably, a Si4432 wireless module is selected as the second wireless transmission module.
Optionally, the landing control module includes a landing control processor and a second LoRa wireless communication sub-module;
the second LoRa wireless communication submodule is used for being connected with the first LoRa wireless communication submodule and receiving the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle;
the landing control processor is used for controlling the unmanned aerial vehicle to land on the landing platform 1 according to the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle.
In this embodiment, the landing control treater chooses the STM32 singlechip for use, triggers after receiving unmanned aerial vehicle real coordinate by second LoRa wireless communication submodule, and the landing control treater stops to catch the PWM signal of unmanned aerial vehicle receiver output this moment, and wherein traditional unmanned aerial vehicle data flow is to: the operator operates the remote controller → the unmanned aerial vehicle receiver → the unmanned aerial vehicle flies to control → four electric controls → four motors. The unmanned aerial vehicle receiver is used for receiving (in a 2.4G communication mode) an instruction of an operator for operating each rocker of the remote controller to swing, converting the instruction into a pwm (pulse wave) signal with changed posture of the unmanned aerial vehicle, and transmitting the pwm signal to the unmanned aerial vehicle flight control, wherein the pwm signal is converted into a new pwm signal by the unmanned aerial vehicle flight control, transmitted to each electric controller and transmitted to each motor, for example, if the operator operates the remote controller to enable the unmanned aerial vehicle to ascend, the operator can toggle a channel III of the remote controller, and at the moment, the unmanned aerial vehicle receiver receives the change of the channel III signal, the unmanned aerial vehicle receiver can generate the corresponding pwm signal according to the channel III change quantity, the pwm signal is transmitted to the flight control to tell that the flight control needs to ascend, and the flight control generates the new pwm signal to accelerate the rotating speed of four propellers; and temporarily to the PWM signal of unmanned aerial vehicle output level suspension stop flight state, the descending control treater confirms unmanned aerial vehicle positional information according to unmanned aerial vehicle true coordinate in real time to correspond PWM signal auxiliary control unmanned aerial vehicle to unmanned aerial vehicle output and in time revise the flight gesture, finally slowly descend to landing platform body on, stop output PWM signal afterwards.
Optionally, the upper surface of the landing platform 1 is further provided with a wireless charging module 2, and the wireless charging module 2 is located in the center of the landing platform 1.
In the embodiment, the landing platform 1 is a landing plane after the unmanned aerial vehicle lands, the devices and the connecting lines are arranged on the back of the landing platform, and four small circular holes 3 with the diameter of 3cm are arranged on the landing platform 1 and used for mounting four ultrasonic receiving probes; and the large round hole 4 with the diameter of 20cm is used for installing the wireless charging module 2. The four ultrasonic receiving probes are embedded under the small round holes 3 of the landing platform 1, and are exposed through the small round holes 3, and meanwhile, the four ultrasonic receiving probes and the landing platform are ensured to be in the same horizontal plane.
In a preferred embodiment, the center of the small round hole 3 forms a square with a known side length L, and the center of the large round hole 4 coincides with the center of the square formed by the centers of the small round holes 3 and is covered by an insulating material.
For the convenience of calculation, four ultrasonic receiving probes are combined into a square, so that the calculation steps can be simplified when the pyramid is calculated to determine the position of the drone.
In addition, wireless module 2 that charges includes transmitting coil and external power source, and transmitting coil passes through DC power supply and is connected the power supply with external power source, and transmitting coil installs in big round hole 4, and transmitting coil top covers there is insulating material.
In this embodiment, the wireless charging module 2 adopts a wireless charging module supporting 12V power supply 12V and 2A output provided by xinkotai, and its specific parameters are: the chip adopts XKT 801-11; a transmitting coil: the inner diameter is 70mm, the outer diameter is 88mm, and the thickness is 1.3 mm; the receiving coil has the inner diameter of 70mm, the outer diameter of 83mm, the thickness of 1.3mm and the receiving distance of 8-18 mm.
In this embodiment, through the wireless module of charging that sets up, can carry out wireless charging to descending back unmanned aerial vehicle, realized the timely replenishment to the unmanned aerial vehicle energy.
Example two
The utility model provides a control method of unmanned aerial vehicle landing device for utilize unmanned aerial vehicle landing device in embodiment one to carry out landing control to unmanned aerial vehicle, four ultrasonic receiving probe constitute a square, four ultrasonic receiving probe be first ultrasonic receiving probe, second ultrasonic receiving probe, third ultrasonic receiving probe and ultrasonic receiving probe respectively.
In the present embodiment, for the sake of simple calculation, four ultrasonic receiving probes are combined into a square, and the four ultrasonic receiving probes are respectively located at four corners of the square.
The control method is executed according to the following steps:
step 1, when the unmanned aerial vehicle starts to return and falls into a space above a landing platform 1 and is vertically projected by the landing platform 1, setting the current time T to be 1;
in the embodiment, the unmanned aerial vehicle to be landed arrives at the airspace near the landing point, the unmanned aerial vehicle does not start to descend at the moment, only the unmanned aerial vehicle returns to the space above the landing platform and receives the real coordinate value, then the attitude adjustment of the unmanned aerial vehicle is controlled by the landing control module, the general landing algorithm is that the unmanned aerial vehicle flies to the space right above the center of the landing platform firstly, then vertical landing is carried out, the unmanned aerial vehicle is positioned at each moment, the accurate position is obtained, and then the motion of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the next moment is controlled,
in the present embodiment, the current time T is set to 1 from the start of the control landing.
Step 2, at the current time T, obtaining four position data between the four ultrasonic receiving probes and the ultrasonic transmitting probe, wherein the four position data are respectively a first distance value S between a first ultrasonic receiving probe and the ultrasonic transmitting probe 1 A second distance value S between a second ultrasonic receiving probe and the ultrasonic transmitting probe 2 A third distance value S between a third ultrasonic receiving probe and the ultrasonic transmitting probe 3 And a third distance value S between a fourth ultrasonic wave receiving probe and the ultrasonic wave transmitting probe 4
In the present embodiment, when T is 1, four pieces of position data between the four ultrasonic receiving probes and the ultrasonic transmitting probe are acquired;
step 3, obtaining four groups of unmanned aerial vehicle initial coordinates at the current time T according to the four position data, wherein the four groups of unmanned aerial vehicle initial coordinates are respectively first initial coordinates (x) 1 ,y 1 ,z 1 ) Second initial coordinate (x) 2 ,y 2 ,z 2 ) Third initial coordinate (x) 3 ,y 3 ,z 3 ) And a fourth initial coordinate (x) 4 ,y 4 ,z 4 ):
Figure GDA0003691805760000161
Wherein, L is a distance value between two adjacent ultrasonic receiving probes;
in this embodiment, when T ═ 1 is obtained by solving a spatial rectangular pyramid, four sets of initial coordinates of the drones are obtained.
Step 4, processing the initial coordinates of the four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T to obtain the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T;
in this step, the processing of the initial coordinates of the four sets of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T may be an average value, and the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles are as follows:
Figure GDA0003691805760000162
or the median value of the initial coordinates of four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T can be obtained, namely the median value of 4 groups of real coordinates is selected as the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles.
And 5, sending the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the current time T to a landing control module, controlling the unmanned aerial vehicle to descend by using a landing algorithm, enabling T to be T +1, returning to the step 2 until the unmanned aerial vehicle lands on the landing platform 1, and ending.
In the embodiment, the positioning of the unmanned aerial vehicle is indirectly obtained by solving the spatial pyramid, so that the accurate positioning of the unmanned aerial vehicle is realized, and the accurate control of the landing process of the unmanned aerial vehicle is realized;
in this embodiment, obtain the unmanned aerial vehicle real coordinate when current moment T, treat that the descending unmanned aerial vehicle is high hover at first, descend control module to handle the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle of real-time receipt after, constantly revise unmanned aerial vehicle flight attitude, on the supplementary control unmanned aerial vehicle slowly descends to the landing platform body, accomplish unmanned aerial vehicle recovery process.
In the invention, in order to further improve the positioning accuracy, a method of solving the mean value after removing the coordinate with the maximum deviation is adopted to obtain the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle.
Optionally, the processing the initial coordinates of the four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T to obtain the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T includes:
when T is less than or equal to 3, directly carrying out mean value processing on the initial coordinates of the four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current moment T to obtain the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the current moment T;
in this embodiment, when T is less than or equal to 3, the real coordinates of the drone at the current time T are obtained by using the method of mean processing, that is, when T is 1, 2, or 3, the real coordinates of the drone are obtained by using the method of mean processing.
When T >3, obtain the unmanned aerial vehicle true coordinate when current moment T, specifically include:
in this step, the interval time of adjacent transient states in the landing process is t, the time t can be controlled by the emission time interval of the ultrasonic emission probe, the transmission time of the ultrasonic wave from the ultrasonic emission end to the ultrasonic receiving end is ignored, and t is approximately equal to 200ms > t Ultrasonic transmission . The interval time of the T-1 th moment and the T th moment of the initial coordinates of the four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles respectively corresponds to
Figure GDA0003691805760000171
Step A, obtaining the distance between the initial coordinates of four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current moment T and the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the last moment T-1 to obtain four groups of coarse spacing distances;
and step B, obtaining a standard distance D between the current time T and the last time T-1 unmanned aerial vehicle coordinate by adopting a formula I, wherein the unit is m:
D=(v T-2 +a T-3 t) × t formula I
Wherein v is T-2 The unit is m/s, which is the average speed of the unmanned aerial vehicle in the interval between the T-2 moment and the T-3 moment; a is a T-3 The unit of the acceleration of the unmanned aerial vehicle is m in two intervals of the T-3 moment and the T-2 moment and the T-1 moment 2 S; t is the time between the current time T and the last time T-1, and the unit is s;
step C, calculating the difference values between the four groups of coarse spacing distances and the standard distance D to obtain four groups of difference values, wherein the unit is m;
d, arranging the four groups of difference values from small to large according to the numerical values, and selecting initial coordinates of the three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T corresponding to the previous three difference values as intermediate coordinates of the three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T;
and E, carrying out mean value processing on the intermediate coordinates of the three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T to obtain the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T.
The real coordinates of each moment in the whole process of unmanned aerial vehicle landing are calculated as follows:
to T1, 2, 3 moments, the three-dimensional coordinate is solved the mean value by four unmanned aerial vehicle initial coordinates that "send out four receipts" ultrasonic positioning module measured and is obtained, promptly:
Figure GDA0003691805760000181
Figure GDA0003691805760000182
Figure GDA0003691805760000183
wherein (x) 1 ,y 1 ,z 1 ) Express that T is the real coordinate of unmanned plane at moment 1, (x) 2 ,y 2 ,z 2 ) Express T ═ 2 time unmanned aerial vehicle real coordinate, (x) 3 ,y 3 ,z 3 ) The real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the moment T-3 are expressed,
Figure GDA0003691805760000191
the 1 st set of drone initial coordinates at time T-1,
Figure GDA0003691805760000192
the 2 nd set of drone initial coordinates at time T-1,
Figure GDA0003691805760000193
indicating time T equal to 1A 3 rd set of drone initial coordinates,
Figure GDA0003691805760000194
the 4 th group of unmanned aerial vehicle initial coordinates represent the moment T-1;
Figure GDA0003691805760000195
the 1 st set of drone initial coordinates at time T-2,
Figure GDA0003691805760000196
… …, namely, the superscript represents the time T, T starts from 1, the number of the superscripts is unlimited until the time value of the unmanned aerial vehicle landing, the subscript represents the group number of the initial coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle, and the 4 subscript numbers are totally 4 from the 1 st group to the 4 th group;
for the real positions of the unmanned aerial vehicle at three moments of T1, 2 and 3, two spacing distances can be obtained between every two moments, and the spacing distances dl between the real positions of the unmanned aerial vehicle between the moment of T2 and the moment of T1 are respectively 1 And the spacing distance dl between the real positions of the unmanned aerial vehicle between the moment T (3) and the moment T (2) 2
Figure GDA0003691805760000197
Figure GDA0003691805760000198
According to spacing distance dl 1 And a spacing distance dl 2 The average speed v of the drone between the time T2 and the time T1 can be calculated respectively 1 And the average speed v of the drone between the time T3 and the time T2 2
Figure GDA0003691805760000199
Figure GDA00036918057600001910
According to the average speed v 1 And an average velocity v 2 The acceleration a of the drone between the time T1 and the time T3 can be calculated 1
Figure GDA0003691805760000201
Starting from the moment T-4, the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the subsequent moment does not only use a mean value processing method, and the method specifically comprises the following steps:
when T is 4 moments, four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles initial coordinates are obtained, and the four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles initial coordinates are respectively first initial coordinates
Figure GDA0003691805760000202
Second initial coordinate
Figure GDA0003691805760000203
Third initial coordinate
Figure GDA0003691805760000204
And fourth initial coordinates
Figure GDA0003691805760000205
Step A, calculating a coarse spacing distance between the initial coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the moment T being 4 and the real coordinate at the moment T being 3 by using the initial coordinates of four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles:
Figure GDA0003691805760000206
wherein the content of the first and second substances,
Figure GDA0003691805760000207
setting a first coarse spacing distance between the initial coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the moment T-4 and the real coordinate at the moment T-3;
Figure GDA0003691805760000208
setting a second rough spacing distance between the unmanned aerial vehicle initial coordinate at the moment T-4 and the real coordinate at the moment T-3;
Figure GDA0003691805760000209
a third coarse separation distance between the unmanned aerial vehicle initial coordinate at the moment T-4 and the real coordinate at the moment T-3,
Figure GDA00036918057600002010
and a fourth coarse spacing distance between the unmanned aerial vehicle initial coordinate at the moment T being 4 and the real coordinate at the moment T being 3.
And step B, obtaining a standard distance D (v) between the current time T and the last time T-1 unmanned aerial vehicle coordinate by adopting a formula I 2 +a 1 t) × t, wherein v 2 The speed of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the moment T-2 is in m/s,
Figure GDA00036918057600002011
a 1 the acceleration of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the moment T1 is expressed in m 2 /s,
Figure GDA0003691805760000211
Step C, subtracting the four groups of coarse spacing distances obtained in the step A from the standard distance D obtained in the step B;
d, selecting initial coordinates of three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the moment T which is 4 and corresponding to three difference values with the minimum numerical values as intermediate coordinates of the three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current moment T;
the three spacing distances with the smallest difference are set as
Figure GDA0003691805760000212
The corresponding three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles have initial coordinates of
Figure GDA0003691805760000213
And
Figure GDA0003691805760000214
and E, carrying out mean value processing on the intermediate coordinates of the three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T to obtain the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T.
In this embodiment, the real coordinates of the drone at time T-4 are:
Figure GDA0003691805760000215
for the time T equal to 5, the method for obtaining the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle is the same as that for the time T equal to 4, so that the process for obtaining the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the current time T can be obtained, where T is greater than 3:
step A, calculating the distance between the initial coordinates of four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T and the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the previous time T-1 to obtain four groups of coarse spacing distances;
Figure GDA0003691805760000216
wherein (x) T-1 ,y T-1 ,z T-1 ) Is the real coordinate of the unmanned plane at the last time T-1,
Figure GDA0003691805760000217
is the first initial coordinate at the current time T,
Figure GDA0003691805760000218
is the second initial coordinate at the current time T,
Figure GDA0003691805760000219
is the third initial coordinate at the current time T,
Figure GDA0003691805760000221
is the fourth initial coordinate at the current time T.
And step B, obtaining a standard distance D between the coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the current moment T and the coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the previous moment T-1 by adopting a formula I:
D=(v T-2 +a T-3 t) × t formula I
Wherein v is T-2 The average speed of the unmanned aerial vehicle in the interval between the T-2 moment and the T-3 moment is in the unit of m/s; a is T-3 The unit of the acceleration of the unmanned aerial vehicle is m in two intervals of T-3 moment and T-2 moment and T-1 moment 2 S; t is the time between the current time T and the last time T-1, and the unit is s;
average speed v of unmanned aerial vehicle in interval of T-2 time and T-3 time T-2 The distance between the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the time of T-2 and the time of T-3 is divided by the time T to obtain the distance; acceleration a of the unmanned aerial vehicle in two intervals of T-3 moment and T-2 moment and T-1 moment T-3 And the difference between the speed of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the time of T-3 and the time of T-2 and the speed of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the time of T-2 and the time of T-1 is divided by the time T to obtain the speed.
Step C, calculating the difference between the four groups of coarse spacing distances and the standard distance D to obtain four groups of difference values;
d, arranging the four groups of difference values from large to small according to the numerical values, and selecting initial coordinates of the three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T corresponding to the previous three difference values as intermediate coordinates of the three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T;
and E, carrying out mean value processing on the intermediate coordinates of the three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T to obtain the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T.
In this embodiment, the three spacing distances with the smallest difference are set as
Figure GDA0003691805760000222
Carrying out mean value processing on the three groups of initial coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles corresponding to the three spacing distances to obtain more accurate three-dimensional coordinates which are used as real coordinates (x) of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the time T T ,y T ,z T ):
Figure GDA0003691805760000231
The real coordinate calculation method provided in this embodiment utilizes a real coordinate calculation mode of the unmanned aerial vehicle that removes coordinate values with large fluctuation and calculates an average value, the four coarse coordinate values obtained first are a multi-data description of the unmanned aerial vehicle selecting different receiver combinations in the same state, these four coordinate raw values are themselves more accurate than a single coordinate description for a variety of reasons such as sensor errors, calculation errors (due to rounding off or direct rounding off of variables in the code as they are saved), environmental factors, the screening of the four coordinate coarse values is to reasonably estimate and compare the subsequent coordinate values by utilizing the continuity of the flight state in the landing process of the unmanned aerial vehicle, the average value of the three coordinate coarse values with the minimum error, namely, the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle can reflect the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle to obtain the accurate real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle.

Claims (4)

1. A control method of an unmanned aerial vehicle landing device is characterized by being used for landing control of an unmanned aerial vehicle by using the unmanned aerial vehicle landing device;
the unmanned aerial vehicle landing device comprises a landing platform (1) arranged on the ground, a landing control module arranged on the unmanned aerial vehicle, a landing data processing module connected with the landing platform (1) and an ultrasonic positioning module;
the ultrasonic positioning module is connected with the landing data processing module and is used for acquiring position data of the unmanned aerial vehicle in the landing process; the landing data processing module is connected with the landing control module and used for obtaining the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle according to the position data; the landing control module is used for controlling the unmanned aerial vehicle to land on the landing platform (1) according to the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle;
the ultrasonic positioning module comprises an ultrasonic transmitting submodule installed on the unmanned aerial vehicle and an ultrasonic receiving submodule arranged on the landing platform (1); the ultrasonic transmitting submodule comprises an ultrasonic transmitting probe, a transmitting end controller and a third wireless submodule; the ultrasonic receiving submodule comprises four ultrasonic receiving probes, a receiving end controller and a first wireless submodule; the ultrasonic transmitting probe is respectively connected with the four ultrasonic receiving probes and is used for acquiring position data of the unmanned aerial vehicle in the landing process; the third wireless sub-module and the first wireless sub-module are respectively connected with a landing data processing module and used for sending the position data to the landing data processing module; the four ultrasonic receiving probes form a square, and the four ultrasonic receiving probes are respectively a first ultrasonic receiving probe, a second ultrasonic receiving probe, a third ultrasonic receiving probe and a fourth ultrasonic receiving probe;
the control method is executed according to the following steps:
step 1, when the unmanned aerial vehicle starts to return and falls into a space above a landing platform (1) and is vertically projected by the landing platform (1), setting the current time T to be 1;
step 2, at the current time T, obtaining four position data between the four ultrasonic receiving probes and the ultrasonic transmitting probe, wherein the four position data are respectively a first distance value S between a first ultrasonic receiving probe and the ultrasonic transmitting probe 1 A second distance value S between a second ultrasonic receiving probe and the ultrasonic transmitting probe 2 A third distance value S between a third ultrasonic receiving probe and the ultrasonic transmitting probe 3 And a third distance value S between a fourth ultrasonic wave receiving probe and the ultrasonic wave transmitting probe 4
Step 3, obtaining four groups of unmanned aerial vehicle initial coordinates at the current time T according to the four position data, wherein the four groups of unmanned aerial vehicle initial coordinates are respectively first initial coordinates (x) 1 ,y 1 ,z 1 ) Second initial coordinate (x) 2 ,y 2 ,z 2 ) Third initial coordinate (x) 3 ,y 3 ,z 3 ) And a fourth initial coordinate (x) 4 ,y 4 ,z 4 ):
Figure FDA0003679164180000021
Wherein, L is a distance value between two adjacent ultrasonic receiving probes;
step 4, processing the initial coordinates of the four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T to obtain the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T; the method comprises the following steps:
when T is less than or equal to 3, directly carrying out mean value processing on the initial coordinates of the four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T to obtain the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T;
when T >3, obtain the unmanned aerial vehicle true coordinate when current moment T, specifically include:
step A, obtaining the distance between the initial coordinates of four groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current moment T and the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the last moment T-1 to obtain four groups of coarse spacing distances, wherein the unit is m;
and B, obtaining a standard distance D between the current time T and the last time T-1 unmanned aerial vehicle coordinate by adopting a formula I, wherein the unit is m:
D=(v T-2 +a T-3 t) × t formula I
Wherein v is T-2 The unit is m/s, which is the average speed of the unmanned aerial vehicle in the interval between the T-2 moment and the T-3 moment; a is T-3 The unit of the acceleration of the unmanned aerial vehicle is m in two intervals of the T-3 moment and the T-2 moment and the T-1 moment 2 S; t is the time between the current time T and the last time T-1, and the unit is s;
step C, calculating the difference between the four groups of coarse spacing distances obtained in the step A and the standard distance D obtained in the step B to obtain four groups of difference values, wherein the unit is m;
d, arranging the four groups of difference values from small to large according to the numerical values, and selecting initial coordinates of the three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T corresponding to the previous three difference values as intermediate coordinates of the three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T;
e, carrying out mean value processing on the intermediate coordinates of the three groups of unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T to obtain the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicles at the current time T;
and 5, sending the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle at the current moment T to a landing control module, controlling the unmanned aerial vehicle to descend by using a landing algorithm, enabling T to be T +1, returning to the step 2 until the unmanned aerial vehicle lands on the landing platform (1), and ending.
2. An unmanned aerial vehicle landing gear control method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the landing data processing module comprises a data processing controller, a second wireless sub-module and a first LoRa wireless communication sub-module, the second wireless sub-module and the first LoRa wireless communication sub-module are connected with the data processing controller;
the second wireless sub-module is used for being connected with a first wireless module and a third wireless sub-module in the ultrasonic wave sending sub-module and receiving the position data;
the data processing controller is used for obtaining real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle according to the position data;
the first LoRa wireless communication submodule is used for being connected with the landing control module and sending the real coordinate of the unmanned aerial vehicle to the landing control module.
3. An unmanned aerial vehicle landing gear control method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the landing control module comprises a landing control processor and a second LoRa wireless communication sub-module;
the second LoRa wireless communication sub-module is used for being connected with the first LoRa wireless communication sub-module and receiving the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle;
the landing control processor is used for controlling the unmanned aerial vehicle to land on the landing platform (1) according to the real coordinates of the unmanned aerial vehicle.
4. An unmanned aerial vehicle landing device control method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the upper surface of landing platform (1) is further provided with a wireless charging module (2), and the wireless charging module (2) is located at the center of landing platform (1).
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