CN110091039B - Multilayer and multichannel welding path planning method and system for single-side V-shaped groove - Google Patents

Multilayer and multichannel welding path planning method and system for single-side V-shaped groove Download PDF

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CN110091039B
CN110091039B CN201910469271.4A CN201910469271A CN110091039B CN 110091039 B CN110091039 B CN 110091039B CN 201910469271 A CN201910469271 A CN 201910469271A CN 110091039 B CN110091039 B CN 110091039B
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welding
bead
weld
welding gun
groove
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CN110091039A (en
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孙俊生
温永策
殷宪铼
高进强
卢庆亮
杨云
郝小东
崔凯
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Shandong University
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Shandong University
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/24Features related to electrodes
    • B23K9/28Supporting devices for electrodes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/32Accessories
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J11/00Manipulators not otherwise provided for
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1656Programme controls characterised by programming, planning systems for manipulators
    • B25J9/1664Programme controls characterised by programming, planning systems for manipulators characterised by motion, path, trajectory planning

Abstract

The utility model provides a multilayer and multichannel welding path planning method and system for a single-side V-shaped groove, comprising the following steps: modeling weld bead arrangement of a right-side V-shaped groove angle joint; the weld bead planning adopts an equal-height filling strategy, the cross section of a bottoming weld bead is fitted in a right-angled triangle manner, the first weld bead of each layer of the second layer and above is fitted in a right-angled trapezoid manner, the last weld bead is fitted in a trapezoid manner, and the rest weld beads are fitted in a rhombus manner; determining the number of layers and tracks of the single-side V-shaped groove welding, the position of a welding gun, the inclination angle of the welding gun and the swing amplitude of the welding gun; and planning a path based on the determined welding gun posture, and realizing multilayer and multi-channel welding of the single-side V-shaped groove. The method establishes a multilayer multi-pass welding path planning model aiming at the single-side V-shaped groove, requires a user to determine the heights of a backing weld bead and a filling weld bead, and can calculate the position, the posture, the swing amplitude, welding process parameters and other results of a welding gun by using the model.

Description

Multilayer and multichannel welding path planning method and system for single-side V-shaped groove
Technical Field
The disclosure relates to the technical field of welding, in particular to a method and a system for planning a multilayer and multichannel welding path of a single-side V-shaped groove.
Background
Mechanization and intellectualization become the mainstream of the development of the processing and manufacturing industry. Along with the increase of cost of labor in recent years, the reduction of robot price and the increase of flexibility demand have promoted industrial robot's demand greatly, and the robot becomes current important industrial production mode, consequently uses welding robot to replace artificial production to become the first scheme that promotes production efficiency and product quality.
In robotics, a path includes the position and pose of a robotic tool. For a welding robot, the planning of the welding path involves determining both the position of the tip of the welding gun and the inclination of the welding gun. The position and the posture of the welding gun are closely related to the shape of the welding seam. The prior art comprises the following steps: and describing the pose of a welding gun coordinate system by using the label points, and further establishing a robot tool coordinate system at the tail end of the welding gun, wherein the z axis is overlapped with the central axis of the welding gun and points to the inside of the welding gun, and the pointing direction of the z axis is the posture of the welding gun. And simultaneously, further providing a formula for calculating the inclination angle of the welding gun so as to prevent the welding gun from colliding with the groove, and finally completing the path planning of multilayer multi-pass welding by taking the angular bisector position of the attitude of the welding gun at the angle formed by the connecting line of the welding point and two top points of the section of the groove.
There are also in the prior art: for the trapezoidal welding bead, the inclination angle of the welding gun is 0 degree, the welding gun is positioned on the trapezoidal perpendicular bisector, for the parallelogram welding bead, the welding gun needs to be inclined, the welding gun is positioned on the perpendicular bisector of the long side of the parallelogram, and the influence of the inclination angle and the swing of the welding gun on the forming of the welding bead section is verified on the basis. And the position and the posture of the welding bead label point are determined by establishing a mathematical model, so that the planning of a multilayer and multi-pass welding path is realized.
There are also in the prior art: and determining a transformation matrix among a welding bead coordinate system, a welding wire coordinate system, a welding gun coordinate system and a robot tail end coordinate system based on the kinematics of the robot, and planning the track of the unknown welding bead according to the track of the known welding bead on the basis of the transformation matrix. And a welding bead coordinate system is established on the cross section of the groove, and a transformation matrix of the welding bead position and the welding gun posture is determined through mathematical derivation, so that the welding path planning is completed.
A cutter head of a shield tunneling machine belongs to thick plate and extra-thick plate welding structural parts, manual welding is generally adopted at present, the welding quality stability is poor, and the production efficiency is low. Therefore, it is considered to use robot welding instead of manual welding. However, the current robot welder for thick plates and extra-thick plates has poor self-adaptive capability, and a plurality of problems still exist in the multi-layer multi-pass welding application of the thick plates and the extra-thick plates. The prior art for welding path planning is not completely suitable for multilayer multi-pass welding application of thick plates and extra-thick plates.
Disclosure of Invention
The purpose of the embodiments of the present specification is to provide a method for planning a multilayer multi-pass welding path of a single-sided V-groove, which establishes a multilayer multi-pass welding path planning model, requires a user to determine the height of a bottoming pass and a filling pass, and can calculate the position, posture, swing amplitude, welding process parameters, and other results of a welding gun by using the model.
The embodiment of the specification provides a multilayer and multichannel welding path planning method for a single-side V-shaped groove, which is realized by the following technical scheme:
the method comprises the following steps:
modeling weld bead arrangement of a right-side V-shaped groove angle joint;
the weld bead planning adopts an equal-height filling strategy, the cross section of the bottoming weld bead is fitted by a right-angled triangle, the first weld bead of each layer is fitted by a right-angled trapezoid, the last weld bead is fitted by a trapezoid, and the other weld beads are fitted by diamonds;
determining the number of layers and tracks of the single-side V-shaped groove welding, the position of a welding gun, the inclination angle of the welding gun and the swing amplitude of the welding gun;
and planning a path based on the determined welding gun posture, and realizing multilayer and multi-channel welding of the single-side V-shaped groove.
Further technical scheme, open the welding bead of unilateral V type groove angle joint on the right side and arrange and model, specifically do:
each layer adopts a welding sequence from left to right, the thickness of a base metal plate on the right side is set as t, the groove angle is set as theta, and a coordinate system is established by taking the root of the groove as an original point;
setting the height of the backing weld bead as hdThe height of each welding bead on the second layer and above is h;
the length of the bottom edge of the right trapezoid is equal to the length of the hypotenuse, and the right trapezoid is regarded as a part of a rhombus;
setting the area of the backing weld bead as SzsThe right-angle trapezoidal welding bead area is SztThe area of the diamond bead is SrThe trapezoidal welding bead area is St
The central line of the welding gun of the bottoming welding bead is positioned on a bevel bisector, the central line of the welding gun of the diamond welding bead is positioned on a perpendicular bisector of a long diagonal of the diamond, and the right trapezoid is regarded as a part of the diamond, so that the central line of the welding gun of the right trapezoid welding bead is positioned on the perpendicular bisector of the long diagonal of the imaginary diamond, and the central line of the welding gun of the trapezoid welding bead is superposed with the central line of the trapezoid;
setting the inclination angle of welding gun for backing welding at αzsThe inclination angle of the welding gun of the right-angle trapezoidal welding bead is αztThe inclination angle of the welding gun with the diamond-shaped welding bead is αr
According to the further technical scheme, when the number of layers and the number of tracks are determined, the path of the single-side V-shaped groove at the bottom is planned, and the thickness t of the base metal plate at the right side and the height h of a bottoming weld bead are calculateddAnd filling the height h of the weld bead, and calculating the total number of layers n required for filling the notch according to the formula (1):
according to a further technical scheme, when n is not an integer, in order to ensure that the groove is filled, the minimum integer n which is greater than the calculation result of the formula (1) is takenzCorrecting the layer height of the welding seam, and taking the corrected layer height as hz, hzCalculated from equation (2):
setting the number of welding layers as i, the total sectional area S of the welding seam of the ith layeriComprises the following steps:
in the formula i ∈ [2, nz];
The area of the right-angle triangular welding bead is as follows:
the length of the bottom side of the right-angle trapezoid welding bead is consistent with the side length of the diamond welding bead, and the length l and the area S of the bottom side of the right-angle trapezoid welding bead areztRespectively as follows:
area S of diamond beadrComprises the following steps:
calculating [ (S)i-Szt)/Sr]The ratio Q of (A) is obtained by recording the integer part of Q as N, the decimal part as C, the number of the right-angled trapezoidal and rhombic welding passes is determined according to the decimal C, and if C is larger than or equal to a critical value, the number of the right-angled trapezoidal and rhombic welding passes is riN +1, the final trapezoidal bead area is assumed to be St=C*SrIf C is<Critical value, the number of right trapezoid and diamond welding bead is riN, the final trapezoidal bead area is St=(C+1)*Sr. According to the test results, when the critical value is 0.4, the bead formation is good.
According to the further technical scheme, the position of the welding gun is determined: the position of the welding gun is the position of the welding gun in a coordinate system of the cross section of the groove, namely an arc starting point coordinate;
let y be the abscissa and the ordinate of the ith weld passij、zij
The abscissa and ordinate of the arc starting point of the backing weld bead are respectively as follows: y is11=0,z11=0;
For the welding layer above the backing weld, the abscissa of each layer except the last trapezoidal welding bead is as follows:
in the formula i ∈ [2, nz],j∈[1,ri];
The abscissa of the last trapezoidal bead of the ith layer is:
in the formula i ∈ [2, nz],j=ri+1;
The ordinate of the ith weld bead is:
zij=hd+(i-2)hz(10)
in the formula i ∈ [2, nz],j∈[1,ri+1];
According to a further technical scheme, the inclination angle of the welding gun is planned, namely for the backing weld bead, the central line of the welding gun is positioned on a groove angle bisector, so that the inclination angle α of the welding gun of the backing weld beadzsComprises the following steps:
in the further technical scheme, when welding the right-angle trapezoidal welding bead and the rhombic welding bead, the inclination angle α of the welding gun needs to be plannedztAnd αrSo that the welding gun is positioned on the midperpendicular of the rhombus to obtain αztAnd αrThe values of (A) are:
in the formula, theta is the bevel angle.
In a further technical scheme, in order to ensure the accessibility of the welding gun of the bottom welding bead, whether the welding gun touches the side wall of the groove needs to be judged, a touch model is established, a z value of a vertical coordinate is solved, and the welding gun can be prevented from touching a weldment as long as the thickness t of the plate meets t < z.
In a further technical scheme, the step of establishing the touch model comprises the following steps: simplifying the welding wire, the contour edge of the nozzle of the welding gun and the edge of the groove into three lines, wherein the three lines are ls、lb、lrLet a straight line lsAnd lbSlope kbStraight line lrSlope krRadius of nozzle of welding gun is rq
According to the geometric relationship, lbAt an angle of y-axislrAn angle of 90-theta with the y-axis, then the slope kbSlope krRespectively as follows:
kr=tan(90°-θ) (14)
when in useI.e. theta>When the angle is 30 degrees, the plate can not touch the wall no matter how thick the plate is;
if theta<30 DEG, a straight line l can be obtainedrThe equation of (a) is:
z=tan(90°-θ)y (15)
straight line l of welding wiresThe equation is:
from the functional relationship, a straight line l can be obtainedbThe equation of (a) is:
combining the vertical type (15) with the formula (17), solving a value of a vertical coordinate z, and avoiding the contact between a welding gun and a weldment as long as the thickness t of the plate satisfies t < z;
coordinates (0, z) of arc starting point of the bottommost rectangular trapezoid welding beadi1) Substituting formula (16) to obtain an intercept b value of:
b=zi1(18)
and (3) combining equations of the formula (15) and the formula (17), substituting the equation into the value b to obtain the ordinate z of the intersection point of the two straight lines as follows:
the welding gun cannot touch the weldment as long as t < z is met.
According to the further technical scheme, the welding gun swing planning step comprises the following steps:
in the unilateral V groove, because it is close to the groove lateral wall to the right trapezoid welding bead, can not adopt swing welding in order to prevent welder touching side wall, and to the trapezoid welding bead, its swing R is calculated by formula (20) and is confirmed:
in the formula, theta is the bevel angle, i is the current welding layer number, and hzHeight of the weld layer, hdFor the backing weld height, riFor the number of diamond passes of the current weld pass, m is a correction factor that takes into account the weld pool shape.
The embodiment of the specification provides a multilayer and multichannel welding path planning system for a single-side V-shaped groove, which is realized by the following technical scheme:
the method comprises the following steps:
a model building module configured to: modeling weld bead arrangement of a right-side V-shaped groove angle joint;
the weld bead planning adopts an equal-height filling strategy, the cross section of the bottoming weld bead is fitted by a right-angled triangle, the first weld bead of each layer is fitted by a right-angled trapezoid, the last weld bead is fitted by a trapezoid, and the other weld beads are fitted by diamonds;
a path planning module configured to: determining the number of layers and tracks of the single-side V-shaped groove welding, the position of a welding gun, the inclination angle of the welding gun and the swing amplitude of the welding gun;
and planning a path based on the determined welding gun posture, and realizing multilayer and multichannel welding of the unilateral V-shaped groove.
A welding robot comprises a controller of the welding robot, the controller is configured to execute the steps of the one-sided V-groove multilayer multi-path welding path planning method, and controls the action of a welding gun based on the posture of the welding gun determined by the method.
Compared with the prior art, the beneficial effect of this disclosure is:
the method establishes a multilayer multi-pass welding path planning model aiming at the single-side V-shaped groove, requires a user to determine the heights of a bottoming welding pass and a filling welding pass, and can calculate the position, the posture, the swing amplitude, welding process parameters and other results of a welding gun by using the model.
The method determines the inclination angle of the welding gun, and simultaneously establishes the wall contact model of the welding gun aiming at the problem that the thick plate welding gun is easy to contact with the side wall of the groove.
The core of the equal-height filling strategy of the disclosure is equal layer height, firstly determining the height of a bottoming weld bead and a filling weld bead, determining the number of layers and the number of tracks of a filled groove, then determining the number of the weld beads on each layer by calculating the cross section area of each layer, and determining the arc starting point position of each weld bead.
Drawings
The accompanying drawings, which are included to provide a further understanding of the disclosure, are incorporated in and constitute a part of this disclosure, illustrate embodiments of the disclosure and together with the description serve to explain the disclosure and not to limit the disclosure.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a single-sided V-groove filling according to an embodiment of the disclosure;
2(a) -2 (d) are schematic diagrams of the welding gun pose and the arc starting point position of the implementation example of the disclosure;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a single-sided V-groove welding gun wall-contact model according to an embodiment of the disclosure;
FIG. 4 is a graph showing the relationship between the single-sided V-groove angle and the upper limit value of the sheet thickness according to the embodiment of the present disclosure;
fig. 5(a) -5 (b) are schematic diagrams illustrating gun swing calculation according to an embodiment of the disclosure.
Detailed Description
It should be noted that the following detailed description is exemplary and is intended to provide further explanation of the disclosure. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure belongs.
It is noted that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of example embodiments according to the present disclosure. As used herein, the singular is intended to include the plural unless the context clearly dictates otherwise, and it should be further understood that the terms "comprises" and/or "comprising," when used in this specification, specify the presence of features, steps, operations, devices, components, and/or combinations thereof.
Example of implementation 1
The embodiment discloses a multilayer and multichannel welding path planning method for a single-side V-shaped groove, which is used for modeling the weld bead arrangement of a right-side V-shaped groove corner joint;
the weld bead planning adopts an equal-height filling strategy, the cross section of a bottoming weld bead is fitted in a right-angled triangle manner, the first weld bead of each layer of the second layer and above is fitted in a right-angled trapezoid manner, the last weld bead is fitted in a trapezoid manner, and the rest weld beads are fitted in a rhombus manner;
determining the number of layers and tracks of the single-side V-shaped groove welding, the position of a welding gun, the inclination angle of the welding gun and the swing amplitude of the welding gun;
and planning a path based on the determined welding gun posture, and realizing multilayer and multi-channel welding of the single-side V-shaped groove.
In welding production, a V-groove is usually formed in butt joint of steel plates, an angle joint and a T-joint in an actual welding structure are more common, and a single-side V-groove is mostly formed for through welding in the structure, as shown in fig. 1.
The disclosed embodiment models weld bead arrangement of a right-side single-edge V-groove corner joint. In order to ensure the accessibility of the welding gun to the maximum extent, the welding sequence from left to right is adopted for each layer. Let the right base metal plate thickness be t and the bevel angle be θ, and establish the coordinate system with the origin at the bevel root as shown in FIG. 1. The weld bead planning is to adopt an equal-height filling strategy, and the height of a bottoming weld bead is set to be hdThe height of each layer of welding bead on the second layer and above is h. The transverse section of the backing weld bead is fitted by a right triangle, the first weld bead on the second layer and above each layer adopts right trapezoid fitting, the last weld bead adopts trapezoid fitting, and the rest weld beads are in rhombus shapeAnd (6) fitting. The length of the bottom side of the right trapezoid is equal to that of the oblique side, so that the right trapezoid can be regarded as a part of a rhombus, and the rhombus is an imaginary rhombus, so that subsequent planning is facilitated.
Setting the area of the backing weld bead as SzsThe right-angle trapezoidal welding bead area is SztThe area of the diamond bead is SrThe trapezoidal welding channel area is StThe center line of the welding gun of the bottoming bead is on the bisector of the bevel angle, as shown in fig. 2(a), the center line of the welding gun of the diamond-shaped bead is on the perpendicular bisector of the long diagonal of the diamond, as shown in fig. 2(c), because the right trapezoid is regarded as a part of the diamond, the center line of the welding gun of the right trapezoid bead is on the perpendicular bisector of the long diagonal of the imaginary diamond, as shown in fig. 2(b), the center line of the welding gun of the trapezoid bead is coincident with the center line of the trapezoid, as shown in fig. 2(d), and the inclination angle of the welding gun of thezsThe inclination angle of the welding gun of the right-angle trapezoidal welding bead is αztThe inclination angle of the welding gun of the diamond welding bead is αrIn fig. 2(a) -2 (d), the number indicates the position of the arcing point.
In a specific embodiment, the determination of the number of layers and the number of tracks: because of the single-sided V-groove and the top fillet weld, separate planning is required. The most applied in engineering is a flat fillet weld with a right-angled isosceles section, the size of a welding leg is K, and the flat fillet weld can be changed into a ship-shaped weld, so that the flat fillet weld can be regarded as a V-shaped groove with an angle of 90 degrees to plan a welding path of the V-shaped groove.
Planning the path of the single-side V-shaped groove at the bottom by the thickness t of the base metal plate at the right side and the height h of a bottoming weld beaddThe filling bead height h can be obtained by calculating the total number of layers n required for filling the groove according to the following formula (1):
when n is not an integer, in order to ensure that the groove can be filled, the minimum integer n which is greater than the calculation result of the formula (1) is takenzMeanwhile, when a larger integer is taken, the total cross-sectional area of the weld metal is larger than the cross-sectional area of the groove, so that the weld is raised, and therefore, the layer height of the weld needs to be corrected, and the layer height of the weld is correctedThe later layer height is taken as hz,hzCalculated from the following formula (2):
setting the number of welding layers as i, the total sectional area S of the welding seam of the ith layeriComprises the following steps:
in the formula i ∈ [2, nz]。
The area of the right-angle triangular welding bead is as follows:
the length of the bottom edge of the right-angle trapezoid welding bead is consistent with that of the diamond welding bead, and the length l of the bottom edge is equal to the area SztRespectively as follows:
diamond bead area SrComprises the following steps:
calculating [ (S)i-Szt)/Sr]The integer part of Q is marked as N, and the decimal part is marked as C. The number of right-angle trapezoidal and rhombic welding passes is determined according to decimal C, and if C is more than or equal to 0.4, the number of right-angle trapezoidal and rhombic welding passes is riN +1, the final trapezoidal bead area is assumed to be St=C*SrIf C is<0.4, the number of the right trapezoid and the rhombus welding track is riN, the final trapezoidal bead area is St=(C+1)*Sr. 0.4 is a medicineAnd (4) determining a threshold value according to a test result, and when the critical value is 0.4, forming the welding seam well.
In a specific embodiment, the determination of the position of the welding gun:
after the number of layers and the number of tracks are determined, the position of a welding gun in a groove section coordinate system, namely an arc starting point coordinate, needs to be deduced. Let y be the abscissa and the ordinate of the ith weld passij、zij
The abscissa and ordinate of the arc starting point of the backing weld bead are respectively as follows: y is11=0,z11=0。
For the welding layer above the backing weld, the abscissa of each layer except the last trapezoidal welding bead is as follows:
in the formula i ∈ [2, nz],j∈[1,ri]。
The abscissa of the last trapezoidal bead of the ith layer is:
in the formula i ∈ [2, nz],j=ri+1。
The ordinate of the ith weld bead is:
zij=hd+(i-2)hz(10)
in the formula i ∈ [2, nz],j∈[1,ri+1]。
In the specific implementation example, the welding gun inclination angle is planned as follows:
for the backing weld bead, the welding gun center line is on the bevel bisector, so the welding gun inclination α of the backing weld beadzsComprises the following steps:
to ensure the formation of the welding seam, the actual shape of the section of the welding seam is close to the fitted geometric figure as much as possibleWhen welding straight trapezoidal and rhombic welding beads, the inclination angle α of the welding gun needs to be plannedztAnd αrSo that the welding gun is on the perpendicular of the long diagonal of the diamond, as shown in fig. 2(b) and 2(c) a mathematical derivation can be found, αztAnd αrThe values of (A) are:
in the formula, theta is the bevel angle.
Similarly, in order to ensure the accessibility of the welding gun of the bottom welding bead, whether the welding gun touches the groove side wall needs to be judged. Simplifying the welding wire, the contour edge and the groove edge of the nozzle of the welding gun into three lines, wherein the three lines are ls、lb、lr. Let a straight line lsAnd lbSlope kbStraight line lrSlope krRadius of nozzle of welding gun is rqAs shown in fig. 3.
According to the geometric relationship, lbAt an angle of y-axislrAt an angle of 90-theta to the y-axis, the slope kbSlope krRespectively as follows:
kr=tan(90°-θ) (14)
when in useI.e. theta>At 30 DEG, the sheet does not collide with the wall regardless of the thickness of the sheet. If theta<At 30 deg., as shown in FIG. 3, a coordinate system is established and a straight line l is obtainedrThe equation of (a) is:
z=tan(90°-θ)y (15)
straight line l of welding wiresThe equation is:
from the functional relationship, a straight line l can be obtainedbThe equation of (a) is:
the vertical coordinate z value is obtained by combining the vertical type (15) and the formula (17) as long as the sheet thickness t satisfies t<z, the welding gun can be prevented from touching the weldment. Coordinates (0, z) of arc starting point of the bottommost rectangular trapezoid welding beadi1) Substituting formula (16) to obtain an intercept b value of:
b=zi1(18)
and (3) combining equations of the formula (15) and the formula (17), substituting the value b to obtain the ordinate z of the intersection point of the two straight lines as follows:
as long as t is satisfied<The z torch does not touch the groove sidewall. Similarly, assuming a torch tip radius of 10mm, at the first diamond pass coordinate zi1When the values were different, a graph was drawn showing the relationship between the bevel angle and the upper limit value of the plate thickness, as shown in fig. 4.
As can be seen from FIG. 4, the single V groove weld requires a higher z than the V groove weldi1The value can ensure that the welding gun does not touch the groove side wall. This is because the single-sided V-groove has a smaller bottom space when the bevel angle is smaller, and only the single-sided groove is formed to cause the welding gun to be closer to the groove side wall in the horizontal direction, so that a higher z is requiredi1The value is obtained.
In a specific embodiment, the torch excursion planning:
in the single-side V groove, referring to fig. 5(a), the swing of the diamond bead can be calculated and determined according to equation (21), and only for the right trapezoid bead, since it is close to the groove side wall, swing welding may not be adopted to prevent the welding gun from touching the side wall. For trapezoidal beads, referring to fig. 5(b), the swing R is determined by the calculation of equation (20):
in the formula, theta is the bevel angle, i is the current welding layer number, and hzHeight of the weld layer, hdFor the backing weld height, riThe number of diamond welding passes of the current welding layer is m is a correction factor considering the shape of a molten pool, and the correction factor is generally 2-3 mm.
For each diamond pass, the weld gun is located on its long diagonal mid-vertical. Because of the adoption of the rhombus fitting welding bead, the height h of the welding beadzOnce determined, the long diagonal AC length is also determined, with swing R:
in the formula, theta is a bevel angle, m is a correction factor considering the shape of the molten pool, and is generally 2-3 mm.
Example II
The embodiment of the specification provides a multilayer and multichannel welding path planning system for a single-side V-shaped groove, which is realized by the following technical scheme:
the method comprises the following steps:
a model building module configured to: modeling weld bead arrangement of a right-side V-shaped groove angle joint;
the weld bead planning adopts an equal-height filling strategy, the cross section of the bottoming weld bead is fitted by a right-angled triangle, the first weld bead of each layer is fitted by a right-angled trapezoid, the last weld bead is fitted by a trapezoid, and the other weld beads are fitted by diamonds;
a path planning module configured to: determining the number of layers and tracks of the single-side V-shaped groove welding, the position of a welding gun, the inclination angle of the welding gun and the swing amplitude of the welding gun;
and planning a path based on the determined welding gun posture, and realizing multilayer and multi-channel welding of the single-side V-shaped groove.
The specific implementation process of the module in this embodiment refers to the specific technical content of the single-side V-groove multilayer multi-pass welding path planning method in the first embodiment, and is not described in detail here.
Example III
The embodiment of the specification provides a welding robot, which comprises a controller, wherein the controller is configured to execute the steps of the one-sided V-groove multilayer multi-pass welding path planning method and control the action of a welding gun based on the posture of the welding gun determined by the method.
The specific implementation process of the method in this embodiment refers to the specific technical content of the single-side V-groove multilayer multi-pass welding path planning method in the first embodiment, and will not be described in detail here.
It is to be understood that throughout the description of the present specification, reference to the term "one embodiment", "another embodiment", "other embodiments", or "first through nth embodiments", etc., is intended to mean that a particular feature, structure, material, or characteristic described in connection with the embodiment or example is included in at least one embodiment or example of the present invention. In this specification, the schematic representations of the terms used above do not necessarily refer to the same embodiment or example. Furthermore, the particular features, structures, materials, etc. described may be combined in any suitable manner in any one or more embodiments or examples.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present disclosure and is not intended to limit the present disclosure, and various modifications and changes may be made to the present disclosure by those skilled in the art. Any modification, equivalent replacement, improvement and the like made within the spirit and principle of the present disclosure should be included in the protection scope of the present disclosure.

Claims (9)

1. The multilayer and multichannel welding path planning method for the single-side V-shaped groove is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
modeling weld bead arrangement of a right-side V-shaped groove angle joint;
the weld bead planning adopts an equal-height filling strategy, the cross section of a bottoming weld bead is fitted in a right-angled triangle manner, the first weld bead of each layer of the second layer and above is fitted in a right-angled trapezoid manner, the last weld bead is fitted in a trapezoid manner, and the rest weld beads are fitted in a rhombus manner;
determining the number of layers and tracks of the single-side V-shaped groove welding, the position of a welding gun, the inclination angle of the welding gun and the swing amplitude of the welding gun;
performing path planning based on the determined welding gun posture to realize multilayer and multi-channel welding of the single-side V-shaped groove;
planning the swing amplitude of the welding gun:
in the unilateral V groove, because it is close to the groove lateral wall to the right trapezoid welding bead, can not adopt swing welding in order to prevent welder touching side wall, and to the trapezoid welding bead, its swing R is calculated by formula (20) and is confirmed:
in the formula, theta is the bevel angle, i is the current welding layer number, and hzHeight of the weld layer, hdFor the backing weld height, riFor the number of diamond passes of the current weld pass, m is a correction factor that takes into account the weld pool shape.
2. The method for planning the multilayer and multichannel welding path of the single-sided V-groove according to claim 1, wherein the modeling of the weld bead arrangement of the right-sided V-groove corner joint is specifically as follows:
each layer adopts a welding sequence from left to right, the thickness of a base metal plate on the right side is set as t, the angle of a groove is set as theta, and a coordinate system is established by the original point of the root of the groove;
setting the height of the backing weld bead as hdThe height of each welding bead on the second layer and above is h;
the length of the bottom edge of the right-angle trapezoidal welding bead is equal to the length of the bevel edge of the right-angle trapezoidal welding bead, and the right-angle trapezoidal welding bead is regarded as a part of a diamond;
setting the area of the backing weld bead as SzsThe right-angle trapezoidal welding bead area is SztThe area of the diamond bead is SrThe trapezoidal welding bead area is St
The central line of the welding gun of the bottoming welding bead is positioned on a bevel bisector, the central line of the welding gun of the diamond welding bead is positioned on a perpendicular bisector of a long diagonal of the diamond, and the right trapezoid is regarded as a part of the diamond, so that the central line of the welding gun of the right trapezoid welding bead is positioned on the perpendicular bisector of the long diagonal of the imaginary diamond, and the central line of the welding gun of the trapezoid welding bead is superposed with the central line of the trapezoid;
setting the inclination angle of welding gun for backing welding at αzsThe inclination angle of the welding gun of the right-angle trapezoidal welding bead is αztThe inclination angle of the welding gun of the diamond welding bead is αr
3. The method for planning the multilayer and multipass welding path with single-sided V-groove as claimed in claim 1, wherein the path of the single-sided V-groove at the bottom is planned by the thickness t of the right-side base metal plate and the height h of the bottoming bead when the number of layers and the number of tracks are determineddAnd filling the weld bead height h, and calculating the total number of layers n required for filling the groove according to the formula (1):
4. the method for planning the multilayer and multichannel welding path of the single-sided V-groove according to claim 3, wherein when n is not an integer, in order to ensure that the groove is filled, the minimum integer n greater than the calculation result of the formula (1) is takenzCorrecting the layer height of the welding seam, and taking the corrected layer height as hz,hzCalculated from equation (2):
setting the number of welding layers as i, the total sectional area S of the welding seam of the ith layeriComprises the following steps:
in the formula i ∈ [2, nz];
The area of the right-angle triangular welding bead is as follows:
the length of the bottom edge of the right-angle trapezoid welding bead is consistent with that of the diamond welding bead, and the length l of the bottom edge is equal to the area SztRespectively as follows:
area S of diamond beadrComprises the following steps:
calculating [ (S)i-Szt)/Sr]The ratio Q of (A) is obtained by recording the integer part of Q as N, the decimal part as C, the number of the right-angled trapezoidal and rhombic welding passes is determined according to the decimal C, and if C is larger than or equal to a critical value, the number of the right-angled trapezoidal and rhombic welding passes is riN +1, the final trapezoidal bead area is assumed to be St=C*SrIf C is<Critical value, the number of right trapezoid and diamond welding bead is riN, the final trapezoidal bead area is St=(C+1)*SrAnd according to the test result, when the critical value is 0.4, the weld joint is better formed.
5. The method for planning the multilayer and multichannel welding path with the single-sided V-groove as claimed in claim 4, wherein the determination of the position of the welding gun comprises the following steps: the position of the welding gun is the position of the welding gun in a coordinate system of the cross section of the groove, namely an arc starting point coordinate;
let y be the abscissa and the ordinate of the ith weld passij、zij
The abscissa and ordinate of the arc starting point of the backing weld bead are respectively as follows: y is11=0,z11=0;
For the welding layer above the backing weld, the abscissa of each layer except the last trapezoidal welding bead is as follows:
in the formula i ∈ [2, nz],j∈[1,ri];
The abscissa of the last trapezoidal bead of the ith layer is:
in the formula i ∈ [2, nz],j=ri+1;
The ordinate of the ith weld bead is:
zij=hd+(i-2)hz(10)
in the formula i ∈ [2, nz],j∈[1,ri+1]。
6. The method for planning the multilayer and multipass welding path with the single-sided V-groove as claimed in claim 1, wherein the inclination angle of the welding gun is planned such that the center line of the welding gun is on the bisector of the bevel angle for the backing weld, and therefore the inclination angle of the welding gun for the backing weld is αzsComprises the following steps:
the inclination angle α of the welding gun needs to be planned when welding the right trapezoid and the diamond-shaped welding beadztAnd αrSo that the welding gun is positioned on the midperpendicular of the rhombus to obtain αztAnd αrThe values of (A) are:
in the formula, theta is the bevel angle.
7. The method for planning the multilayer and multichannel welding path of the single-sided V-groove according to claim 1, wherein in order to ensure the accessibility of the welding gun in the bottom welding bead, it is necessary to determine whether the welding gun touches the groove side wall, establish a touch model, and find the z value of the ordinate, so long as the plate thickness t satisfies t < z, the welding gun can be prevented from touching the groove side wall.
8. Unilateral V type groove multilayer multichannel welding route planning system, characterized by includes:
a model building module configured to: modeling weld bead arrangement of a right-side V-shaped groove angle joint;
the weld bead planning adopts an equal-height filling strategy, the cross section of a bottoming weld bead is fitted in a right-angled triangle manner, the first weld bead of each layer of the second layer and above is fitted in a right-angled trapezoid manner, the last weld bead is fitted in a trapezoid manner, and the rest weld beads are fitted in a rhombus manner;
a path planning module configured to: determining the number of layers and tracks of the single-side V-shaped groove welding, the position of a welding gun, the inclination angle of the welding gun and the swing amplitude of the welding gun;
performing path planning based on the determined welding gun posture to realize multilayer and multi-channel welding of the single-side V-shaped groove;
planning the swing amplitude of the welding gun:
in the unilateral V groove, because it is close to the groove lateral wall to the right trapezoid welding bead, can not adopt swing welding in order to prevent welder touching side wall, and to the trapezoid welding bead, its swing R is calculated by formula (20) and is confirmed:
in the formula, theta is the bevel angle, i is the current welding layer number, and hzHeight of the weld layer, hdFor the backing weld height, riFor the number of diamond passes of the current weld pass, m is a correction factor that takes into account the weld pool shape.
9. A welding robot comprising a controller configured to perform the steps of the method of one-sided V-groove multi-layer multi-pass welding path planning of any one of claims 1-7 and to control the motion of a welding gun based on the pose of the welding gun determined by the method.
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