CN110077281B - Charging and heating method and system for power battery of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle - Google Patents

Charging and heating method and system for power battery of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110077281B
CN110077281B CN201910363743.8A CN201910363743A CN110077281B CN 110077281 B CN110077281 B CN 110077281B CN 201910363743 A CN201910363743 A CN 201910363743A CN 110077281 B CN110077281 B CN 110077281B
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power
charging
charger
battery
heating
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CN110077281A (en
Inventor
张剑锋
陈文明
尹兴起
姜博
田成伟
张毅华
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Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co Ltd
Geely Automobile Research Institute Ningbo Co Ltd
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Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co Ltd
Geely Automobile Research Institute Ningbo Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L58/00Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • B60L58/10Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
    • B60L58/12Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries responding to state of charge [SoC]
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L58/00Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • B60L58/10Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
    • B60L58/24Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries for controlling the temperature of batteries
    • B60L58/27Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries for controlling the temperature of batteries by heating
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries

Abstract

The invention provides a charging and heating method and a charging and heating system for a power battery of a plug-in hybrid vehicle, and belongs to the technical field of hybrid vehicles. The method solves the problem that the time of the whole charging process of the vehicle power battery is prolonged at a low temperature in the prior art. A charging and heating method for a power battery of a plug-in hybrid vehicle comprises the following steps: A. starting charging; B. judging whether heating is needed; C. controlling heating; D. the heating is withdrawn. The charging and heating system comprises a vehicle controller, a relay unit, an air conditioner controller, a charging controller and a battery manager capable of acquiring continuous chargeable power of the power battery, wherein the battery manager, the charging controller and the air conditioner controller are respectively connected with the vehicle controller, and the charging controller and the relay unit are respectively connected with the battery manager. The invention can shorten the time of the whole charging process of the vehicle power battery at low temperature.

Description

Charging and heating method and system for power battery of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of hybrid vehicles, and relates to a charging and heating method and a charging and heating system for a power battery of a plug-in hybrid vehicle.
Background
The automobile technology develops along with the development of the society, and the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is a novel hybrid electric vehicle, can be externally charged, combines a traditional power system and a pure electric power system together, and makes up respective disadvantages.
The plug-in hybrid vehicle comprises a power BATTERY, a storage BATTERY, a vehicle control unit, a Charger (On-board Charger abbreviated as OBC) connected with the power supply equipment for rectifying the voltage and current output by the power supply equipment and outputting direct current, a BATTERY manager (BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM abbreviated as BMS) for acquiring the state of the power BATTERY, a DCDC converter (DCDC is direct current to direct current) for converting high-voltage direct current into low-voltage direct current and supplying power to the power equipment in the vehicle, and an air conditioning system for performing thermal management On the power BATTERY and performing thermal management in the vehicle. The charger comprises a charging controller for controlling the output power of the rectifying circuit in the charger, and the air conditioning system comprises an air conditioning controller for controlling the action of a heating part and a refrigerating part of the air conditioning system.
The power battery is a core component of a plug-in hybrid vehicle, the performance of the power battery is greatly influenced by temperature, and particularly at low temperature, the temperature of a battery core of the power battery is low, the activity of the battery core is reduced, the charging capability is weakened, and even charging cannot be carried out, so that the vehicle cannot work normally. Therefore, in the prior art, the power battery is generally subjected to thermal management, the cooling liquid is heated by a heating unit of an air conditioning system in the starting charging and charging processes, and the heated cooling liquid flows through the power battery to heat the power battery so as to raise the temperature of the power battery, so that the charging performance of the power battery is improved, the charging time is shortened, and the charging effect is improved.
The existing power battery charging and heating management method is shown in a power battery temperature control method and device with the application number of CN201710765596.8 disclosed in chinese patent, and provides that when a vehicle starts charging or in the vehicle charging process, a vehicle control unit VCU acquires temperature information of a power battery in real time, the vehicle control unit VCU compares the temperature information with a preset temperature range, and determines whether the temperature information is within the temperature range, the temperature range is determined according to an upper temperature limit, a lower temperature limit and a preset standard value required by the power battery to maintain maximum charging and discharging power, if the temperature information is not within the temperature range, the vehicle control unit VCU sends a charging stop instruction to a vehicle-mounted charger, and sends a temperature adjustment instruction to a heating and cooling system, so that the heating and cooling system adjusts the temperature of the power battery, and until the temperature information of the power battery is consistent with the left side boundary or the right side boundary of the temperature range, enabling the vehicle-mounted charger to charge the vehicle.
In the prior art, the temperature of the power battery is considered singly, but the maximum output charging power of a charger for charging the power battery is not considered, and the charger rectifies the input current and voltage of the power supply equipment and then supplies power to the power battery, so that the maximum output charging power of the charger is related to the power supply power of the power supply equipment, and the maximum output charging power of the charger is different according to different power supply powers provided by the power supply equipment. In order to improve charging efficiency, the power battery is recharged after being heated, but in the prior art, the temperature of the power battery is not high enough and the charging performance is not enough due to the fact that a fixed temperature is simply used as a heating target temperature of the power battery, and the charging power requested by a battery manager is smaller than the maximum output charging power of a charger, so that the power battery can be charged only with the requested charging power, and the charging efficiency is reduced due to the fact that the charging resource is not completely utilized. Or the power battery is heated to the temperature in the range of the maximum charge-discharge power as in the power battery temperature control method and the power battery temperature control device, although the power battery can receive input charging with high power at the moment, the power battery is heated to the temperature in the range of the maximum charge-discharge power every time of charging, the maximum output charge power of the charger is not considered, the heating temperature is too high, the charge power requested by the battery manager is far greater than the maximum output charge power of the charger, the power battery is easily damaged, the heated power battery can only work at the maximum output charge power of the current charger, excessive energy is wasted, excessive heating time is wasted, and the time of the whole charging process of the vehicle power battery is prolonged.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a charging and heating method and a charging and heating system for a power battery of a plug-in hybrid vehicle aiming at the problems in the prior art, and the method and the system solve the technical problem of shortening the time of the whole charging process of the power battery of the vehicle at low temperature.
The invention is realized by the following technical scheme: a charging and heating method for a power battery of a plug-in hybrid vehicle comprises the following steps:
A. starting charging: the charging controller calculates the maximum output charging power of the charger in real time after the power supply equipment is connected with the charger, and outputs a charging insertion signal and the maximum output charging power of the charger to the battery manager and the vehicle control unit;
B. judging whether heating is needed: the battery manager obtains the continuous chargeable power of the power battery and compares the continuous chargeable power with the received maximum output charging power of the charger, and when the continuous chargeable power of the power battery is smaller than the maximum output charging power of the charger, the battery manager judges that the power battery needs to be heated and sends a heating request;
C. heating control: the vehicle control unit receives a heating request sent by the battery manager, controls the charger to supply power to a heating unit of the air conditioning system and controls the heating unit to heat the power battery;
D. and (3) exiting heating: in the heating process, the battery manager sends a charging request to the vehicle control unit and the charging controller when comparing that the continuous chargeable power of the power battery is larger than the maximum output charging power of the charger by a preset value, and the vehicle control unit stops heating of the heating unit and controls the charger to charge the power battery with the maximum output charging power.
The charging and heating method of the power battery of the plug-in hybrid vehicle comprises the steps that after a power supply device is plugged into a charger, a charging controller of the charger obtains charging information of the power supply device and calculates the maximum output charging power of the charger in real time according to the state of the charger, a battery manager carries out comparison and judgment when the power supply device is plugged into the charger and the maximum output charging power of the charger is obtained, when the continuous chargeable power of the power battery is smaller than the maximum output charging power of the charger, the charging performance of the power battery is insufficient, the temperature of the power battery is low, at the moment, if charging is carried out, the continuous chargeable power of the power battery can only be used as the charging power, the maximum output charging power of the charger is not used, so that the charging time is prolonged due to the fact that resources are not reasonably utilized, the method does not carry out charging at, when the continuously chargeable power of the power battery is larger than the maximum output charging power of the charger by a preset value, the current power battery can completely receive the maximum output charging power of the charger for charging, the charging efficiency reaches the highest value, the time is the shortest, and therefore heating can be quitted and charging can be started at the moment.
The time of the whole charging process of the power battery of the vehicle comprises the heating time of the power battery and the charging time of the power battery, the heating is always carried out at a fixed target heating temperature in the prior art, so that the waste of heating energy and the prolonging of the heating time are caused, and the time of the whole charging process can be prolonged by the prolonging of the heating power battery, so that unnecessary waiting is caused. According to the method, whether the power battery is heated or not is judged not according to the temperature, and whether the power battery is heated or not is judged according to the maximum output charging power of a charger and the continuous chargeable power of the power battery instead of the fixed target heating temperature, so that an optimal heating mode is provided according to different power supply equipment, the power battery can be charged with the optimal charging power when the current power supply equipment supplies power under the condition that the heating time is shorter, and the time of the whole charging process of the power battery of the vehicle is shortened at low temperature.
In the charging and heating method for the power battery of the plug-in hybrid vehicle, the charging controller receives a signal sent by the power supply equipment, identifies the maximum available current of the power supply equipment, obtains the input voltage of the power supply equipment to the charger, calculates and obtains a calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger, when the calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger is smaller than the preset maximum output limiting power of the charger, the charging controller obtains the temperature of the current charger and searches a preset power attenuation table according to the obtained temperature to obtain a power attenuation value, and the charging controller subtracts the power attenuation value from the calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger to obtain the maximum output charging power of the current charger; when the calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger is larger than the preset maximum output limiting power of the charger, the charging controller acquires the current temperature of the charger and searches a preset power attenuation table according to the acquired temperature to obtain a power attenuation value, and the charging controller subtracts the power attenuation value from the maximum output limiting power of the charger to obtain the maximum output charging power of the current charger.
The maximum output charging power of the charger is determined by the power supply equipment, the temperature of the charger and the upper limit of the output power of the charger, the maximum output charging power of the charger is not larger than the power supply power of the power supply equipment, and meanwhile, the charger has an upper limit of the output power limited by the circuit performance of the charger, the upper limit is the maximum output limiting power of the charger, and the maximum output limiting power of the charger can be obtained through limit working condition experiments. The maximum output charging power calculation value of the charger is calculated according to the maximum available current and the input voltage of the power supply equipment, the charger completely takes the power supply power of the power supply equipment as an ideal value of the charging power without considering the temperature influence and the limit of the charger, and the maximum output charging power which can be output by the charger is obtained by comprehensively considering the temperature and the maximum output limit power of the charger after the maximum output charging power calculation value of the charger is calculated. After the power supply equipment is inserted into the charger, the charging controller is connected with the controller of the power supply equipment, the controller of the power supply equipment sends a PWM signal to the charging controller, and the charging controller identifies the maximum available current of the power supply equipment according to the duty ratio of the PWM signal.
In the above charging and heating method for the power battery of the plug-in hybrid vehicle, in the step B, the battery manager is preset with a power battery continuously chargeable power meter which is made according to the temperature and the electric quantity of the power battery, and the battery manager searches the power battery continuously chargeable power meter according to the acquired temperature and the electric quantity of the power battery to obtain the current power battery continuously chargeable power. The continuous chargeable power of the power battery is related to the temperature and the electric quantity of the power battery, the continuous chargeable power meter of the power battery is obtained according to working condition experiments under different temperatures and electric quantities, and the temperature and the electric quantity of the power battery are obtained by the battery manager according to a temperature sensor and a voltage sensor in the power battery.
In the charging and heating method for the power battery of the plug-in hybrid vehicle, the positive output end of the charger is connected with the positive electrode of the power battery through the charging relay, the positive output end of the charger is also respectively connected with the positive input end of the power supply of the DCDC converter and the positive input end of the power supply of the heating unit through the main positive relay, the negative output end of the charger is respectively connected with the negative input end of the power supply of the DCDC converter and the negative input end of the power supply of the heating unit, the negative output end of the charger is connected with the negative electrode of the power battery through the main negative relay, the main positive relay is connected with the first voltage pre-charging unit in. Through the arrangement, the charger can be controlled to charge the power battery, and the heating unit and the DCDC converter can be supplied with power under the condition that the power battery is disconnected from being charged.
In the above charging and heating method for the power battery of the plug-in hybrid vehicle, in the step C, the vehicle controller sends a control signal to the battery manager after receiving the heating request, and controls the heating unit to be out of operation through the air conditioner controller and the DCDC converter to be out of operation through the converter controller of the DCDC converter, and controls the charger not to output power, the battery manager receives the control signal to control the main and negative relays to be closed, then controls the voltage pre-charging unit to pre-charge the voltage and controls the main and positive relays to be closed after pre-charging, the battery manager controls the voltage pre-charging unit to pre-charge the voltage and controls the charging relay to be closed after pre-charging after the main and positive relays are closed, the battery manager controls the main and negative relays to be opened and sends a heating permitting signal to the vehicle controller and the charging controller after detecting that the output current of the power battery is lower than a preset value after the charging, and the vehicle control unit controls the heating unit to heat. Through the operation, the problem that the main positive relay and the charging relay are damaged due to electric arcs generated by the main positive relay and the charging relay after the main positive relay and the charging relay are directly closed is avoided, the service lives of the main positive relay and the charging relay are prolonged, and the heating control of the power battery is reasonably performed.
In the above charging and heating method for the power battery of the plug-in hybrid vehicle, in the step C, the charging controller controls the charging machine to output a constant voltage after receiving the heating permission signal, and controls the charging machine to output a current for the DCDC converter and the heating unit to operate, the vehicle control unit controls the DCDC converter to normally operate and controls the heating unit to operate through the air conditioner controller after receiving the heating permission signal, the vehicle control unit limits the heating power of the heating unit through the air conditioner controller according to the maximum output charging power of the charging machine sent by the charging controller when controlling the heating unit to heat, and the vehicle control unit controls the output power of the charging machine according to the request power sent by the conversion controller of the DCDC converter and the heating power of the heating unit under the current limit. Through the operation, the power of the heating unit is limited according to the maximum output charging power of the charger, and the phenomenon that the charger is abnormally operated or damaged due to too high power impact on the charger caused by too high power generated by starting the heating unit is avoided.
In the above charging and heating method for the power battery of the plug-in hybrid vehicle, in the step D, the vehicle control unit sends a control signal to the battery manager after receiving the charging request, the battery manager controls the main positive relay to be opened and then controls the charging relay to be opened, the battery manager controls the main negative relay to be closed after controlling the charging relay to be opened, then controls the voltage pre-charging unit i to pre-charge the voltage and controls the main positive relay to be closed after pre-charging, the battery manager controls the voltage pre-charging unit ii to pre-charge the voltage and controls the charging relay to be closed after pre-charging after the main positive relay is closed, and the charger is communicated with the power battery to output the maximum output charging power of the charger. After the heating is accomplished, not directly closed main negative relay charges, and power battery leads to the condition that above-mentioned relay life-span shortens to main positive relay, main negative relay and charging relay's high voltage impact when avoiding mode conversion.
In the above charging and heating method for the power battery of the plug-in hybrid vehicle, when the charger charges the power battery, when the battery manager judges that the continuously chargeable power of the current power battery is less than the maximum output charging power of the current charger, the vehicle controller outputs a heating request to the vehicle controller, the vehicle controller sends a signal to the charging controller to reduce the output current of the charger to zero, and sends a signal to the conversion controller and the air conditioner controller, the conversion controller controls the DCDC converter not to work, the air conditioner controller controls the heating unit not to work, the battery manager controls the main and negative relays to be switched off after detecting that the output current of the power battery is less than a preset value, and sends a heating allowing signal to the vehicle controller and the charging controller, the vehicle controller controls the heating unit to heat, and when the continuously chargeable power of the power battery is greater than the maximum output charging power of, and the vehicle control unit controls the charger to charge the power battery. When the performance of the power battery is reduced in the charging process, the power battery needs to be heated to enable the continuous chargeable power of the power battery to be increased, and because the power battery outputs power when being charged normally, the DCDC converter also works, so that if the main and negative relays are directly disconnected to not charge the power battery, the main and negative relays are cut off with loads, and the current exists at the two ends of the main and negative relays, the service life of the main and negative relays is reduced or damaged. By means of the operation, the main and negative relays are switched off when the current in the high-voltage circuit is limited to be small, and overlarge impact of the current on the main and negative relays can be avoided.
A charging and heating system of a power battery of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle comprises a vehicle control unit, a relay unit, an air conditioner controller, a charging controller and a battery manager capable of acquiring continuous chargeable power of the power battery, and is characterized in that the battery manager, the charging controller and the air conditioner controller are respectively connected with the vehicle control unit, the charging controller and the relay unit are respectively connected with the battery manager, the charging controller outputs a charging insertion signal and maximum output charging power of a charger to the battery manager and the vehicle control unit when triggered, the battery manager outputs a heating request to the vehicle control unit when comparing that the continuous chargeable power of the power battery is less than the maximum output charging power of the charger, the vehicle control unit controls the relay unit to enable the charger to be communicated with the heating unit of the air conditioner system through the battery manager and controls the heating unit to heat the power battery through the air conditioner controller, when the continuous chargeable power of the power battery is larger than the maximum output chargeable power of the charger by a preset value, the vehicle control unit controls the relay unit to enable the charger to be communicated with the power battery and controls the charger to charge the power battery through the charge controller.
In the charging and heating system of the power battery of the plug-in hybrid vehicle, after the power supply equipment is plugged into the charger, a charging controller of the charger acquires charging information of the power supply equipment and calculates the maximum output charging power of the charger in real time according to the state of the charger, a battery manager performs comparison and judgment when the power supply equipment is plugged in and the maximum output charging power of the charger is acquired, when the continuous chargeable power of the power battery is less than the maximum output charging power of the charger, the charging performance of the power battery is insufficient, the temperature of the power battery is lower, and at the moment, if charging is performed, the power battery can only be continuously charged as the charging power, the maximum output charging power of the charger is not applied, so that the charging time is prolonged due to the fact that resources are not reasonably utilized, the system does not charge at first and a whole vehicle controller controls a heating unit in an, when the continuously chargeable power of the power battery is larger than the maximum output charging power of the charger by a preset value, the current power battery can completely receive the maximum output charging power of the charger for charging, the charging efficiency reaches the highest, and the time for the power battery to receive the charging power of the charger for charging is shortest, so that the power battery can stop heating and enter charging when being heated.
The time of the whole charging process of the power battery of the vehicle comprises the heating time of the power battery and the charging time of the power battery, the heating is always carried out at a fixed target heating temperature in the prior art, so that the waste of heating energy and the prolonging of the heating time are caused, and the time of the whole charging process can be prolonged by the prolonging of the heating power battery, so that unnecessary waiting is caused. The system does not judge whether the power battery is heated or not according to the temperature, but judges whether the power battery is heated or not according to the maximum output charging power of a charger and the continuous chargeable power of the power battery, so that the optimal heating mode is provided according to different power supply equipment, the power battery can be charged by the optimal charging power when the current power supply equipment supplies power under the condition that the heating time is shorter, and the time of the whole charging process of the power battery of the vehicle is shortened at low temperature.
In the charging and heating system of the power battery of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, the relay unit comprises a charging relay, a main positive relay, a main negative relay, a first voltage pre-charging unit and a second voltage pre-charging unit, one end of a normally open switch of the charging relay is used for connecting the positive pole of the power battery, the other end of the normally open switch of the charging relay is used for connecting the positive pole output end of the charger, the second voltage pre-charging unit is connected in parallel with the two ends of the normally open switch of the charging relay, one end of the normally open switch of the main positive relay is used for respectively connecting the positive pole input end of a power supply of a DCDC converter and the positive pole input end of the heating unit, the other end of the normally open switch of the main positive relay, the first voltage pre-charging unit is connected in parallel with the two ends of the normally open switch, And the coil of the charging relay, the coil of the main positive relay, the coil of the main negative relay, the first voltage pre-charging unit and the second voltage pre-charging unit are respectively connected with the output end of the battery manager. The battery manager controls the actions of the charging relay, the main positive relay, the main negative relay, the voltage pre-charging unit I and the voltage pre-charging unit II, so that the charger can be connected with the DCDC converter and the heater for supplying power, and can also be connected with the power battery for charging.
Compared with the prior art, the charging and heating method of the power battery of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has the following advantages:
1. the invention does not judge whether the power battery is heated or not according to the temperature, but judges whether the power battery is heated or not according to the maximum output charging power of the charger and the continuous chargeable power of the power battery, thereby providing the optimal heating mode according to different power supply equipment, ensuring that the power battery is charged by the optimal charging power when the current power supply equipment supplies power under the condition of shorter heating time, and shortening the time of the whole charging process of the power battery of the vehicle at low temperature.
2. The relay protection device can protect the relay when the power battery is heated and converted to charge the power battery, and avoids the relay from being damaged.
3. The invention limits the heating power of the heater when heating the power battery, and avoids the abnormal work or damage of the charger caused by the excessive power impact on the charger due to the overhigh power generated by the starting of the heating unit.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the main heating and charging process of the method of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of the connection among the battery manager, the relay unit, the power battery, the charger, the heating unit, and the DCDC converter in the present invention.
Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of the system connection structure of the present invention.
In the figure, 1, a vehicle control unit; 2. a charge controller; 3. a power supply device; 4. a charger; 5. a battery manager; 6. a power battery; 7. a heating unit; 8. an air conditioner controller; 9. a DCDC converter; 10. a conversion controller; 11. a charging relay; 12. a main positive relay; 13. a main negative relay; 14. a first voltage pre-charging unit; 15. and a second voltage pre-charging unit.
Detailed Description
The following are specific embodiments of the present invention, and the technical solutions of the present invention will be further described with reference to the drawings, but the present invention is not limited to these embodiments.
As shown in fig. 1, 2 and 3, a charging and heating method for a power battery of a plug-in hybrid vehicle includes the steps of:
step A, starting charging: after the power supply device 3 is connected with the charger 4, the charging controller 2 calculates the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 in real time, and outputs a charging insertion signal and the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 to the battery manager 5 and the vehicle control unit 1. The charging controller 2 receives a signal sent by the power supply device 3, identifies the maximum available current of the power supply device 3, obtains an input voltage of the power supply device 3, calculates and obtains a calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger 4, when the calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is smaller than the preset maximum output limiting power of the charger 4, the charging controller 2 obtains the temperature of the current charger 4, searches a preset power attenuation table according to the obtained temperature to obtain a power attenuation value, and the charging controller 2 subtracts the power attenuation value from the calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 to obtain the maximum output charging power of the current charger 4; when the calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is greater than the preset maximum output limiting power of the charger 4, the charging controller 2 obtains the temperature of the current charger 4 and searches a preset power attenuation table according to the obtained temperature to obtain a power attenuation value, and the charging controller 2 subtracts the power attenuation value from the maximum output limiting power of the charger 4 to obtain the maximum output charging power of the current charger 4.
The power supply device 3 is a charging pile which has a charging pile controller and a charging gun, the charging gun is inserted when the charging pile is ready for charging, and the charging controller 2 of the charging machine 4 which can control the action of the charging machine 4 is activated, which is the prior art. After the power supply equipment 3 is inserted into the charger 4, the charging controller 2 is connected with the power supply equipment 3, specifically, the charging pile controller, to obtain a PWM signal at the end of the power supply equipment 3 (according to the GB/T18487.1-2015 national standard requirement, the power supply equipment 3 informs the maximum available current value of the electric vehicle through the PWM signal or digital communication), the charging controller 2 identifies the maximum available current of the power supply equipment 3 according to the duty ratio of the PWM signal, the charging controller 2 obtains the input voltage of the power supply equipment 3 through a charging voltage sensor arranged at the voltage input end of the charger 4, and the maximum available current is multiplied by the input voltage to obtain the calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger 4. The typical input voltage is 220V. The supply power of the supply device 3 is of different magnitude (typically varying between 1.5kw-6.6 kw).
The maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is determined by the power supply device 3, the temperature of the charger and the upper limit of the output power of the charger 4, the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is not larger than the power supply power of the power supply device 3, and meanwhile, the charger 4 has an upper limit of the output power due to the circuit performance limitation of the charger 4, wherein the upper limit is the maximum output limiting power of the charger 4 and can be obtained through limit working condition experiments. The calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is calculated by the maximum available current and the input voltage of the power supply equipment 3, the charger 4 completely takes the power supply power of the power supply equipment 3 as an ideal value of the charging power without considering the temperature influence and the limit of the charger 4, the maximum output charging power which can be output by the charger 4 is obtained by comprehensively considering the temperature and the maximum output limit power of the charger 4 after the calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is calculated, specifically, the calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is firstly compared with the maximum output limit power of the charger 4, namely, the maximum output power is compared with the maximum output power under the limit of the performance of the charger 4, when the calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is smaller, the charger 4 indicates that the power of the power, at this time, the capacity attenuation condition of the charger 4 at different temperatures is also considered, an attenuation value is obtained according to the temperature of the charger 4, and the attenuation value is subtracted from the calculated maximum output charging power of the charger 4, so that the maximum output charging power which can be output by the charger 4 at the current power supply device 3 and the temperature of the charger 4 is obtained. When the calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is large, it indicates that the charger 4 cannot use the power supply of the power supply device 3 as the maximum output charging power, the charger 4 is difficult to completely supply the power of the power supply device 3 to the power battery 6, and only the preset maximum output limiting power of the charger 4 is supplied, in this case, the temperature influence of the charger 4 is considered, an attenuation value is obtained according to the temperature of the charger 4, and the maximum output charging power of the current charger 4 is obtained by subtracting the power attenuation value from the maximum output limiting power of the charger 4.
Step B, judging whether heating is needed: the battery manager 5 obtains the continuous chargeable power of the power battery 6 and compares the continuous chargeable power with the received maximum output charging power of the charger 4, and judges that the power battery 6 needs to be heated and sends an output heating request when the continuous chargeable power of the power battery 6 is smaller than the maximum output charging power of the charger 4. The battery manager 5 is preset with a power battery 6 continuous chargeable power meter which is made according to the temperature and the electric quantity of the power battery 6, and the battery manager 5 searches the power battery 6 continuous chargeable power meter according to the acquired temperature and the electric quantity of the power battery 6 to obtain the current power of the power battery 6 continuously chargeable. The continuous chargeable power of the power battery 6 is related to the temperature and the electric quantity of the power battery 6, and a continuous chargeable power meter of the power battery 6 is obtained according to working condition experiments under different temperatures and electric quantities, which is the prior art, and the battery manager 5 obtains the temperature and the electric quantity of the power battery 6 according to a temperature sensor and a voltage sensor in the power battery 6. In the power battery 6 continuous chargeable power meter, the power range is more than 10% of the rated power of the power battery 6, the temperature range is minus 30 ℃ to 50 ℃, when the power is 10%, the power battery 6 corresponding to the power battery 6 continuously chargeable power meter is 0KW, 2KW, 4KW, 10KW and 18KW respectively at the temperature of minus 15 ℃, minus 10 ℃, zero, 10 ℃ and 20 ℃; when the electric quantity is 20%, the power batteries 6 corresponding to the power batteries 6 continuously can be charged with electric power of 1KW, 3KW, 6KW, 16KW and 24KW at the temperature of minus 15 degrees, minus 10 degrees, zero, 10 degrees and 20 degrees respectively; when the electric quantity is 30%, the power batteries 6 corresponding to the power batteries in sequence can be continuously charged with electric power of 2KW, 4KW, 8KW, 20KW and 28KW at the temperature of minus 15 degrees, minus 10 degrees, zero, 10 degrees and 20 degrees respectively; when the electric quantity is 40%, the continuously chargeable power of the power battery 6 sequentially corresponding to the power battery 6 is 3KW, 6KW, 10KW, 30KW and 44KW at the temperature of minus 15 degrees, minus 10 degrees, zero, 10 degrees and 20 degrees respectively; when the electric quantity is 50%, the continuously chargeable power of the power battery 6 which sequentially corresponds to the power battery is 4KW, 7KW, 12KW, 40KW or 50KW at the temperature of minus 15 degrees, minus 10 degrees, zero, 10 degrees or 20 degrees respectively.
When the continuous chargeable power of the power battery 6 is less than the maximum output charging power of the charger 4, the charging performance of the power battery 6 is insufficient, the temperature of the power battery 6 is low, and the battery manager 5 requests the charging power with the continuous chargeable power of the power battery 6, so that only the continuous chargeable power of the power battery 6 less than the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 can be used as the charging power during charging, and the charging time is prolonged without reasonably utilizing resources.
Step C, heating control: the vehicle control unit 1 receives a heating request sent by the battery manager 5, controls the charger 4 to be communicated with a heating unit 7 of the air conditioning system, and controls the heating unit 7 to heat the power battery 6. The positive output end of the charger 4 is connected with the positive electrode of the power battery 6 through a charging relay 11, the positive output end of the charger 4 is further connected with the positive input end of a power supply of the DCDC converter 9 and the positive input end of the power supply of the heating unit 7 through a main positive relay 12, the negative output end of the charger 4 is connected with the negative input end of the power supply of the DCDC converter 9 and the negative input end of the power supply of the heating unit 7, the negative output end of the charger 4 is connected with the negative electrode of the power battery 6 through a main negative relay 13, the main positive relay 12 is connected with a first voltage pre-charging unit 14 in parallel, and the charging relay.
The vehicle control unit 1 sends a control signal to the battery manager 5 after receiving a heating request, controls the heating unit 7 to be out of work through the air conditioner controller 8 and controls the DCDC converter 9 to be out of work through the conversion controller 10 of the DCDC converter 9, and controls the charger 4 not to output power, the battery manager 5 receives the control signal to control the main negative relay 13 to be closed, then controls the voltage pre-charging unit I14 to pre-charge and controls the main positive relay 12 to be closed after pre-charging, after the main positive relay 12 is closed, the battery manager 5 controls the voltage pre-charging unit II 15 to pre-charge and controls the charging relay 11 to be closed after pre-charging, after the charging relay 11 is closed, the battery manager 5 detects the output current of the power battery 6, controls the main negative relay 13 to be opened and sends a heating allowing signal to the vehicle control unit 1 and the charging controller 2 after the current is lower than a preset value, the vehicle control unit 1 controls the heating unit 7 to heat. The vehicle control unit 1 sends a control signal to the air conditioner controller 8, and the air conditioner controller 8 controls the power limiting module in the power circuit of the heating unit 7 to output zero power, that is, the power supply of the heating unit 7 is disconnected, so that the heating unit 7 does not work. The vehicle control unit 1 sends a control signal to the converter controller 10, and the converter controller 10 controls the relay at the power input terminal of the DCDC converter 9 to remain off, so that the DCDC converter 9 cannot operate, which is the prior art. Through the above operations, the charger 4 outputs zero power, the DCDC converter 9 uses zero power, and the heating unit 7 uses zero power, and then there is no load in the circuit, and then the high voltage is controlled, that is, the charger 4 is firstly respectively communicated with the DCDC converter 9, the power battery 6, and the heating unit 7, when the battery manager 5 detects that the output current of the power battery 6 is lower than a preset value, it indicates that the voltage output in the circuit is lower at this time, after the main negative relay 13 is turned off, the high voltage impact on the main positive relay 12 and the charging relay 11 is small, so that the main negative relay 13 can be turned off, preferably, the above-mentioned preset value range is 1A to 5A, preferably 2A, and after the current is lower than 2A for a certain time, the main negative relay 13 is turned off, and the time range is 1 second to 3 seconds, preferably 2 seconds. Through the operation, the problem that after the main positive relay 12 and the charging relay 11 are directly closed, the main positive relay 12 and the charging relay 11 generate electric arcs due to high-voltage impact of the power battery 6 to cause damage of the main positive relay 12 and the charging relay 11 is avoided, the service lives of the main positive relay 12 and the charging relay 11 are prolonged, and heating control of the power battery 6 is reasonably performed.
After receiving the heating permission signal, the charging controller 2 controls the charger 4 to output a constant voltage (the constant voltage is in a range of 300V to 370V, preferably 350V), and controls the charger 4 to output a current for the DCDC converter 9 and the heating unit 7 to work, and the charger 4 outputs a current of 24A at this time. The vehicle control unit 1 controls the DCDC converter 9 to normally work and controls the heating unit 7 to work through the air conditioner controller 8 after receiving the permission heating signal, when the vehicle control unit 1 controls the heating unit 7 to heat, the heating power of the heating unit 7 is limited through the air conditioner controller 8 according to the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 sent by the charging controller 2, and the vehicle control unit 1 controls the output power of the charger 4 according to the requested power (which is a fixed value and is the maximum value of the DCDC conversion power and can be calibrated according to actual conditions) sent by the conversion controller 10 of the DCDC converter 9 and the heating power of the heating unit 7 under the current limitation. After the heating is available, the charger 4 serves as a power supply, outputs fixed voltage and outputs 24A current for the DCDC converter 9 and the heating unit 7 to work, the vehicle control unit 1 controls the output power of the vehicle control unit, and the charging controller 2 controls the power control module in the charger 4 to execute the power control. The vehicle control unit 1 controls the DCDC converter 9 to work in a power-on mode. The vehicle control unit 1 is preset with limit values required by heating power of a heating unit 7 corresponding to different maximum output charging powers of a charger 4, specifically, when the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is less than 2.5KW, the heating power of the heating unit 7 is limited to 0KW (which can be calibrated according to actual conditions), when the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is greater than 6KW, the heating power of the heating unit 7 is limited to 3KW (which can be calibrated according to actual conditions), when the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is greater than or equal to 2.5KW and less than or equal to 4KW, the heating power of the heating unit 7 is limited to 1.7KW (which can be calibrated according to actual conditions), when the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is greater than or equal to 4KW and less than or equal to 6KW, the heating power of the heating unit 7 is limited to 2KW (which can be calibrated. The air conditioner controller 8 controls the heating power of the heating unit 7 by controlling the power limiting module of the heating unit 7, and the power limiting module of the heating unit 7 may be composed of an electronic switch such as a MOS transistor, which is the prior art and is not described herein.
The current maximum output charging power of the charger 4 (i.e. the maximum power that the charger 4 can output at the power supply device 3) sent by the charger 4 gets the corresponding limit value, the output power required by the charger 4 is obtained by adding the power consumption requested by the DCDC converter 9 and the current heating limiting power of the heating unit 7, the vehicle control unit 1 sends the output power required by the charger 4 to the charging controller 2, because the charging controller 2 outputs a constant voltage, after the required output power is determined, the charging controller 2 obtains the current output by the charger 4, so that the charging controller 2 controls the power control module of the charger 4 to control the charger 4 to output corresponding current and the fixed value voltage, therefore, the output power controlled by the vehicle control unit 1 is output, the DCDC converter 9 works normally, and the heating unit 7 performs heating work with the limited power. In addition, when the power required to be output by the charger 4 is greater than the maximum output limit power of the charger 4, the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is used for outputting.
Step D, quitting heating: in the heating process of the power battery 6, the battery manager 5 compares that the continuously chargeable power of the power battery 6 is larger than the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 by a preset value (the preset value ranges from 500W to 3KW, preferably 1KW), and sends a charging request to the vehicle control unit 1 and the charging controller 2, and the vehicle control unit 1 stops heating of the heating unit 7 and controls the charger 4 to charge the power battery 6 with the maximum output charging power of the charger 4. The vehicle control unit 1 sends a control signal to the battery manager 5 after receiving a charging request, the battery manager 5 controls the main positive relay 12 to be disconnected and then controls the charging relay 11 to be disconnected, the battery manager 5 controls the charging relay 11 to be disconnected and then controls the main negative relay 13 to be closed, then controls the voltage pre-charging unit I14 to pre-charge the voltage and controls the main positive relay 12 to be closed after pre-charging, after the main positive relay 12 is closed, the battery manager 5 controls the voltage pre-charging unit II 15 to pre-charge the voltage and controls the charging relay 11 to be closed after pre-charging, and the battery manager 5 outputs a charging request to the vehicle control unit 1 after controlling the charging relay 11 to be closed. From the above, after the heating is completed, the main negative relay 13 is not directly closed to be charged, but high-voltage heating is performed firstly, and then high-voltage charging is performed, so that the condition that the service life of the relay is shortened due to high-voltage impact of the power battery 6 on the main positive relay 12, the main negative relay 13 and the charging relay 11 during mode conversion is avoided. The charging controller 2 receives a charging request sent by the battery manager 5 and then sends a signal indicating that the charger 4 is in a chargeable state to the vehicle control unit 1, the vehicle control unit 1 receives the charging request signal sent by the battery manager and a signal indicating that the charger 4 is in the chargeable state sent by the charging controller 2 and then outputs a control signal to the charging controller 2, and the charging controller 2 controls a power control module of the charger 4 to enable the charger 4 to output the maximum output charging power by taking the calculated maximum output charging power as a target power. The power control module of the charger 4 may be composed of MOS transistors, and the power control module can control the output power of the charger 4 in the prior art, which is not described herein. As another scheme, when the vehicle control unit 1 receives a charging request sent by the battery manager 5, after the vehicle control unit 1 controls the main positive relay 12, the main negative relay 13 and the charging relay 11 to be closed, the output control signal controls the charger 4 to work at the maximum output charging power of the charger 4.
The above steps are to judge whether the power supply device 3 is heated after being inserted, and when the power battery 6 needs to be heated, the power battery 6 is preheated, that is, the power battery 6 is heated first, and after the power battery is heated, the charging operation of the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 is performed after the charging condition is satisfied. When the power supply device 3 is not required to be heated after being inserted, that is, the power battery 6 continuously has a chargeable power larger than the maximum output charging power of the charger 4, the vehicle control unit 1 controls the high voltage of the normal charging through the battery manager 5, that is, controls the main negative relay 13 to be closed, controls the main positive relay 12 to be closed after the first pre-charging unit is pre-charged, controls the charging relay 11 to be closed after the second pre-charging unit is pre-charged, and controls the charger 4 to perform the normal charging operation at the maximum output charging power.
After the whole vehicle is charged, the battery manager 5 continuously compares the continuously chargeable power of the power battery 6 with the maximum output charging power of the charger 4, when the battery manager 5 judges that the continuously chargeable power of the power battery 6 is smaller than the maximum output charging power of the charger 4, the heating request is output to the whole vehicle controller 1, the whole vehicle controller 1 sends a signal to the charging controller 2 to reduce the output current of the charger 4 to zero and sends a signal to the conversion controller 10 and the air conditioner controller 8, the conversion controller 10 controls the DCDC converter 9 not to work (the relay at the power supply is disconnected), the air conditioner controller 8 controls the heating unit 7 not to work (the power limit of the heating unit 7 is zero), the battery manager 5 controls the main and negative relays 13 to be disconnected after detecting that the output current of the power battery 6 is lower than a preset value (preferably 2A) and sends a heating allowing signal to the whole vehicle controller 1 and the charging controller 2, the vehicle control unit 1 controls the heating unit 7 to heat, and when the continuously chargeable power of the power battery 6 is larger than the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 by a preset value (1KW), the vehicle control unit 1 controls the charger 4 to charge the power battery 6.
When the performance of the power battery 6 is reduced in the charging process, the power battery 6 needs to be heated to increase the continuous chargeable power, and the DCDC converter 9 also works due to the output power of the charger 4 when the power battery 6 is normally charged, so that if the main and negative relays 13 are directly disconnected to not charge the power battery 6, the main and negative relays 13 are loaded to be cut off, and the current exists at the two ends of the main and negative relays 13, so that the service life of the main and negative relays 13 is reduced or damaged. By turning off the main negative relay 13 when the current in the high-voltage circuit is limited to be small by the above operation, it is possible to avoid an excessive impact of the current on the main negative relay 13. After the vehicle control unit 1 receives the heating permission signal, the subsequent control process is the same as that in step C, and the control process of exiting heating for charging is the same as that in step D. After the battery manager 5 judges that the power battery 6 is full of electricity, a charging stop signal is sent to the vehicle control unit 1 and the charging controller 2, so that the charging controller 2 controls the charger 4 to stop outputting power, and the vehicle control unit 1 recovers to work normally.
The time of the whole charging process of the power battery 6 of the vehicle comprises the heating time of the power battery 6 and the charging time of the power battery 6, the heating at the fixed target heating temperature always causes the waste of heating energy and the extension of the heating time in the prior art, and the extension of the heating power battery 6 can prolong the time of the whole charging process, thereby causing unnecessary waiting. According to the method, whether the heating power battery 6 is heated or not is judged not according to the temperature, but whether the heating power battery 6 works or not is judged according to the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 and the continuous chargeable power of the power battery 6, so that an optimal heating mode is provided according to different power supply equipment 3, the power battery 6 can be charged with the optimal charging power when the current power supply equipment 3 supplies power, and the time of the whole charging process of the vehicle power battery 6 is shortened at low temperature.
As shown in fig. 2 and fig. 3, the charging and heating system for the power battery of the plug-in hybrid vehicle, which applies the charging and heating method, comprises a vehicle control unit 1, a relay unit, an air conditioning controller 8, a charging controller 2 for controlling the action of a charger 4, and a battery manager 5 for obtaining the continuous chargeable power of the power battery 6. The battery manager 5, the charging controller 2 and the air conditioner controller 8 are respectively connected with the vehicle control unit 1, and the charging controller 2 and the relay unit are respectively connected with the battery manager 5.
The relay unit includes a charging relay 11, a main positive relay 12, a main negative relay 13, a voltage pre-charging unit one 14, and a voltage pre-charging unit two 15. One end of a normally open switch of the charging relay 11 is used for being connected with the positive electrode of the power battery 6, the other end of the normally open switch of the charging relay is used for being connected with the positive electrode output end of the charger 4, and the second voltage pre-charging unit 15 is connected to two ends of the normally open switch of the charging relay 11 in parallel. One end of a normally open switch of the main positive relay 12 is used for being connected with a power supply positive electrode input end of the DCDC converter 9 and a power supply positive electrode input end of the heating unit 7 respectively, the other end of the normally open switch is used for being connected with a positive electrode of the power battery 6, and the first voltage pre-charging unit 14 is connected with two ends of the normally open switch of the main positive relay 12 in parallel. One end of the main negative relay 13 is used for being connected with the negative electrode of the power battery 6, and the other end of the main negative relay is used for being connected with the negative electrode output end of the charger 4, the power supply negative electrode input end of the DCDC converter 9 and the power supply negative electrode input end of the heating unit 7 respectively. A coil of the charging relay 11, a coil of the main positive relay 12, a coil of the main negative relay 13, a first voltage pre-charging unit 14 and a second voltage pre-charging unit 15 are respectively connected with the output end of the battery manager 5. The battery manager 5 controls the actions of the charging relay 11, the main positive relay 12, the main negative relay 13, the first voltage pre-charging unit 14 and the second voltage pre-charging unit 15, so that the charger 4 can be connected with the DCDC converter 9 and the heater for supplying power, and the charger 4 can be connected with the power battery 6 for charging. The first voltage pre-charging unit 14 comprises a relay K1 and a pre-charging resistor R1, one end of a normally open switch of the relay K1 is connected with one end of the normally open switch of the main positive relay 12, the other end of the normally open switch is connected with the pre-charging resistor R1, and the other end of the pre-charging resistor R1 is connected with the other end of the normally open switch of the main positive relay 12. The second voltage pre-charging unit 15 comprises a relay K2 and a pre-charging resistor R2, one end of a normally open switch of the relay K2 is connected with one end of a normally open switch of the charging relay 11, the other end of the normally open switch is connected with the pre-charging resistor R2, and the other end of the pre-charging resistor R2 is connected with the other end of the normally open switch of the charging relay 11.
In the plug-in hybrid vehicle, a conversion controller 10 is connected with a relay at a power input end of a DCDC converter 9, a battery manager 5 is connected with a temperature sensor for detecting the temperature of a power battery 6 and a voltage sensor for detecting the electric quantity of the power battery 6, a charging controller 2 is connected with a power control module used for limiting the output power of a charger 4 and a charging voltage sensor used for detecting the input voltage of a power supply device 3 in the charger 4, and an air conditioner controller 8 is connected with a power control module of a heating unit 7 in an air conditioning system.
When the power supply device 3 is plugged in, the charging controller 2 is triggered and outputs a charging plugging signal and the calculated maximum output charging power of the charger 4 to the battery manager 5 and the vehicle control unit 1, the battery manager 5 compares the continuous chargeable power of the power battery 6 with the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 and outputs a heating request to the vehicle control unit 1, the vehicle control unit 1 respectively outputs control signals to the battery manager 5, the charging controller 2, the air conditioner controller 8 and the conversion controller 10, the air conditioner controller 8 controls the heating unit 7 not to work, the conversion controller 10 controls the DCDC converter 9 not to work, and the charging controller 2 controls the charger 4 not to output power. The battery manager 5 receives the control signal to control the main negative relay 13 to be closed, then the relay K1 is controlled to be closed, the power battery 6 is connected with the first pre-charging unit to pre-charge the first pre-charging unit, the battery manager 5 is connected with a voltage sensor for detecting the voltage at the position of the pre-charging resistor R1, the voltage at the position of the pre-charging resistor R1 is obtained according to the voltage sensor, when the voltage is more than 90% of the voltage of the current power battery 6, the pre-charging is indicated to be completed, and the battery manager controls the main positive relay 12 to be closed. And then the relay K1 is switched off, the relay K2 is switched on, the power battery 6 is switched on with the second pre-charging unit, the second pre-charging unit is pre-charged, the battery manager 5 is connected with a voltage sensor for detecting the voltage at the position of the pre-charging resistor R2, the voltage at the position of the pre-charging resistor R2 is obtained according to the voltage sensor, when the voltage is more than 90% of the voltage of the current power battery 6, the pre-charging is indicated to be completed, and the battery management controls the charging relay 11 to be switched on. After the charging relay 11 is closed, the battery manager 5 detects the output current of the power battery 6, and controls the main and negative relays 13 to be opened and send a heating allowing signal to the vehicle control unit 1 and the charging controller 2 when the current is lower than a preset value. The charger 4 is now connected to the DCDC converter 9 and to the power input of the heating unit 7.
After receiving the heating permission signal, the charging controller 2 controls the charger 4 to output a constant voltage (the constant voltage is in a range of 300V to 370V, preferably 350V), and controls the charger 4 to output a current for the DCDC converter 9 and the heating unit 7 to work, and the charger 4 outputs a current of 24A at this time. The vehicle control unit 1 controls the DCDC converter 9 to normally work and controls the heating unit 7 to work through the air conditioner controller 8 after receiving the permission heating signal, when the vehicle control unit 1 controls the heating unit 7 to heat, the heating power of the heating unit 7 is limited through the air conditioner controller 8 according to the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 sent by the charging controller 2, and the vehicle control unit 1 controls the output power of the charger 4 according to the requested power (which is a fixed value and is the maximum value of the DCDC conversion power and can be calibrated according to actual conditions) sent by the conversion controller 10 of the DCDC converter 9 and the heating power of the heating unit 7 under the current limitation.
When the comparison result shows that the continuously chargeable power of the power battery 6 is larger than the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 by a preset value (the preset value ranges from 500W to 3KW, and is preferably 1KW), the battery manager 5 sends a charging request to the vehicle control unit 1 and the charging controller 2, and the vehicle control unit 1 stops heating of the heating unit 7 and controls the charger 4 to charge the power battery 6 at the maximum output charging power of the charger 4. The vehicle control unit 1 sends a control signal to the battery manager 5 after receiving a charging request, the battery manager 5 controls the main positive relay 12 to be disconnected and then controls the charging relay 11 to be disconnected, the battery manager 5 controls the charging relay 11 to be disconnected and then controls the main negative relay 13 to be closed, then controls the voltage pre-charging unit I14 to pre-charge the voltage and controls the main positive relay 12 to be closed after pre-charging, after the main positive relay 12 is closed, the battery manager 5 controls the voltage pre-charging unit II 15 to pre-charge the voltage and controls the charging relay 11 to be closed after pre-charging, and the battery manager 5 outputs a charging request to the vehicle control unit 1 after controlling the charging relay 11 to be closed. The charging controller 2 receives a charging request sent by the battery manager 5 and then sends a signal indicating that the charger 4 is in a chargeable state to the vehicle control unit 1, the vehicle control unit 1 receives the charging request signal sent by the battery manager and a signal indicating that the charger 4 is in the chargeable state sent by the charging controller 2 and then outputs a control signal to the charging controller 2, and the charging controller 2 controls a power control module of the charger 4 to enable the charger 4 to output the maximum output charging power by taking the calculated maximum output charging power as a target power.
The above-mentioned judgment of whether to heat after the power supply device 3 is inserted is to preheat the power battery 6 first when the power battery 6 needs to be heated, that is, to heat the power battery 6 first, and then to charge the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 after the charging condition is satisfied, and when the power battery 6 does not need to be heated after the power supply device 3 is inserted, that is, the power battery 6 continues to be charged with the charging power larger than the maximum output charging power of the charger 4, the vehicle control unit 1 controls the charger 4 to perform the normal charging operation with the maximum output charging power.
After the whole vehicle is charged, the battery manager 5 continuously compares the continuously chargeable power of the power battery 6 with the maximum output charging power of the charger 4, when the battery manager 5 judges that the continuously chargeable power of the power battery 6 is smaller than the maximum output charging power of the charger 4, the heating request is output to the whole vehicle controller 1, the whole vehicle controller 1 sends a signal to the charging controller 2 to reduce the output current of the charger 4 to zero and sends a signal to the conversion controller 10 and the air conditioner controller 8, the conversion controller 10 controls the DCDC converter 9 not to work (the relay at the power supply is disconnected), the air conditioner controller 8 controls the heating unit 7 not to work (the power limit of the heating unit 7 is zero), the battery manager 5 controls the main and negative relays 13 to be disconnected after detecting that the output current of the power battery 6 is lower than a preset value (preferably 2A) and sends a heating allowing signal to the whole vehicle controller 1 and the charging controller 2, the vehicle control unit 1 controls the heating unit 7 to heat, and when the continuously chargeable power of the power battery 6 is larger than the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 by a preset value (1KW), the vehicle control unit 1 controls the charger 4 to charge the power battery 6.
The system does not judge whether the power battery 6 is heated or not according to the temperature, but judges whether the power battery 6 works or not according to the maximum output charging power of the charger 4 and the continuous chargeable power of the power battery 6, so that the optimal heating mode is provided according to different power supply equipment 3, the power battery 6 is charged by the optimal charging power when the current power supply equipment 3 supplies power under the condition that the heating time is shorter, and the time of the whole charging process of the power battery 6 of the vehicle is shortened at low temperature.
The specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the invention. Various modifications or additions may be made to the described embodiments or alternatives may be employed by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit or ambit of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
Although the terms of the vehicle control unit 1, the charging controller 2, the power supply device 3, the charger 4, the battery manager 5, the power battery 6, the heating unit 7, the air conditioning controller 8, the DCDC converter 9, the conversion controller 10, the charging relay 11, the main positive relay 12, the main negative relay 13, the voltage pre-charging unit one 14, the voltage pre-charging unit two 15, etc., are used more herein, the possibility of using other terms is not excluded. These terms are used merely to more conveniently describe and explain the nature of the present invention; they are to be construed as being without limitation to any additional limitations that may be imposed by the spirit of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. A charging and heating method for a power battery of a plug-in hybrid vehicle is characterized by comprising the following steps:
A. starting charging: the charging controller (2) calculates the maximum output charging power of the charger (4) in real time after the power supply equipment (3) is connected with the charger (4), and outputs a charging insertion signal and the maximum output charging power of the charger (4) to the battery manager (5) and the vehicle control unit (1);
B. judging whether heating is carried out: the battery manager (5) acquires the continuous chargeable power of the power battery (6) and compares the continuous chargeable power with the received maximum output charging power of the charger (4), and when the continuous chargeable power of the power battery (6) is smaller than the maximum output charging power of the charger (4), the battery manager judges that the power battery (6) needs to be heated and sends a heating request;
C. heating control: the vehicle control unit (1) receives a heating request sent by the battery manager (5), controls the charger (4) to supply power to a heating unit (7) of the air conditioning system and controls the heating unit (7) to heat the power battery (6);
D. and (3) exiting heating: in the heating process, the battery manager (5) compares that the continuously chargeable power of the power battery (6) is larger than the maximum output charging power of the charger (4) by a preset value, and sends a charging request to the vehicle control unit (1) and the charging controller (2), and the vehicle control unit (1) stops heating of the heating unit (7) and controls the charger (4) to charge the power battery (6) with the maximum output charging power.
2. The charging heating method of a power battery for a plug-in hybrid vehicle according to claim 1, characterized in that the charging controller (2) receives the signal sent by the power supply equipment (3) and identifies the maximum available current of the power supply equipment (3), and obtains the input voltage of the power supply equipment (3) to the charger (4) to calculate the maximum output charging power calculated value of the charger (4), when the calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger (4) is smaller than the preset maximum output limit power of the charger (4), the charging controller (2) obtains the temperature of the current charger (4), searches a preset power attenuation table according to the obtained temperature to obtain a power attenuation value, and subtracts the power attenuation value from the calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger (4) by the charging controller (2) to obtain the maximum output charging power of the current charger (4); when the calculated value of the maximum output charging power of the charger (4) is larger than the preset maximum output limiting power of the charger (4), the charging controller (2) obtains the temperature of the current charger (4), searches a preset power attenuation table according to the obtained temperature to obtain a power attenuation value, and subtracts the power attenuation value from the maximum output limiting power of the charger (4) to obtain the maximum output charging power of the current charger (4).
3. The charging and heating method for the power battery of the plug-in hybrid vehicle according to claim 2, wherein in the step B, the battery manager (5) is preset with a power battery (6) continuous chargeable power meter prepared according to the temperature and the electric quantity of the power battery (6), and the battery manager (5) searches the power battery (6) continuous chargeable power meter according to the obtained temperature and the electric quantity of the power battery (6) to obtain the current power battery (6) continuous chargeable power.
4. The charging heating method of a power battery for a plug-in hybrid vehicle according to claim 1 or 2 or 3, the device is characterized in that the positive output end of a charger (4) is connected with the positive electrode of a power battery (6) through a charging relay (11), the positive output end of the charger (4) is also connected with the positive input end of a power supply of a DCDC converter (9) and the positive input end of the power supply of a heating unit (7) through a main positive relay (12), the negative output end of the charger (4) is connected with the negative input end of the power supply of the DCDC converter (9) and the negative input end of the power supply of the heating unit (7) respectively, the negative output end of the charger (4) is connected with the negative electrode of the power battery (6) through a main negative relay (13), the main positive relay (12) is connected with a first voltage pre-charging unit (14) in parallel, and the charging relay (11).
5. The charging and heating method for the power battery of the plug-in hybrid vehicle according to claim 4, characterized in that in the step C, the vehicle control unit (1) sends a control signal to the battery manager (5) after receiving the heating request, controls the heating unit (7) to be out of operation through the air conditioner controller (8) and controls the DCDC converter (9) to be out of operation through the conversion controller (10) of the DCDC converter (9), controls the charger (4) not to output power, controls the main negative relay (13) to be closed after receiving the control signal, controls the first voltage pre-charging unit (14) to be pre-charged and controls the main positive relay (12) to be closed after pre-charging, controls the second voltage pre-charging unit (15) to be pre-charged and controls the charging relay (11) to be closed after pre-charging after the main positive relay (12) is closed, after the charging relay (11) is closed, the battery manager (5) detects that the output current of the power battery (6) is lower than a preset value, the main relay and the negative relay (13) are controlled to be disconnected, a heating allowing signal is sent to the vehicle control unit (1) and the charging controller (2), and the vehicle control unit (1) controls the heating unit (7) to heat.
6. The method as claimed in claim 5, wherein in the step C, the charging controller (2) controls the charger (4) to output a constant voltage after receiving the heating enable signal, and controls the charger (4) to output a current for the DCDC converter (9) and the heating unit (7) to operate, the vehicle control unit (1) controls the DCDC converter (9) to operate normally and controls the heating unit (7) to operate through the air conditioning controller (8) after receiving the heating enable signal, the vehicle control unit (1) limits the heating power of the heating unit (7) through the air conditioning controller (8) according to the maximum output charging power of the charger (4) sent by the charging controller (2) when controlling the heating unit (7) to heat, and the vehicle control unit (1) limits the heating unit (7) according to the requested power sent by the converter controller (10) of the DCDC converter (9) and the current limit The heating power of the charger (4) is controlled.
7. The charging heating method of a power battery for a plug-in hybrid vehicle according to claim 6, the method is characterized in that in the step D, the vehicle control unit (1) sends a control signal to the battery manager (5) after receiving the charging request, the battery manager (5) controls the main relay (12) to be disconnected and then controls the charging relay (11) to be disconnected, after the battery manager (5) controls the charging relay (11) to be disconnected, the main negative relay (13) is controlled to be closed, then the first voltage pre-charging unit (14) is controlled to pre-charge the voltage and the main positive relay (12) is controlled to be closed after pre-charging, after the main positive relay (12) is closed, the battery manager (5) controls the voltage pre-charging unit II (15) to pre-charge voltage and controls the charging relay (11) to be closed after pre-charging, and the charger (4) is communicated with the power battery (6) to output the maximum output charging power of the charger (4).
8. The charging and heating method for the power battery of the plug-in hybrid vehicle according to claim 7, characterized in that when the charger (4) charges the power battery (6), when the battery manager (5) determines that the current rechargeable power of the power battery (6) is less than the current maximum output charging power of the charger (4), the battery manager outputs a heating request to the vehicle controller (1), the vehicle controller (1) sends a signal to the charging controller (2) to reduce the output current of the charger (4) to zero, and sends a signal to the converter controller (10) and the air conditioner controller (8), the converter controller (10) controls the DCDC converter (9) not to work, the air conditioner controller (8) controls the heating unit (7) not to work, the battery manager (5) controls the main and negative relays (13) to be disconnected after detecting that the output current of the power battery (6) is lower than a preset value, and a heating permission signal is sent to the vehicle control unit (1) and the charging controller (2), the vehicle control unit (1) controls the heating unit (7) to heat, and when the continuous chargeable power of the power battery (6) is larger than the maximum output charging power of the charger (4) by a preset value, the vehicle control unit (1) controls the charger (4) to charge the power battery (6).
9. A charging and heating system of a power battery of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle comprises a vehicle controller (1), a relay unit, an air conditioner controller (8), a charging controller (2) and a battery manager (5) capable of acquiring continuous chargeable power of the power battery (6), and is characterized in that the battery manager (5), the charging controller (2) and the air conditioner controller (8) are respectively connected with the vehicle controller (1), the charging controller (2) and the relay unit are respectively connected with the battery manager (5), the charging controller (2) outputs a charging insertion signal and maximum output charging power of a charger (4) to the battery manager (5) and the vehicle controller (1) when triggered, the battery manager (5) compares the continuous chargeable power of the power battery (6) with the maximum output charging power of the charger (4) and outputs a heating request to the vehicle controller (1), the vehicle control unit (1) controls the relay unit through the battery manager (5) to enable the charger (4) to be communicated with a heating unit (7) of the air conditioning system and controls the heating unit (7) to heat the power battery (6) through the air conditioning controller (8), and when the continuous chargeable power of the power battery (6) is larger than the maximum output charging power of the charger (4) by a preset value, the vehicle control unit (1) controls the relay unit to enable the charger (4) to be communicated with the power battery (6) and controls the charger (4) to charge the power battery (6) through the charging controller (2).
10. The charging and heating system for the power battery of the plug-in hybrid vehicle according to claim 9, characterized in that the relay unit comprises a charging relay (11), a main positive relay (12), a main negative relay (13), a first voltage pre-charging unit (14) and a second voltage pre-charging unit (15), one end of a normally open switch of the charging relay (11) is used for connecting the positive pole of the power battery (6), the other end of the normally open switch is used for connecting the positive pole output end of the charger (4), the second voltage pre-charging unit (15) is connected in parallel with two ends of the normally open switch of the charging relay (11), one end of the normally open switch of the main positive relay (12) is used for respectively connecting the positive power input end of the DCDC converter (9) and the positive power input end of the heating unit (7), the other end of the normally open switch is used for connecting the positive pole of the power battery (6), the first voltage pre-charging unit (14) is connected in parallel, one end of the main negative relay (13) is used for being connected with the negative electrode of the power battery (6), the other end of the main negative relay is used for being connected with the negative electrode output end of the charger (4), the power supply negative electrode input end of the DCDC converter (9) and the power supply negative electrode input end of the heating unit (7), and a coil of the charging relay (11), a coil of the main positive relay (12), a coil of the main negative relay (13), the voltage pre-charging unit I (14) and the voltage pre-charging unit II (15) are connected with the output end of the battery manager (5) respectively.
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