CN110057395B - Temperature and humidity detection device inside fuel cell - Google Patents

Temperature and humidity detection device inside fuel cell Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110057395B
CN110057395B CN201811125975.1A CN201811125975A CN110057395B CN 110057395 B CN110057395 B CN 110057395B CN 201811125975 A CN201811125975 A CN 201811125975A CN 110057395 B CN110057395 B CN 110057395B
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temperature
fuel cell
circuit board
humidity
plate
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CN110057395A (en
Inventor
王亚军
陶有堃
郑礼康
陈进
李辉
王海江
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Southwest University of Science and Technology
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Southwest University of Science and Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D21/00Measuring or testing not otherwise provided for
    • G01D21/02Measuring two or more variables by means not covered by a single other subclass
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08CTRANSMISSION SYSTEMS FOR MEASURED VALUES, CONTROL OR SIMILAR SIGNALS
    • G08C17/00Arrangements for transmitting signals characterised by the use of a wireless electrical link
    • G08C17/02Arrangements for transmitting signals characterised by the use of a wireless electrical link using a radio link

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of fuel cell measurement, and relates to a temperature and humidity detection device in a fuel cell. The integrated temperature and humidity sensor is embedded into the plate body, so that the temperature and humidity of any position inside the fuel cell can be detected simultaneously, and the influence on the structure of the fuel cell caused by the installation of the sensor is reduced. A plurality of branch circuit boards are electrically connected to the control circuit board through the pin header, and at least two temperature and humidity sensors are installed on each branch circuit board, and the temperature and humidity sensors share the bottom line and the power line, so that the wiring area is effectively reduced, and the temperature and humidity sensors which break down are conveniently disassembled, assembled and replaced. The local electrochemical reaction in the cell is monitored, and the adverse reaction of the fuel cell can be avoided by adjusting external input parameters, so that the effects of optimizing the performance and prolonging the service life are achieved. Adopt wireless transmission mode to reduce loaded down with trivial details wiring, conveniently detect bipolar plate assembly, avoid misconnection and open circuit phenomenon.

Description

Temperature and humidity detection device inside fuel cell
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of fuel cell measurement, and particularly relates to a temperature and humidity detection device in a fuel cell.
Background
Fuel cells are power generation devices that directly convert chemical energy in fuel into electrical energy through electrochemical reactions. Fuel cells have gone through over 100 years since the invention. Since energy and environment have become the key issues for human society to live on, fuel cells, which are efficient and clean energy conversion devices, have gained general attention from governments, developers and research institutions of various countries in recent 20 years, and have shown wide application prospects in civil and military fields such as transportation, portable power supplies, decentralized power stations, aerospace and underwater vehicles. At present, fuel cell automobiles, power stations, portable power sources and the like are in a demonstration stage, and with the great investment of governments and research institutions of various countries, the technical progress of fuel cells is greatly advanced, but to meet the commercialization requirements, the requirements on performance are met, and good stability, reliability and service life are required.
The internal temperature and humidity of the fuel cell change constantly in the operation process, and the mechanical strength of the proton exchange membrane is reduced due to overhigh temperature, so that the service life of the fuel cell is shortened; if the temperature is too low, the reaction activation energy of the reaction gas is relatively increased, and the operating efficiency of the fuel cell is relatively low. Similarly, the excessive humidity easily causes the water flooding state inside the fuel cell, and the effective reaction area is reduced; the humidity is too low, and the resistance is increased when the hydration of the proton exchange membrane of the fuel cell is not good, so that the internal resistance of the cell is increased, and the output voltage of the fuel cell is reduced. By monitoring the temperature and humidity states of all internal regions of the fuel cell in real time in the operation process, the external input parameters of the fuel cell can be regulated and controlled in real time, so that the fuel cell works near the optimal state, and the service life of the fuel cell is prolonged.
Most of the existing internal temperature and humidity detection of the galvanic pile is carried out by installing a tiny temperature sensor (such as a thermocouple or a thermistor) and a tiny humidity sensor (such as an optical fiber sensor or a film type humidity sensor), and temperature and humidity detection cannot be carried out at the same position in the galvanic pile at the same time, so that the temperature and humidity coupling phenomenon cannot be accurately researched; meanwhile, the output of the thermocouple, the thermistor or the optical fiber sensor is an analog signal, the signal is easily interfered by external factors (such as strong magnetic field or strong electric environment interference), and the current of the galvanic pile in the running process is large (basically not less than 100A), so that the wireless high-precision transmission of the analog signal is difficult to realize; at present, temperature and humidity detection is a wired measurement method, and when temperature and humidity detection is carried out inside a galvanic pile, complex wiring is not beneficial to installation of a bipolar plate inside the galvanic pile, and misconnection and disconnection phenomena are easy to occur.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a temperature and humidity detection device in a fuel cell, which aims to solve the technical problems that the temperature and humidity detection is difficult to be simultaneously carried out on the same position in a galvanic pile in the prior art, and the detection device is complex in wiring and is not beneficial to installation in the galvanic pile.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the technical scheme that: the device for detecting the temperature and the humidity in the fuel cell comprises a fuel cell stack, a detection bipolar plate arranged in the fuel cell stack, an upper computer electrically connected with the detection bipolar plate and a wireless receiving device electrically connected with the upper computer; the detection bipolar plate comprises a plate body with a middle active area, wherein the middle active area is divided into a plurality of subareas distributed in a matrix; the plate body is provided with a plurality of mounting grooves extending along the width direction of the plate body, each mounting groove passes through at least two partitions distributed along the width direction of the plate body, and the mounting groove penetrates through one side edge of the plate body; the detection bipolar plate also comprises branch circuit boards which are correspondingly arranged in the mounting grooves one by one, temperature and humidity sensors which are arranged on the branch circuit boards, and a control circuit board which is arranged outside the side edge of the plate body; the number of the temperature and humidity sensors is the same as that of the subareas, and the temperature and humidity sensors are distributed in the subareas in a one-to-one correspondence manner; mounting holes are respectively formed in the bottom surface of the plate body corresponding to the partitions, and the temperature and humidity sensor is located in the corresponding mounting holes; the number of the temperature and humidity sensors arranged on the same branch circuit board is equal to the number of the installation grooves passing through the subareas, and the temperature and humidity sensors arranged on the same branch circuit board share power lines and ground lines; the number of the branch circuit boards is equal to that of the mounting grooves, the branch circuit boards close to the same side of the plate body are electrically connected to the same control circuit board through row pins respectively, the branch circuit boards are provided with first plug holes, the control circuit board is provided with second plug holes, and two ends of the row pins are respectively plugged in the first plug holes and the second plug holes; the mounting groove is filled with heat-conducting solid glue for sealing the branch circuit board; a flow channel is formed in one side surface, close to the mounting hole, of the plate body; the control circuit board is provided with a power supply, a wireless transmitting device which is matched with the wireless receiving device to wirelessly transmit signals, and a controller which is used for controlling the temperature and humidity sensor to transmit the signals to the wireless transmitting device and controlling the wireless transmitting device to transmit the signals to the wireless receiving device.
Further, a working surface is obtained by milling one side surface of the plate body filled with the heat-conducting solid glue after the heat-conducting solid glue is solidified.
Furthermore, the branch circuit board and the control circuit board are connected in an IIC bus mode.
Furthermore, the board body is provided with two rows of the mounting grooves, and the two rows of the mounting grooves are correspondingly provided with two rows of the branch circuit boards; the number of the control circuit boards is two, the two control circuit boards are respectively positioned outside the two side edges of the plate body, and the branch circuit boards in one row are electrically connected to the same control circuit board.
Furthermore, a charging device for charging the power supply is arranged on the control circuit board; or, the control circuit board is provided with a power interface for supplying power to the control circuit board through a direct current source.
Further, the length direction of the branch circuit board is perpendicular to the length direction of the control circuit board.
Further, the temperature and humidity sensor is provided with a waterproof and dustproof protective film.
Furthermore, the middle active area is provided with a placing groove, the detection bipolar plate further comprises measuring units which are arranged in the placing groove and correspond to the subareas one by one, and first insulating pieces which are arranged between the adjacent measuring units; the measuring unit comprises two conducting strips arranged at intervals, a second insulating piece arranged between the two conducting strips, a standard resistor, a first lead, a gas pressure sensor and a second lead, wherein the two ends of the standard resistor are connected with the two conducting strips in a one-to-one correspondence mode; the controller is electrically connected with the standard resistor through the first lead to measure the voltage drop across the standard resistor, and the controller is electrically connected with the gas pressure sensor through the second lead to measure the gas pressure; the branch circuit board is positioned between the two layers of the conducting strips.
Furthermore, the standard resistor is measured by four wires, two test points are respectively arranged at two ends of the standard resistor, one pair of the test points are directly connected to two ends of the standard resistor as current supply, and the other pair of the test points are used for measuring voltage and are arranged close to two ends of the standard resistor.
Furthermore, the number of the first wires corresponding to one measuring unit is four, a joint between one of the conducting strips and the standard resistor and a joint between the other conducting strip and the standard resistor in the same measuring unit are respectively connected with one first wire, and each conducting strip is respectively connected with one first wire.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the technical effects that: the temperature and humidity detection device in the fuel cell has simple and reliable structure, and the electric pile detection bipolar plate is easy to disassemble and assemble. The integrated temperature and humidity sensor is embedded into the plate body, temperature and humidity of any position inside the fuel cell can be detected simultaneously, the embedded installation mode has no influence on the membrane electrode and a reaction gas flow channel, the resistance of the bipolar plate is low, the influence on the fuel cell can be ignored, and the influence on electrochemical reaction caused by structural change of a Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) and a fuel Cell Chip (CCM) reaction area during external installation is avoided. A plurality of branch circuit boards are electrically connected to the control circuit board through the pin header, at least two temperature and humidity sensors are installed on each branch circuit board, the temperature and humidity sensors share the bottom line and the power line, the wiring area is effectively reduced, wiring is simplified and convenient, and meanwhile, the temperature and humidity sensors which break down are very conveniently disassembled, assembled and replaced. The local electrochemical reaction in the cell is monitored, and then adverse reaction of the fuel cell can be avoided by adjusting external input parameters, so that the effects of optimizing performance and prolonging service life are achieved. Meanwhile, through the acquired internal data of the fuel cell, complete test data can be provided for a modeler of the fuel cell, and further the model of the fuel cell is perfected. The adoption of the wireless transmission mode effectively reduces the complex wiring, is very convenient to detect the assembly of the bipolar plate and effectively avoids the misconnection and the circuit break.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention, the drawings needed to be used in the embodiments or the prior art descriptions will be briefly described below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious for those skilled in the art to obtain other drawings based on these drawings without inventive exercise.
Fig. 1 is a front view of a bipolar plate for use in a temperature and humidity measurement device inside a fuel cell according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a perspective assembly view of the sensing bipolar plate of FIG. 1, with the bypass circuit board and temperature and humidity sensor not shown;
fig. 3 is an exploded perspective view of the temperature and humidity detecting device inside the fuel cell of fig. 1;
fig. 4 is an assembly diagram of a branch circuit board, a temperature and humidity sensor and a control circuit board applied in the temperature and humidity detection device inside the fuel cell of fig. 3;
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of a measurement cell employed in the sensing bipolar plate of FIG. 1;
fig. 6 is a perspective assembly view of the temperature and humidity detection device inside the fuel cell according to the embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 7 is a fitted cloud of temperature measurements taken from the tested bipolar plates of FIG. 1;
FIG. 8 is a fitted cloud of humidity measurements from the test bipolar plate of FIG. 1;
FIG. 9 is a table of gas pressure distribution on-line monitoring data obtained from the test bipolar plate of FIG. 1;
FIG. 10 is an on-line monitoring three-dimensional plot of gas pressure distribution from the sensing bipolar plate of FIG. 1;
FIG. 11 is a two-dimensional graph of an on-line monitoring of gas pressure distribution from the sensing bipolar plate of FIG. 1;
figure 12 is a current density profile obtained from the tested bipolar plates of figure 1.
Detailed Description
In order to make the technical problems, technical solutions and advantageous effects to be solved by the present invention more clearly apparent, the present invention is further described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments. It should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the invention and are not intended to limit the invention.
It will be understood that when an element is referred to as being "secured to" or "disposed on" another element, it can be directly on the other element or be indirectly on the other element. When an element is referred to as being "connected to" another element, it can be directly connected to the other element or be indirectly connected to the other element.
It will be understood that the terms "length," "width," "upper," "lower," "front," "rear," "left," "right," "vertical," "horizontal," "top," "bottom," "inner," "outer," and the like, as used herein, refer to an orientation or positional relationship indicated in the drawings, which is solely for the purpose of facilitating the description and simplifying the description, and do not indicate or imply that the device or element being referred to must have a particular orientation, be constructed and operated in a particular orientation, and is therefore not to be construed as limiting the invention.
Furthermore, the terms "first", "second" and "first" are used for descriptive purposes only and are not to be construed as indicating or implying relative importance or implicitly indicating the number of technical features indicated. Thus, a feature defined as "first" or "second" may explicitly or implicitly include one or more of that feature. In the description of the present invention, "a plurality" means two or more unless specifically defined otherwise.
Referring to fig. 1 to 4 and fig. 6, the temperature and humidity detecting device inside the fuel cell according to the present invention will be described. The temperature and humidity detection device in the fuel cell comprises a fuel cell stack 200, a detection bipolar plate 100 arranged in the fuel cell stack 200, an upper computer electrically connected with the detection bipolar plate 100 and a wireless receiving device electrically connected with the upper computer; the detection bipolar plate 100 comprises a plate body 10 having an intermediate active area divided into a plurality of sub-areas 11 distributed in a matrix; the plate body 10 is provided with a plurality of mounting grooves 12 extending along the width direction of the plate body 10, each mounting groove 12 passes through at least two partitions 11 distributed along the width direction of the plate body 10, and the mounting groove 12 penetrates through one side edge of the plate body 10; the detection bipolar plate 100 further comprises branch circuit boards 40 which are correspondingly arranged in the mounting grooves 12 one by one, temperature and humidity sensors 50 which are arranged on the branch circuit boards 40, and a control circuit board 60 which is arranged outside the side edge of the plate body 10; the number of the temperature and humidity sensors 50 is the same as that of the subareas 11, and the temperature and humidity sensors 50 are distributed in the subareas 11 in a one-to-one correspondence manner; mounting holes 13 are respectively formed in the bottom surface of the plate body 10 corresponding to the partitions 11, and the temperature and humidity sensor 50 is located in the corresponding mounting hole 13; the number of the temperature and humidity sensors 50 mounted on the same branch circuit board 40 is equal to the number of the mounting grooves 12 passing through the partitions 11, and the temperature and humidity sensors 50 mounted on the same branch circuit board 40 share power lines and ground lines; the number of the branch circuit boards 40 is equal to the number of the mounting grooves 12, the branch circuit boards 40 close to the same side of the plate body 10 are electrically connected to the same control circuit board 60 through the pin header 70 respectively, the branch circuit boards 40 are provided with first plug holes 41, the control circuit board 60 is provided with second plug holes 61, and two ends of the pin header 70 are plugged in the first plug holes 41 and the second plug holes 61 respectively; the mounting groove 12 is filled with heat-conducting solid glue (not shown) for sealing the branch circuit board 40; a flow channel 14 is arranged on one side surface of the plate body 10 close to the mounting hole 13; the control circuit board 60 is provided with a power supply 80, a wireless transmitting device 90 which is matched with the wireless receiving device to wirelessly transmit signals, and a controller which is used for controlling the temperature and humidity sensor 50 to transmit the signals to the wireless transmitting device 90 and controlling the wireless transmitting device 90 to transmit the signals to the wireless receiving device.
The temperature and humidity detection device in the fuel cell has simple and reliable structure, and the electric pile detection bipolar plate 100 is easy to disassemble and assemble. The integrated temperature and humidity sensor 50 is embedded into the plate body 10, temperature and humidity of any position inside the fuel cell can be detected simultaneously, the embedded installation mode has no influence on the membrane electrode and a reaction gas flow channel, the resistance of the bipolar plate is little, the influence on the fuel cell can be ignored, and the influence on electrochemical reaction caused by structural change of a gas diffusion layer and a fuel cell chip reaction area during external installation is avoided. A plurality of branch circuit boards 40 are connected in control circuit board 60 through row's needle 70 electricity, and every branch circuit board 40 is installed two at least temperature and humidity sensor 50, and temperature and humidity sensor 50 shares bottom line and power cord, effectively reduces wiring area, and the wiring is retrencied more and is convenient, and the while is very convenient carries out dismouting and replacement to the temperature and humidity sensor 50 that breaks down. The local electrochemical reaction in the cell is monitored, and then adverse reaction of the fuel cell can be avoided by adjusting external input parameters, so that the effects of optimizing performance and prolonging service life are achieved. Meanwhile, through the acquired internal data of the fuel cell, complete test data can be provided for a modeler of the fuel cell, and further the model of the fuel cell is perfected. The adoption of the wireless transmission mode effectively reduces the complex wiring, is very convenient to detect the assembly of the bipolar plate 100 and effectively avoids the misconnection and the circuit break.
The plate body 10 is a graphite plate, so that the plate is easy to form and has good conductivity. The flow channel 14 is used for hydrogen transmission of an anode sheet or oxygen transmission of a cathode sheet, and the flow field structure is completely consistent with a standard single cell flow field actually used by a galvanic pile.
The temperature precision of the temperature and humidity sensor 50 can reach 0.1 ℃, the humidity precision can reach 1.5%, and the high-precision detection of the temperature and the humidity is realized. The probe of the temperature and humidity sensor 50 is tightly attached to the bottom of the flow channel 14 of the plate body 10, and can perform in-situ measurement on the temperature and humidity of the reaction gas in the flow channel 14. The integrated temperature and humidity sensors 50 are arranged in the plate body 10 in a matrix distribution mode, temperature and humidity detection can be conducted on the same site of different areas in the fuel cell at the same time, and high-precision in-situ detection data are provided for fuel cell modeling.
Before the temperature and humidity sensor 50 is installed, three-proofing paint (high temperature resistant, waterproof and insulating) is sprayed on the exposed pins of the temperature and humidity sensor for protecting the pins. The arrangement of the temperature and humidity sensor 50 adopts an IIC bus structure. The temperature and humidity sensor is embedded and installed by adopting other digital signal temperature and humidity sensors similar to IIC signals. Two or more temperature and humidity sensors 50 are mounted on a branch circuit board 40 in a group, and can share a power line and a ground line, thereby reducing the wiring area. And arrange temperature and humidity sensor 50's signal line in the middle of the ground wire, can prevent that temperature and humidity sensor 50's signal from receiving external interference. The tail end of the branch circuit board 40 is connected to the control circuit board 60 through the pin header 70, so that the structure is compact and the assembly and disassembly are easy. The temperature and humidity sensor 50 which is out of order or has a fault can be conveniently disassembled, assembled and replaced. The heat-conducting solid glue is high-temperature resistant and corrosion resistant, and the mounting groove 12 of the plate body 10 is sealed by filling glue with the heat-conducting solid glue. The heat-conducting solid glue can be single-component epoxy resin glue.
The controller is a single chip microcomputer or other controllers and can control the temperature and humidity sensor 50, the wireless transmitting device 90 and other related devices. When temperature and humidity detection is carried out, the controller controls the wireless transmitting device 90 to transmit the temperature and humidity sensor 50, and the data transmission frequency of the temperature and humidity sensor 50 is not less than 100 HZ. The wireless transmission can adopt rigbee or PTR2000 or other low-energy consumption, safe and reliable wireless transmission devices, and belongs to the prior art.
When the fuel cell is tested, the controller controls the temperature and humidity sensor 50 to transmit signals to the wireless transmitting device 90, and simultaneously controls the wireless transmitting device 90 to transmit digital signals to the wireless receiving device, and the wireless receiving device transmits received data to an upper computer of a computer through a serial port to be processed and displayed. And the upper computer adopts labview to design an interface and adopts an event triggering structure to check historical data of the sensor. The temperature detection result fitting cloud picture of fig. 7 and the humidity detection result fitting cloud picture of fig. 8 can be obtained through data processing in the prior art.
Further, as a specific embodiment of the temperature and humidity detection device inside the fuel cell provided by the present invention, after the plate body 10 is filled with the heat-conducting solid glue, the heat-conducting solid glue needs to be clamped and dried by a clamp to be cured. One side surface of the plate body 10 filled with the heat-conducting solid glue is milled to obtain a working surface after the heat-conducting solid glue is cured. And the fine milling plane operation ensures that the flatness of the fine milling plane is less than 0.01 mm.
Further, as a specific embodiment of the temperature and humidity detection device inside the fuel cell provided by the present invention, the branch circuit board 40 and the control circuit board 60 are connected in an IIC bus manner. The temperature and humidity sensor 50 outputs IIC digital signals, so that interference of the external environment can be avoided, and lossless high-precision data transmission is realized.
Further, referring to fig. 2 to 4, as a specific embodiment of the temperature and humidity detection device inside a fuel cell provided by the present invention, the plate body 10 has two rows of mounting grooves 12, and two rows of branch circuit boards 40 are correspondingly mounted on the two rows of mounting grooves 12; the number of the control circuit boards 60 is two, the two control circuit boards 60 are respectively located outside the two opposite side edges of the board body 10, and the branch circuit boards 40 in one row are electrically connected to the same control circuit board 60. The control circuit board 60 serves as a reinforcing rib on both sides of the board body 10, which not only can enhance the mechanical strength of the board body 10, but also can facilitate data transmission to the temperature and humidity sensor 50.
Further, as a specific implementation manner of the temperature and humidity detection device inside the fuel cell provided by the present invention, a charging device for charging the power supply 80 is disposed on the control circuit board 60, so as to conveniently charge the power supply 80 of the control circuit board 60; alternatively, the control circuit board 60 is provided with an interface of the power supply 80 for supplying power to the control circuit board 60 and the sensor through a direct current source.
Further, as a specific embodiment of the temperature and humidity detecting device inside the fuel cell provided by the present invention, the length direction of the branch circuit board 40 is perpendicular to the length direction of the control circuit board 60. The structure is convenient for the branch circuit board 40 to be arranged on the control circuit board 60, and has compact structure and small occupied space.
Further, as a specific embodiment of the temperature and humidity detecting device inside the fuel cell provided by the present invention, the temperature and humidity sensor 50 has a waterproof and dustproof protective film and can work in a weak acid environment, the most preferable temperature and humidity sensor is a SHT31-DIS-F type sensor, the size of the sensor is not more than 5mm x 2mm, and the output signal of the temperature and humidity sensor is an IIC digital signal or other digital signal.
Further, referring to fig. 1, fig. 3 and fig. 5, as a specific embodiment of the device for detecting temperature and humidity inside a fuel cell according to the present invention, a placing groove is formed in the middle active region, the bipolar plate 100 further includes measuring units 20 disposed in the placing groove and corresponding to the partitions 11 one by one, and a first insulating member 30 disposed between adjacent measuring units 20; the measuring unit 20 comprises two conducting strips 21 arranged at intervals, a second insulating member 22 arranged between the two conducting strips 21, a standard resistor 23 with two ends connected to the two conducting strips 21 in a one-to-one correspondence manner, a first lead 24 electrically connected with the standard resistor 23, a gas pressure sensor 25 penetrating the conducting strips 21, and a second lead 26 electrically connected with the gas pressure sensor 25, wherein the two conducting strips 21 are respectively arranged close to two side surfaces of the plate body 10; the controller is electrically connected with the standard resistor 23 through a first lead 24 to measure the voltage drop across the standard resistor 23, and is electrically connected with the gas pressure sensor 25 through a second lead 26 to measure the gas pressure; the branch circuit board 40 is located between the two layers of conductive sheets 21.
The structure is easy to assemble and compact. The controller measures the voltage drop at both ends of the standard resistor 23, and the current density is obtained through conversion by combining the area of the standard resistor 23 and the area of the conducting strip 21. The controller obtains the gas pressure through a gas pressure sensor 25. The synchronous online monitoring of the current density and the gas pressure distribution in the battery is realized, and the current density and the gas pressure distribution in the battery operation process are reflected in a real and vivid manner. The conductive sheet 21 is a gold-plated copper sheet or a graphite sheet. The structure is easy to form and has good conductivity.
The method comprises the steps that an upper computer is designed by using labview, during testing, the upper computer sends an instruction to a control circuit, the control circuit can collect an analog signal according to the instruction, the analog signal is measured by calling a built-in multimeter of the labview, voltage signals of current density/gas pressure sensors of all partitions 11 are collected in real time, and then data are transmitted to an upper computer program to be calculated, so that the current density and gas pressure distribution condition in the battery can be obtained.
When in operation, oxygen/air, hydrogen and water are introduced into the galvanic pile. And connecting each sensor wire with external data acquisition equipment, analyzing, calculating and converting into each key physical parameter of the operation of the galvanic pile, and drawing the data into a three-dimensional distribution map. After the voltage drop U is measured, the current density of the partition is calculated according to the formula U-IR, I-I/S. U is the voltage drop at two ends of the standard resistor, R is the resistance value of the standard resistor, I is the partition current, S is the partition area, and I is the partition current density.
The central active area of the plate body 10 is 186cm2Divided into 4 × 9 partitions 11, the number and shape of the partitions 11 can be determined by themselves according to the size of the active area and the measurement requirements. For the galvanic pile of the full partition 11, a resistance array is used to measure the current surface density distribution with high resolution. The gas pressure distribution is measured using in-situ, non-destructive techniques. The in-situ electrochemical test can be carried out on the electric pile subarea 11, the local physical and chemical states are analyzed through an impedance spectrum analysis technology, the mutual verification is carried out by contrasting a plurality of physical quantity measurement data, and the material composition and the microstructure change of the corresponding area after the electric pile test are inspected, so that the unevenness and the attenuation rule of the electric pile are deeply, comprehensively and visually known. The potential distribution of the electrode plane can be obtained simultaneously. And measuring physical quantity of one or more single cells in the electric pile to obtain a three-dimensional distribution map.
The adjacent measurement units 20 are spaced apart from each other, and the first insulating member 30 is made of insulating glue. Gaps are reserved among the subareas 11, and insulating glue is filled in the gaps to insulate the subareas from each other so as to ensure the relative independence of the test results of the subareas 11. The second insulating member 22 is made of insulating glue, and the second insulating member 22 is adhered between the two conductive sheets 21 of the same measuring unit 20. The structure is easy to assemble, the assembly of the two conducting strips 21 is realized, and the whole structure is compact.
Further, referring to fig. 5, as a specific embodiment of the temperature and humidity detecting device inside the fuel cell provided by the present invention, the standard resistor 23 is measured by four wires, two test points 23a and 23b are respectively disposed at two ends of the standard resistor 23, wherein one pair of test points 23b is directly connected to two ends of the standard resistor 23 as current supplies, and the other pair of test points 23a is disposed close to two ends of the standard resistor 23 for measuring voltage. The resistance value of the standard resistor 23 changes with the temperature, and the resistance value of the standard resistor 23 is measured by adopting a four-wire method, so that the influence of measuring the wire resistance is eliminated. Because the impedance of the measured voltage loop is very high, the current flowing through the voltage lead is very small and can be ignored, so that the resistance value of the measured resistor is equal to the voltage measured by the voltage lead divided by the current passing through the current lead, the error caused by the resistance of the lead is effectively eliminated, and the accurate measurement of the resistance value of the measured resistor is realized. The method can accurately calibrate the resistance value of each standard resistor 23 used for current density measurement at any operating temperature at any time, ensure that the voltage drop at two ends of the standard resistor 23 is accurately measured, and avoid the current density calculation error caused by temperature interference.
Further, as a specific embodiment of the device for detecting temperature and humidity inside a fuel cell provided by the present invention, the number of the first wires 24 corresponding to one measuring unit 20 is four, the first wire 24 is connected to the connection between one of the conductive sheets 21 and the standard resistor 23 and the connection between the other conductive sheet 21 and the standard resistor 23 in the same measuring unit 20, and each conductive sheet 21 is connected to one first wire 24. The structure is easy to connect, the resistance value of the standard resistor 23 is measured by adopting a four-wire method, the influence of measuring the line resistance is eliminated, and the voltage drop between the two conducting strips 21 is conveniently and accurately measured.
The standard resistor 23 is arranged at the side edges of the two conducting strips 21; alternatively, the standard resistor 23 is provided between the two conductive sheets 21. Both the above two schemes can realize that the standard resistor 23 is electrically connected between the two conducting strips 21, and the structure is compact.
The conducting strip 21 in the same measuring unit is provided with a via hole 211, the gas pressure sensor 25 is positioned in the via hole 211 and is arranged close to the conducting strip 21 with the flow channel 211, the gas pressure sensor 25 is electrically connected with two second wires 26, and the second wires 26 are arranged in the via hole 211 in a penetrating way. The gas pressure sensor 25 is small in size and can be placed in the flow channel 211 of the conductive sheet 21 to sense the pressure of the gas flowing through, and then the pressure sensor is connected with the controller by the second wire 26 to output a signal. A hole 211 is drilled in the conducting strip 21 perpendicular to the flow field direction for installing the gas pressure sensor 25, the gas pressure sensor 25 converts a physical signal into an electrical signal, the electrical signal is transmitted to the controller through the second wire 26 and then transmitted to the upper computer, and the magnitude of the gas pressure is directly displayed in a chart form.
Through the data processing in the prior art, as shown in fig. 9 to 11, the gas pressure distribution in the galvanic pile can be expressed in various forms such as a data table, a two-dimensional graph, a three-dimensional graph and the like in real time, and is vivid, visual and concrete.
As shown in fig. 9 and 10, a test bipolar plate 100 was placed in the middle of a three-cell stack, and a constant current test of 158A was performed under an operating condition in which air with an excess factor of 2.0 was introduced into the anode at 103kPa and 60 c, and hydrogen with an excess factor of 1.2 was introduced into the cathode at 100kPa and 60 c, and was cooled with deionized water at 100kPa and 60 c. It was found that the gas pressure gradually decreased from inlet to outlet with a maximum pressure drop of about 20kPa and the pressure dropped faster near the outlet, probably due to oxygen consumption and the obstruction of oxygen transport due to water accumulation. (absolute pressure is shown in FIGS. 9 and 10, and relative pressures are shown for test conditions of 103kPa and 100 kPa).
As shown in fig. 11, under the above test conditions, changes in the gas pressure at various portions inside the battery with time were observed. Because the number of the partitions 11 is large, 4 partitions 11 are selected for drawing at the air inlet, the air outlet and the middle part of the battery respectively. It can be seen that the pressure gradually decreases from the inlet to the outlet, mainly due to the consumption of oxygen by the oxygen reduction reaction. Over time, the gas pressure at each location was relatively stable, indicating that the cell performed well with the test bipolar plate 100 fitted with the sectors 11.
As shown in fig. 12, under the above test conditions, the current density distribution inside the stack was found to be significantly uneven. The current density at the inlet was significantly higher than at the outlet, consistent with the gas pressure distribution test results. The highest point of current density appears at the hydrogen inlet because of the sufficient fuel, the good temperature, humidity and gas pressure, and no water accumulation.
The present invention is not limited to the above preferred embodiments, and any modifications, equivalent substitutions and improvements made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. The temperature and humidity detection device in the fuel cell is characterized by comprising a fuel cell stack, a detection bipolar plate arranged in the fuel cell stack, an upper computer electrically connected with the detection bipolar plate and a wireless receiving device electrically connected with the upper computer; the detection bipolar plate comprises a plate body with a middle active area, wherein the middle active area is divided into a plurality of subareas distributed in a matrix manner, and the plate body is a graphite plate; the plate body is provided with a plurality of mounting grooves extending along the width direction of the plate body, each mounting groove passes through at least two partitions distributed along the width direction of the plate body, and the mounting groove penetrates through one side edge of the plate body; the detection bipolar plate also comprises branch circuit boards which are correspondingly arranged in the mounting grooves one by one, temperature and humidity sensors which are arranged on the branch circuit boards, and a control circuit board which is arranged outside the side edges of the plate body, wherein the control circuit board is used as a reinforcing rib of the plate body to enhance the mechanical strength of the plate body and is used for carrying out data transmission on the temperature and humidity sensors; the number of the temperature and humidity sensors is the same as that of the subareas, and the temperature and humidity sensors are distributed in the subareas in a one-to-one correspondence manner; mounting holes are respectively formed in the bottom surface of the plate body corresponding to the partitions, and the temperature and humidity sensor is located in the corresponding mounting holes; the number of the temperature and humidity sensors arranged on the same branch circuit board is equal to the number of the installation grooves passing through the subareas, and the temperature and humidity sensors arranged on the same branch circuit board share power lines and ground lines; the number of the branch circuit boards is equal to that of the mounting grooves, the branch circuit boards close to the same side of the plate body are electrically connected to the same control circuit board through row pins respectively, the branch circuit boards are provided with first plug holes, the control circuit board is provided with second plug holes, and two ends of the row pins are respectively plugged in the first plug holes and the second plug holes; the mounting groove is filled with heat-conducting solid glue for sealing the branch circuit board; a flow channel is formed in one side surface, close to the mounting hole, of the plate body; the flow channel is used for hydrogen transmission of the anode sheet or oxygen transmission of the cathode sheet, and a flow field structure formed by the flow channel is consistent with a standard single cell flow field actually used by the electric pile; the control circuit board is provided with a power supply, a wireless transmitting device which is matched with the wireless receiving device to wirelessly transmit signals, and a controller which is used for controlling the temperature and humidity sensor to transmit the signals to the wireless transmitting device and controlling the wireless transmitting device to transmit the signals to the wireless receiving device.
2. The temperature and humidity detection device inside a fuel cell according to claim 1, wherein a working surface is obtained by milling a side surface of the plate body filled with the heat-conducting solid glue after the heat-conducting solid glue is cured.
3. The fuel cell internal temperature and humidity detecting device according to claim 1, wherein the branch circuit board and the control circuit board are connected in an IIC bus form.
4. The fuel cell internal temperature and humidity detecting device according to claim 1, wherein the plate body has two rows of the mounting grooves, and two rows of the branch circuit boards are correspondingly mounted in the two rows of the mounting grooves; the number of the control circuit boards is two, the two control circuit boards are respectively positioned outside the two side edges of the plate body, and the branch circuit boards in one row are electrically connected to the same control circuit board.
5. The fuel cell internal temperature and humidity detecting device according to claim 1, wherein a charging device for charging a power supply is provided on the control circuit board; or, the control circuit board is provided with a power interface for supplying power to the control circuit board through a direct current source.
6. The fuel cell internal temperature/humidity detecting device according to claim 1, wherein a longitudinal direction of the branch circuit board is perpendicular to a longitudinal direction of the control circuit board.
7. The fuel cell internal temperature/humidity detecting device according to claim 1, wherein the temperature/humidity sensor has a waterproof and dustproof protective film.
8. The fuel cell internal temperature and humidity detection device according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the middle active region is provided with a placement groove, the detection bipolar plate further comprises measurement units which are arranged in the placement groove and correspond to the partitions one by one, and first insulation members which are arranged between adjacent measurement units; the measuring unit comprises two conducting strips arranged at intervals, a second insulating piece arranged between the two conducting strips, a standard resistor, a first lead, a gas pressure sensor and a second lead, wherein the two ends of the standard resistor are connected with the two conducting strips in a one-to-one correspondence mode; the controller is electrically connected with the standard resistor through the first lead to measure the voltage drop across the standard resistor, and the controller is electrically connected with the gas pressure sensor through the second lead to measure the gas pressure; the branch circuit board is positioned between the two layers of the conducting strips.
9. The fuel cell internal temperature and humidity detecting device according to claim 8, wherein the standard resistor is measured by four wires, two test points are provided at both ends of the standard resistor, respectively, one pair of the test points is directly connected to both ends of the standard resistor as a current supply, and the other pair of the test points is provided close to both ends of the standard resistor for measuring a voltage.
10. The apparatus according to claim 9, wherein the number of the first wires corresponding to one of the measuring units is four, and a connection point between one of the conductive sheets and the standard resistor and a connection point between the other conductive sheet and the standard resistor in the same measuring unit are respectively connected with one of the first wires, and each of the conductive sheets is respectively connected with one of the first wires.
CN201811125975.1A 2018-09-26 2018-09-26 Temperature and humidity detection device inside fuel cell Active CN110057395B (en)

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CN111308359A (en) * 2020-03-31 2020-06-19 上海交通大学 Multifunctional on-line test system for large-area fuel cell

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JPH08111230A (en) * 1994-10-12 1996-04-30 Kansai Electric Power Co Inc:The Operating method for solid high polymer type fuel cell
CN102324537A (en) * 2011-08-31 2012-01-18 上海尧豫实业有限公司 Humidification system of fuel cell
CN103576095A (en) * 2012-08-02 2014-02-12 同济大学 System and method for detecting internal performance of fuel cell in real time
CN103675694A (en) * 2012-09-26 2014-03-26 同济大学 Fuel cell pile online regional detection system and method
CN104916855A (en) * 2015-06-30 2015-09-16 中国东方电气集团有限公司 Fuel cell device
CN108736049A (en) * 2018-04-24 2018-11-02 上海交通大学 A kind of fuel battery inside temperature and humidity on-line measurement system

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH08111230A (en) * 1994-10-12 1996-04-30 Kansai Electric Power Co Inc:The Operating method for solid high polymer type fuel cell
CN102324537A (en) * 2011-08-31 2012-01-18 上海尧豫实业有限公司 Humidification system of fuel cell
CN103576095A (en) * 2012-08-02 2014-02-12 同济大学 System and method for detecting internal performance of fuel cell in real time
CN103675694A (en) * 2012-09-26 2014-03-26 同济大学 Fuel cell pile online regional detection system and method
CN104916855A (en) * 2015-06-30 2015-09-16 中国东方电气集团有限公司 Fuel cell device
CN108736049A (en) * 2018-04-24 2018-11-02 上海交通大学 A kind of fuel battery inside temperature and humidity on-line measurement system

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