CN110055939B - Sea surface spilled oil recovery and on-site concentration separation and standard discharge system - Google Patents

Sea surface spilled oil recovery and on-site concentration separation and standard discharge system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110055939B
CN110055939B CN201910338443.4A CN201910338443A CN110055939B CN 110055939 B CN110055939 B CN 110055939B CN 201910338443 A CN201910338443 A CN 201910338443A CN 110055939 B CN110055939 B CN 110055939B
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oil
vortex separator
axial vortex
flow
water
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CN110055939A (en
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姬宜朋
陈家庆
蔡小垒
孔令真
刘美丽
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Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology
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Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/20Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by degassing, i.e. liberation of dissolved gases
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/40Devices for separating or removing fatty or oily substances or similar floating material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B15/00Cleaning or keeping clear the surface of open water; Apparatus therefor
    • E02B15/04Devices for cleaning or keeping clear the surface of open water from oil or like floating materials by separating or removing these materials
    • E02B15/048Oil collectors moved over the water skimming the water surface
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2103/00Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated
    • C02F2103/08Seawater, e.g. for desalination
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/20Controlling water pollution; Waste water treatment
    • Y02A20/204Keeping clear the surface of open water from oil spills

Abstract

The invention discloses a sea surface spilled oil recovery and on-site concentration separation and standard discharge system, which comprises an oil skimming and underwater pre-water separation module, a ship concentration dehydration and sewage standard discharge module; the oil skimming and underwater pre-water separation module comprises a sinking type vortex self-suction oil skimming machine and a semi-submersible type axial vortex separator; the on-board concentrated dehydration and sewage standard-reaching discharge module comprises a dehydration type axial vortex separator, an oil removal type axial vortex separator, a jet pump and a two-stage series cyclone floating oil removal device. The system adopts a compact tubular separation technology and a compact cyclone floating separation technology which are matched with each other to recover the spilled oil on the sea surface, concentrate the spilled oil on the spot and purify the sewage to reach the standard and discharge the spilled oil. The three axial vortex separators are driven by a variable frequency motor, the rotating speed of the motor is adjusted in real time according to the inlet flow, the application range of incoming liquid flow fluctuation is wide, the control is simple and convenient, and the liquid loading amount is less than 20% of the oil skimming amount.

Description

Sea surface spilled oil recovery and on-site concentration separation and standard discharge system
Technical Field
The invention relates to a process for recovering and treating overwater spilled oil on site, in particular to a system for recovering and concentrating and separating sea surface spilled oil on site and discharging the spilled oil on the standard.
Background
With the increasing development of marine resources, particularly marine petroleum resources, the possibility of occurrence of water surface oil spill accidents is higher and higher, and therefore, the importance of emergency treatment work of the water surface oil spill accidents is highlighted. In a plurality of emergency treatment technologies for water surface oil spill accidents, the oil skimming technology does not cause secondary pollution to the local environment, and the skimmed oil can be recycled after being treated, so that the method is the most environment-friendly and ideal method in the water surface oil spill emergency treatment technology. However, during oil skimming, the water content of the skimming is high, the water content of the skimming is still about 90% during large-scale oil spilling, and the water content of the recovered material cannot be controlled even when the oil film on the water surface is thin. Due to the limitation of an oil storage space, the oil skimming boat has to frequently go to and fro accident sites and port oil storage depots, so that the oil skimming efficiency is low, and the effect of the oil skimming boat is not obvious when large-scale oil spilling accidents occur. In the event of oil spill of "4.20" in 2010, 2063 oil skimming devices are used by BP company, 10,599 cubes of oil-polluted water are skimmed, the recovered oil amount is 1,211 cubes, the total oil skimming amount only accounts for 3.0% of the oil drainage amount, and the average oil content of the skimmed material is only 11.4%.
In order to reduce the reciprocating times of the oil skimmer and improve the oil skimming efficiency, the scheme of preliminarily separating the skimmed material on the oil skimmer and discharging the separated clean water back to the water body is undoubtedly an effective measure for solving the problem of low oil skimming operation efficiency. The method is limited by small operation space and few operators on the oil skimming vessel, and the current treatment processes of gravity settling, air flotation, filtration, membrane separation, chemistry, biochemistry and the like applied on a large scale in oil fields and refining enterprises have long flow, complicated operation and large occupied area and cannot be installed on the oil skimming vessel. Therefore, the research on the application of the compact separation process with simple and convenient operation, small occupied area and short flow on the oil skimming vessel is concerned widely. Oil-water separation process for oil skimming vessels was developed and publicized by Corp and Enviro Voraxilal Technology (EVTN) of the United states by using hydrocyclones and axial vortex separators, respectively, as core separation equipment. In 2013, under the support of the seventh scientific and technological framework plan (EU FP7) of the European Union, the French YLec Consultants relies on the HOVERSPILL project to provide the Turbylec type dynamic centrifuge with high stability and strong applicability for the first time aiming at the special conditions of complex components of the skimmed matter, constantly changing physical parameters along with the change of time, small volume, simple and convenient operation and the like. The core separation equipment used by the existing oil-water separation system for the oil skimmer, such as a hydrocyclone, an axial vortex separator, a Turbylec dynamic centrifuge and the like, adopt a strong-vortex centrifugal separation scheme, viscous shearing and turbulent pulsation in a strong-vortex flow field inevitably cause the breaking of dispersed phase oil drops, and further the oil content of the effluent in the oil spill on-site separation process only adopting the strong-vortex separation cannot meet the requirements of national standards (GB 3552-83) for ship sewage discharge (inland river and offshore sea area, and the oil content of the ship external drainage is lower than 15 mg/L). Therefore, how to utilize the existing high-efficiency separation technology to design a system for recovering, concentrating and separating sea surface spilled oil and discharging the spilled oil to reach the standard, which has the advantages of small space on the ship, high oil content standard of ship external drainage and simple operation, has great significance.
In the prior art, the main problems of the spilled oil recovery and the on-site treatment process are the problems of high oil content of discharged water, long process flow, large equipment volume caused by long hydraulic retention time of the process and the like. For example, patent publication No. CN102989200A entitled "oil-water separation process and apparatus for oil spill recovery robot" adopts hydrocyclone and gravity settling separator with coalescent filler to concentrate the skimmed material, and the oil content of the discharged sea sewage is up to 10000 mg/L. The oil content of the discharged water is reduced to below 10mg/L by adopting an air floatation technology in the air floatation technology of ' dissolved air type spilled oil recovery device and method based on weir type oil recovery ' with the patent number of CN102864763B, ' a ship-borne spilled oil recovery system based on air floatation type spilled oil separation ' with the patent number of CN105731578A, ' an offshore spilled oil recovery air floatation treatment device based on Venturi effect ' with the patent number of CN10544251A ' and ' a rapid water surface spilled oil recovery system ' with the patent number of CN 103343528B. However, the air flotation separation is generally used in the oil removal operation of sewage with low oil content, and when large oil spillage is encountered, the oil content of the recovered matter is high (10%), and the air flotation separation operation is not suitable for being directly performed under the condition of high oil content. In addition, the conventional air floatation oil removal process has long hydraulic retention time which is generally more than 20 minutes, so that air floatation equipment with large volume is difficult to install and use on a ship under large treatment capacity. The recovered materials are separated by adopting filtration or membrane separation technology, such as ' a device for treating spilled oil with rapid recovery ' with patent publication No. CN106836160A, ' a system for recovering spilled oil on water with rapid and high efficiency ' with CN108179732A and a use method thereof ', an ' oil skimming device capable of recovering offshore thin oil film ' with CN203212359U and ' a soft bag type oil dam with storage and advanced treatment ' with CN 106630514A.
In the prior art, when large-scale oil spillage is faced and the oil content in the recovered mixture is high, the filter material or the membrane is quickly blocked, so that the effective working time is difficult to ensure; and the hydraulic retention time of filtration and membrane separation is also longer, and the equipment volume is large during large treatment, so that the limitation of small ship space cannot be met.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a system for recovering spilled oil on the sea surface, concentrating and separating the spilled oil on the spot and discharging the spilled oil to reach the standard.
The purpose of the invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
the invention relates to a sea surface spilled oil recovery, in-situ concentration, separation and standard-reaching discharge system, which comprises an oil skimming and underwater pre-diversion module, a ship concentration dehydration and sewage standard-reaching discharge module;
the oil skimming and underwater pre-water separation module comprises a sinking type vortex self-suction oil skimming machine and a semi-submersible type axial vortex separator, wherein the outlet of the sinking type vortex self-suction oil skimming machine is directly connected with the inlet of the semi-submersible type axial vortex separator;
the semi-submersible axial vortex separator is controlled by a variable frequency motor in real time according to an inlet flowmeter;
the on-board concentrated dehydration and sewage standard-reaching discharge module comprises a dehydration type axial vortex separator, an oil removal type axial vortex separator, a jet pump and a two-stage cyclone floating oil removal device connected in series;
the inlet of the dehydration type axial vortex separator is connected with the oil outlet of the semi-submersible axial vortex separator through a low-shear booster pump;
a water outlet of the dehydration type axial vortex separator is connected with an inlet of the oil removal type axial vortex separator, and an oil outlet of the dehydration type axial vortex separator is connected with an oil storage tank or an oil bag;
an oil outlet of the oil removal type axial vortex separator is directly connected into the oil storage chamber or the oil bag, and a water outlet is connected with an inlet of the two-stage cyclone floating oil removal device in series;
the jet pump is installed on an inlet pipeline of the cyclone floating oil removal device;
and a water outlet of the two-stage cyclone floating oil removal device connected in series is emptied, and an oil outlet is directly connected to the oil storage cabin or the oil bag.
According to the technical scheme provided by the invention, the sea surface spilled oil recovery, in-situ concentration and separation and standard-reaching discharge system provided by the embodiment of the invention adopts a system for recovering, in-situ concentration and sewage purification and standard-reaching discharge matched with a compact tubular separation technology and a compact cyclone floating separation technology. The three axial eddy current separators are driven by a variable frequency motor, the rotating speed of the motor is adjusted in real time according to the inlet flow, the application range of the incoming liquid flow fluctuation is wide, and the control is simple and convenient.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a process flow diagram of a system for recovering spilled oil from sea surface and performing concentration, separation and standard discharge on site according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of an axial vortex separator according to an embodiment of the present invention.
In the figure:
the device comprises the following components of 1-a sunken vortex self-suction oil skimmer, 2-a flow meter, 3-a semi-submersible axial vortex separator, 4-a variable frequency motor, 5-a low shear booster pump, 6-a dehydration type axial vortex separator, 7-an oil storage tank or an oil bag, 8-a self-control valve, 9-an oil removal type axial vortex separator, 10-a jet pump, 11-a two-stage cyclone floating device connected in series, 12-an online oil content measuring instrument and 13-a spinning blade of the axial vortex separator.
Detailed Description
The embodiments of the present invention will be described in further detail below. Details which are not described in detail in the embodiments of the invention belong to the prior art which is known to the person skilled in the art.
The invention relates to a sea surface spilled oil recovery and on-site concentration separation and standard discharge system, which has the preferred embodiment that:
the system comprises an oil skimming and underwater pre-water separation module, a ship concentration dehydration module and a sewage standard-reaching discharge module;
the oil skimming and underwater pre-water separation module comprises a sinking type vortex self-suction oil skimming machine and a semi-submersible type axial vortex separator, wherein the outlet of the sinking type vortex self-suction oil skimming machine is directly connected with the inlet of the semi-submersible type axial vortex separator;
the semi-submersible axial vortex separator is controlled by a variable frequency motor in real time according to an inlet flowmeter;
the on-board concentrated dehydration and sewage standard-reaching discharge module comprises a dehydration type axial vortex separator, an oil removal type axial vortex separator, a jet pump and a two-stage cyclone floating oil removal device connected in series;
the inlet of the dehydration type axial vortex separator is connected with the oil outlet of the semi-submersible axial vortex separator through a low-shear booster pump;
a water outlet of the dehydration type axial vortex separator is connected with an inlet of the oil removal type axial vortex separator, and an oil outlet of the dehydration type axial vortex separator is connected with an oil storage tank or an oil bag;
an oil outlet of the oil removal type axial vortex separator is directly connected into the oil storage chamber or the oil bag, and a water outlet is connected with an inlet of the two-stage cyclone floating oil removal device in series;
the jet pump is installed on an inlet pipeline of the cyclone floating oil removal device;
and a water outlet of the two-stage cyclone floating oil removal device connected in series is emptied, and an oil outlet is directly connected to the oil storage cabin or the oil bag.
The submerged vortex self-priming oil skimmer and the semi-submersible axial vortex separator are arranged under water measured by an oil skimmer, the oil skimming port of the submerged vortex self-priming oil skimmer is arranged in the same direction as the advancing direction of a ship, and the water outlet of the semi-submersible axial vortex separator is opposite to the running direction of the ship.
And a flow meter is arranged on an inlet pipeline of the dehydration type axial vortex separator, and a flow meter and an automatic control valve are arranged at a water outlet.
And a flow meter and a self-control valve are arranged at a water outlet of the oil removal type axial vortex separator.
And a water outlet of the two-stage series cyclone floating oil removal device is provided with a flowmeter, a self-control valve and an online oil content detector.
And the rotation starting blades of the semi-submersible type axial vortex separator, the dehydration type axial vortex separator and the oil removal type axial vortex separator are all in a gradually-changed spiral shape.
The semi-submersible axial vortex separator finishes the dehydration separation operation of the skimmed material in underwater water, the skimmed water is directly discharged into a water body, the control mode is that the flow of an oil outlet is adjusted according to the thickness of an oil layer in an oil spilling area, the flow of the oil inlet is the oil skimming amount of an oil skimming machine, and the flow of the oil outlet is not more than 20% of the flow of the oil inlet;
the inlet flow of the dehydration type axial vortex separator is controlled by a low-shear booster pump, and the water outlet flow is not less than 20% of the inlet flow;
the water outlet flow of the oil-removing axial vortex separator is not less than 90% of the inlet flow;
the jet pump sucks a certain amount of air by utilizing fluid potential energy and completes the mixing of the air and the oily sewage;
the water outlet flow of the two-stage series cyclone floating oil removal device is not less than 90% of the inlet flow, and the water outlet flow is automatically reduced by a small amount when the oil content of the water outlet exceeds the standard.
The invention relates to a sea surface spilled oil recovery, in-situ concentration and separation and standard reaching discharge system, which utilizes the reverse motion of a water body relative to a ship when an oil skimming ship runs as the driving force for underwater oil skimming and pre-dehydration during working, and adopts a semi-submersible axial vortex separator without pressure loss to carry out underwater pre-dehydration for recovered oil. The skimmed material is primarily concentrated under water, and the separated water is not loaded onto the ship, so that the limit of oil content of the externally discharged water of the ship is avoided, and the sewage loading amount is greatly reduced. And only need control the water content of oil export under water, consequently be convenient for realize automatic control. The recovered oil on board is concentrated again by the dewatering axial vortex separator, the oil phase enters the oil storage tank or the oil bag, the water phase is purified by the oil removal axial vortex separator and the two-stage cyclone floating separation equipment in series in sequence, and the water phase is discharged into the water body after standard treatment. The total hydraulic retention time of all separation equipment is not more than 5 minutes, so the process equipment is compact, the separation efficiency is high, and the process equipment is undoubtedly an ideal process scheme for recovering offshore spilled oil.
The oil phase is discharged into an oil storage cabin or a floating oil sac after being concentrated, the separated water phase is pretreated by an oil removal type axial vortex separator, and the oil content of the treated sewage is not higher than 300 mg/L. And finally, controlling the oil content of the externally discharged water to be below 15mg/L by using two stages of cyclone floating devices connected in series, and discharging the externally discharged water into a water body after the requirement of the national standard of the externally discharged water of the ship is met. An inlet of the dehydration type axial vortex separator is directly connected with the low-shear booster pump, and a water outlet is connected with the oil removal type axial vortex separator; the water outlet of the oil-removing axial vortex separator is directly connected with the two-stage cyclone floating device in series connection, the whole process only uses one booster pump, no buffer tank is arranged between all separation devices, the process flow is short, and oil-water emulsification caused by intermediate links is reduced.
The system for recovering spilled oil on the sea surface, concentrating and separating on the spot and discharging the spilled oil to reach the standard utilizes three axial vortex separators which are driven by a variable frequency motor, the rotating speed of the motor is adjusted in real time according to the inlet flow, the application range of the fluctuation of the incoming liquid flow is wide, and the control is simple and convenient. The rotating blades of the axial vortex separator are in a gradually-changed spiral shape, so that the axial vortex separator has certain pumping capacity while driving fluid to rotate, pressure loss in the separation process is compensated, and the skimmer is pre-dehydrated underwater by taking the axial vortex separator as a core; concentration of the recovered oil and external drainage pre-de-oiling are carried out on the vessel. The cyclone floating device is selected to treat the externally discharged water to reach the standard, the jet pump is arranged at the inlet of the cyclone floating device, the air is sucked by utilizing the potential energy of the fluid, an air compressor is not required to be arranged, and any medicament is not required to be added.
The invention relates to a sea surface spilled oil recovery, in-situ concentration and separation and standard discharge system.A sinking type vortex self-absorption oil skimmer is used for collecting water surface floating oil and preventing larger floating garbage from entering the recovery system.
The sinking type vortex self-suction oil skimmer and the semi-submersible type axial vortex separator are arranged on the floating body and are in a suspended state in water, and floating oil is recovered by utilizing the reverse motion of a water body relative to a ship when the ship advances. The inlet of the oil skimming machine is consistent with the advancing direction of the ship, and the outlet of the oil skimming machine is directly connected with the inlet of the semi-submersible type axial vortex separator. The water outlet of the semi-submersible axial vortex separator is arranged in the reverse direction of the advancing direction of the ship, the water is drained by utilizing the carrying effect of the water body, and the oil outlet is connected with a low-shear booster pump arranged on the ship. The driving motor of the semi-submersible type axial eddy current separator is a variable frequency motor, and the rotating speed of the motor is automatically controlled in real time according to the inlet flow. The flow of the low-shear booster pump is controlled by a variable frequency motor in real time, the oil content of a water outlet is not limited during underwater separation, so that the oil content of an oil receiving port is only used as a control index, in a large-scale oil spill accident, the water content in the recovered oil of an oil skimmer is about 90%, at the moment, the flow of the oil phase outlet of the semi-submersible axial vortex separator can be set to be 20% of the inlet shunting, and the low water content of the dirty oil on the ship is ensured; for small-scale oil spilling accidents, because the oil film is relatively thin, the water content in the recovered oil of the oil skimmer is often over 99%, and at the moment, the flow of the oil phase outlet of the semi-submersible type axial vortex separator can be set to be 5% of the inlet split flow.
The inlet of the dehydration type axial vortex separator is connected with the low-shear booster pump, the water outlet is provided with an automatic control valve, the oil outlet is connected into an oil tank or an oil bag, and the rotating speed is controlled by the variable frequency motor in real time according to the inlet flow. In order to ensure that the subsequent sewage can be discharged after reaching the standard, in a large-scale oil spill accident, the water content of the oil on board is about 50 percent, and the water outlet flow is set to be 20 percent of the inlet flow; in small-scale oil spill accidents, the water content of the dirty oil on the ship is less than 20%, and the water outlet flow can be adjusted to be 40% of the inlet flow. In a large-scale oil spill accident, the water content of the recovered oil after concentration is not higher than 40%; the water content of the recovered oil after the concentration of the small-scale oil spill accident is not higher than 70%. The oil content of a water outlet under a test working condition of only adopting an axial vortex separator to treat oily sewage, which is published by the schlumberger company, is shown in the following table, the average separation efficiency is 93 percent, and the separation efficiency is far higher than that of a conventional hydrocyclone. The schlumberger company published that the axial vortex separator of the company has been used in pre-dewatering operations for high water content oils, and in view of the lack of relevant data publications, by referencing the pre-dewatering effect of hydrocyclones when treating high water content oils, the oil content at the water outlet can be reduced to 2000mg/L when the water content at the inlet is higher than 60%. Therefore, even when the oil-water content of the oil recovered on board is higher than 40% in a large-scale oil spill accident, the oil content of the water outlet of the dehydration type axial vortex separator is less than 3000 mg/L.
The inlet of the oil removal type axial vortex separator is connected with the water outlet of the dehydration type axial vortex separator, the water outlet is provided with a flowmeter and an automatic control valve, the rotating speed of the flowmeter and the automatic control valve is controlled by a variable frequency motor in real time according to the inlet flow, and the oil outlet is connected into an oil storage tank or an oil bag. Because the oil content at the inlet is not higher than 3000mg/L, the flow of the water outlet is controlled by the automatic control valve in real time according to 90% of the flow at the inlet, and the table shows that the oil content at the water outlet can be reduced to be lower than 300mg/L, and the applicability to flow fluctuation is strong.
The inlet of the cyclone floating device with two stages connected in series is provided with a jet pump, the oil outlet is connected into an oil storage cabin or an oil bag, and the water outlet is provided with an automatic control valve, an online oil content measuring instrument and a flowmeter. The inlet is connected with the deoiling type axial vortex separator, no pressure loss exists in the working process of the axial vortex separator, and the pressure boosted by the low-shear booster pump still maintains higher pressure potential energy after passing through the two-stage axial vortex separator. The potential energy of the incoming flow liquid is used for driving the jet pump to suck a certain amount of air, and gas-liquid mixing is completed. The water outlet flow of the cyclone floating devices connected in series at two stages is set to be 95% of the inlet flow, and the flotation gas comes from air sucked by a jet pump. When the oil content of the inlet sewage is not higher than 400mg/L when the production water of the oil field is treated by the air flotation device, the oil content of the water outlet after single-stage treatment is shown in the following table, and the oil content of the water outlet can be reduced to be lower than 50 mg/L. The cyclone floating device published by Schlumberger corporation can reduce the oil content at the water outlet to below 10mg/L when the oil content at the inlet is not higher than 50 mg/L.
The invention relates to a sea surface spilled oil recovery, in-situ concentration and separation and standard discharge system, which adopts adaptationThe tubular axial vortex separator has the advantages of wide flow change range, simple operation and compact structure, and can pre-divide water, concentrate recovered oil and pre-treat discharged water, and the hydraulic retention time of the axial vortex separator is 2 s. The effluent water is treated by reaching the standard by adopting a two-stage series cyclone floating device, and the hydraulic retention time of the single-stage cyclone floating device is not more than 120 s. Therefore, the hydraulic retention time of the three-stage axial vortex separator is 6s, and when the oil skimming amount is not more than 300m3At/h, the volume of the underwater recovery and pre-separation module is not more than 1.5 multiplied by 3.0 multiplied by 1.0 (m). Considering the hydraulic retention time of the pipeline, the total hydraulic retention time of the process does not exceed 300s (5 minutes), the total volume of the equipment is small, and when the oil skimming amount of the ship is not more than 200m3At/h, the overall size of the shipboard recovered oil concentration and sewage treatment system is no greater than 12.0 x 2.5 x 3.0 (m). The whole process flow adopts automatic control, the automation degree is high, and no professional is needed to control the process flow. In addition, only one booster pump is needed for recovering the oil spilled on the water surface and separating the oil on the spot by adopting the process, no medicament is needed to be added in the sewage standard treatment process, the operation cost of the equipment is low, and the energy efficiency ratio is high. Therefore, the invention fundamentally avoids the defects of the prior spilled oil recovery and on-site treatment process and has greater popularization value.
The invention overcomes the defects of long process flow, long hydraulic retention time, large equipment volume and the like of the existing oil spill recovery and on-site treatment process, has simple process flow, small volume, convenient operation and low cost, and the treated discharged water meets the requirements of national relevant standards and is suitable for long-period operation.
Due to the adoption of the design, the invention has the following advantages:
(1) underwater pre-dewatering to ensure low water content of dirty oil
In the process, a semi-submersible axial vortex separator is adopted for underwater dehydration and concentration, and the oil content of a water outlet is not restricted by the oil content of the ship discharged water. During operation, only the water content of the on-board dirty oil needs to be controlled, so that the automatic control is convenient to realize, and the water content of the on-board dirty oil is low.
(2) Fully utilizes the kinetic energy of ship operation and has low energy consumption
And during oil skimming, dirty oil is recovered by utilizing the reverse motion of a water body relative to the ship when the ship moves forwards. The water outlet of the semi-submersible axial vortex separator is arranged in the reverse direction of the advancing direction of the ship, the water is drained under the carrying action of the water body, and the underwater oil skimming and pre-separation module does not need additional power, so that the energy is saved, and the process is compact. The vortex blade of the axial vortex separator in the ship concentration dehydration and sewage up-to-standard discharge module is in a gradually-changed spiral shape, and has a certain pumping effect while driving the fluid to rotate, so that no pressure loss exists in the working process. The potential energy of the oil is not lost in the centrifugal separation process, and the potential energy is used for providing energy for the cyclone floating separation equipment. The whole process only adopts one booster pump, so that the energy consumption is low.
(3) Short hydraulic retention time and small volume, and meets the space limitation of ship installation and use
The separation equipment adopted in the process has the characteristics of compact structure and short hydraulic retention time in the separation process, the hydraulic retention time of the axial vortex separator is 2s, and the hydraulic retention time of the single-stage air floatation device is not more than 120 s. Therefore, the hydraulic retention time of the three-stage axial vortex separator is 6s, the hydraulic retention time of the two-stage cyclone flotation separator is 240s, the hydraulic retention time of the pipeline is counted, and the total hydraulic retention time of the process does not exceed 300 s. The total volume of the equipment is small, and when the oil skimming amount is not more than 300m3At/h, the volume of the underwater recovery and pre-separation module is not more than 1.5 multiplied by 3.0 multiplied by 1.0(m), and the overall size of the shipboard recovered oil concentration and sewage treatment system is not more than 12.0 multiplied by 2.5 multiplied by 3.0 (m).
(4) Automatic control without professional operation
The whole process flow adopts automatic control, the automation degree is high, and no professional is needed to control the process flow. In addition, only one booster pump is needed when the process is used for recovering the oil spilled on the water surface and separating the oil spilled on the spot, no medicament is needed to be added in the sewage standard treatment process, the operation cost of the equipment is low, and the energy efficiency ratio is high.
In practical operation, the sea surface oil spill recovery, in-situ concentration and separation and standard discharge system is used for sea surface oil spill recovery. When the process is applied to an oil skimming operation ship, the recovered substances are separated on site, the concentrated recovered substances are conveyed to a cabin, and the separated water phase is directly discharged into a water body, so that the water content in the recovered substances can be greatly reduced, and the effective working time of the oil recovery ship is prolonged.
The system for recovering, concentrating, separating and discharging spilled oil on sea surface reaches the standard, and is operated at 0-80 ℃ and the operating pressure of less than 0.6 MPa.
The specific embodiment is as follows:
as shown in fig. 1, the system diagram for recovering spilled oil on the sea surface, concentrating and separating on site and discharging to reach the standard provided by the invention comprises a sinking type vortex self-priming oil skimmer 1, a flowmeter 2, a semi-submersible type axial vortex separator 3, a variable frequency motor 4, a low-shear booster pump 5, a dehydration type axial vortex separator 6, an oil storage tank or an oil bag 7, a self-control valve 8, an oil removal type axial vortex separator 9, a jet pump 10, a two-stage cyclone floating device 11 connected in series, and an online oil content measuring instrument 12. The submerged vortex self-absorption oil skimmer and the semi-submersible axial vortex separator form an oil skimming and underwater pre-water separation module, the mounting direction of an oil skimming port of the submerged vortex self-absorption oil skimmer is consistent with the advancing direction of a ship, the water outlet of the semi-submersible axial vortex separator is opposite to the running direction of the ship, the oil outlet is connected with a low-shear booster pump mounted on the ship, and the inlet is provided with a flowmeter. The on-board concentrated dehydration and sewage standard-reaching discharge module consists of a dehydration type axial vortex separator, an oil removal type axial vortex separator and a two-stage series cyclone floating oil removal device; the inlet of the dehydration type axial vortex separator is connected with the booster pump, a flow meter is arranged on an inlet pipeline, a water outlet is connected to the inlet of the oil removal type axial vortex separator after passing through the flow meter and the automatic control valve, and an oil outlet is directly connected to an oil storage tank or an oil bag; an oil outlet of the oil removal type axial vortex separator is directly connected into an oil storage tank or an oil bag, and a water outlet is connected into a two-stage cyclone floating oil removal device in series after passing through a flowmeter, an automatic control valve and a jet pump; the water outlet of the cyclone floating oil removing device is provided with a flowmeter, a self-control valve and an online oil content detector, and the oil outlet is directly connected to an oil storage tank or an oil bag.
The operation process of the invention is simply introduced as follows: an oil skimming and underwater pre-water separation module is arranged at the side of an oil skimming boat underwater and is sunk vortexThe oil skimming port of the flow self-suction oil skimming machine is installed in the same direction as the advancing direction of the ship, the water outlet of the semi-submersible type axial vortex separator is opposite to the running direction of the ship, and the oil outlet is connected with a low-shear booster pump installed on the ship. The oil skimming amount for large oil spill accidents is 300m3The operation of the/h sea surface spilled oil recovery, in-situ concentration and separation and standard discharge system is taken as an example, the system is started, the flow of each level is set, and the oil skimming machine runs for 300m at full load3The oil phase outlet flow of the semi-submersible axial vortex separator is set to be 20 percent of the inlet flow, namely 60m3H; the inlet flow of the dehydration type axial vortex separator of the on-board concentration dehydration and sewage up-to-standard discharge module is 60m3The water outlet flow is set to be 20% of the inlet flow, namely 12m3H; the inlet flow of the oil-removing axial vortex separator is equal to the water outlet flow of the dehydrating axial vortex separator, and the water outlet flow is 90 percent of the inlet flow, namely 10.8m3H; the inlet flow of the two-stage cyclone floating device is the water outlet flow of the oil-removing axial vortex separator, the water outlet flow of each stage is set to be 95 percent of the inlet flow, and the discharged seawater amount is 9.7m3H is used as the reference value. It can be seen that, for the large-scale oil spilling accident, when the oil skimming amount of the oil skimming machine is 300m3The amount of dirty oil entering an oil storage tank or an oil sac is only 50.3m3And/h, the working time of the oil skimming boat is improved by 6 times. For small-scale oil spilling or thin oil layer oil skimming operation, when the oil skimming amount of the oil skimming machine is 300m3The amount of dirty oil entering an oil storage tank or an oil sac is not more than 10m3And/h, the working time of the oil skimming boat is improved by more than 30 times.
The flow of the oil phase outlet of the semi-submersible axial vortex separator is controlled by a low-shear booster pump, and the flow of the rest separators at each stage is controlled by an automatic control valve. And after the flow rate is set, sequentially starting an oil skimming machine, a low-shear booster pump, a semi-submersible axial vortex separator, a dehydration type axial vortex separator, an oil removal type axial vortex separator and a cyclone floating device. After the system is started, the system automatically runs, the rotating speed of the centrifugal separation equipment is automatically adjusted according to the flow, and an operator only needs to properly adjust the flow of each stage according to the oil spilling condition.
The oil skimmer can be installed on an oil skimmer in diameter, and the flow of each stage of separator can be adjusted according to the oil spilling amount of a working area during operation, so that the oil skimmer is convenient to operate, good in stability and high in efficiency.
According to the invention, the dirty oil on the ship is primarily concentrated by using oil skimming and underwater pre-separation water, the water content of the dirty oil on the ship is well controlled, the water content of the dirty oil on the ship is about 50% during large-scale oil spilling, the dirty oil on the ship is greatly reduced, the total amount is not more than 20% of the oil skimming amount of the oil skimming machine, and the treatment capacity of the oil skimming machine is greatly increased. Concentrated dehydration and sewage discharge module up to standard on the ship are adopted, further, the dirty oil on the ship is concentrated and dehydrated, and the dehydrated water is discharged after being purified up to standard through centrifugation and cyclone flotation, so that the water content of the dirty oil in the oil tank is greatly reduced, and the working time of the oil skimming ship is ensured. When the process is specifically implemented, the equipment for realizing the process has small volume, large treatment capacity and high separation efficiency; when the axial vortex separator works, the reverse motion of a water body is fully utilized to carry out oil collection and underwater pre-dehydration when a ship moves forwards, and the rotation starting blade of the axial vortex separator has certain pumping capacity and can not generate additional pressure loss, so that only one booster pump is needed, the process flow is short, and the energy consumption is low; the oil fence is suitable for being popularized and used in oil spilling emergency guarantee operation, and is better in using effect when matched with the oil fence.
The above description is only for the preferred embodiment of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any changes or substitutions that can be easily conceived by those skilled in the art within the technical scope of the present invention are included in the scope of the present invention. Therefore, the protection scope of the present invention shall be subject to the protection scope of the claims.

Claims (1)

1. A sea surface spilled oil recovery and on-site concentration separation and standard discharge system is characterized by comprising an oil skimming and underwater pre-water separation module, a ship concentration dehydration and sewage standard discharge module;
the oil skimming and underwater pre-water separation module comprises a sinking type vortex self-suction oil skimming machine (1) and a semi-submersible type axial vortex separator (3), wherein the outlet of the sinking type vortex self-suction oil skimming machine (1) is directly connected with the inlet of the semi-submersible type axial vortex separator (3);
the semi-submersible axial vortex separator (3) is controlled by a variable frequency motor (4) in real time according to the inlet flowmeter (2);
the on-board concentrated dehydration and sewage standard-reaching discharge module comprises a dehydration type axial vortex separator (6), an oil removal type axial vortex separator (9), a jet pump (10) and a two-stage series-connected cyclone floating device (11);
the inlet of the dehydration type axial vortex separator (6) is connected with the oil outlet of the semi-submersible axial vortex separator (3) through a low-shear booster pump (5);
a water outlet of the dehydration type axial vortex separator (6) is connected with an inlet of the oil removal type axial vortex separator (9), and an oil outlet of the dehydration type axial vortex separator (6) is connected with an oil storage tank or an oil bag (7);
an oil outlet of the oil removal type axial vortex separator (9) is directly connected into the oil storage chamber or the oil bag (7), and a water outlet is connected with an inlet of a two-stage series connection cyclone floating device (11);
the jet pump (10) is arranged on an inlet pipeline of the two-stage air flotation device (11) connected in series;
the water outlet of the cyclone floating device (11) connected in series at two stages is emptied, and the oil outlet is directly connected to the oil storage cabin or the oil bag (7);
the submerged vortex self-priming oil skimmer and the semi-submersible axial vortex separator are arranged under water measured by an oil skimmer, the mounting direction of an oil skimming port of the submerged vortex self-priming oil skimmer is consistent with the advancing direction of a ship, and the water outlet of the semi-submersible axial vortex separator is opposite to the running direction of the ship;
a flow meter is arranged on an inlet pipeline of the dehydration type axial vortex separator, and a flow meter and an automatic control valve are arranged at a water outlet;
a water outlet of the oil removal type axial vortex separator is provided with a flowmeter and a self-control valve;
a water outlet of the two-stage cyclone floating device connected in series is provided with a flowmeter, a self-control valve and an online oil content measuring instrument (12);
the starting blades of the semi-submersible type axial vortex separator, the dehydration type axial vortex separator and the oil removal type axial vortex separator are all in a gradually-changed spiral shape;
the semi-submersible axial vortex separator finishes the dehydration separation operation of the skimmed material in underwater water, the skimmed water is directly discharged into a water body, the control mode is that the flow of an oil outlet is adjusted according to the thickness of an oil layer in an oil spilling area, the flow of the oil inlet is the oil skimming amount of an oil skimming machine, and the flow of the oil outlet is not more than 20% of the flow of the oil inlet;
the inlet flow of the dehydration type axial vortex separator is controlled by a low-shear booster pump, and the water outlet flow is not less than 20% of the inlet flow;
the water outlet flow of the oil-removing axial vortex separator is not less than 90% of the inlet flow;
the jet pump sucks a certain amount of air by utilizing fluid potential energy and completes the mixing of the air and the oily sewage;
the rotation starting blades of the three axial vortex separators are in a gradually-changed spiral shape, so that the centrifugal separation can be completed by driving fluid to rotate during working, and the centrifugal separation has certain pumping capacity, thereby making up for hydraulic loss in the working process;
the water outlet flow of the two-stage series cyclone floating device is not less than 90% of the inlet flow, and the water outlet flow is automatically reduced by a small amount when the oil content of the water outlet exceeds the standard.
CN201910338443.4A 2019-04-25 2019-04-25 Sea surface spilled oil recovery and on-site concentration separation and standard discharge system Active CN110055939B (en)

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CN2242244Y (en) * 1994-03-03 1996-12-11 杨正光 Apparatus for separating oil from water
CN202730732U (en) * 2012-08-06 2013-02-13 清华大学 Shipborne offshore spilled oil recovering and cleaning equipment
CN203113300U (en) * 2012-11-23 2013-08-07 沈阳理工大学 Oil and water separation equipment used for overflowed oil recovery robot
CN104153333B (en) * 2014-05-29 2015-12-02 浙江海洋学院 Semi-submersible type sea oil spill cleaning ship and control method thereof

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