CN110006349A - A kind of high tolerance is total to optical path grating interferometer - Google Patents

A kind of high tolerance is total to optical path grating interferometer Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110006349A
CN110006349A CN201910356279.XA CN201910356279A CN110006349A CN 110006349 A CN110006349 A CN 110006349A CN 201910356279 A CN201910356279 A CN 201910356279A CN 110006349 A CN110006349 A CN 110006349A
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China
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light
total
module
grating
optical path
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CN201910356279.XA
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
叶国永
刘红忠
刘辉
李烜
牛东
李映江
赵国博
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Xian Jiaotong University
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Xian Jiaotong University
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Priority to CN201910356279.XA priority Critical patent/CN110006349A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/02Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring length, width or thickness
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B9/00Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of optical measuring means
    • G01B9/02Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B9/00Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of optical measuring means
    • G01B9/02Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects
    • G01B9/02055Interferometers for determining dimensional properties of, or relations between, measurement objects characterised by error reduction techniques

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of high tolerances to be total to optical path grating interferometer, and by light source module, light path module and post-processing module form altogether, and the signal between each module is transmitted by optical fiber.Light source module includes laser;Light path module includes scale grating, polarization spectroscope, plane mirror and retroreflector altogether;Post-processing module includes beam splitter, polarization spectroscope, quarter-wave plate and photodetector.The present invention uses re-diffraction interference of light scan method, realizes optics quadruple, improves the resolving power of measurement;Using the design of total light channel structure and signal transmission by optical fiber mode, reduce influence of the environmental perturbation to measurement result;Retroreflector is introduced in optical path, improves the reading tolerance of grating interferometer.

Description

A kind of high tolerance is total to optical path grating interferometer
Technical field
The invention belongs to accurate displacement field of measuring technique, in particular to a kind of high tolerance is total to optical path grating interferometer.
Background technique
Accurate displacement measurement plays more and more important work in the fields such as precision manufactureing, accurate control and nanotechnology With.Laser interferometer and high-precision optical grating measuring system can take into account range, precision and resolution requirements, therefore be widely used in In wide range nano measurement occasion.
Laser interferometer can directly carry out tracing to the source and reappearing for length standard, be current using optical maser wavelength as measuring basis The highest wide range nano measurement instrument of generally acknowledged precision, but it is faced with following problems: it is harsh to measurement environmental requirement, big In range or measurement application for a long time, environment temperature, air pressure, the variation of humidity and carbon dioxide content will cause refractive index change Change, to introduce measurement error, and error increases with range and increased;Interfere brachium, mobile station fast moves caused air Disturbing influence measurement accuracy.
High-precision optical grating measuring system is using the pitch of grating as measuring basis, it is considered to be precision is only second to laser interferometer Wide range nanometer measuring device.High-precision optical grating measuring system because its good environmental suitability, compact system structure, compared with The advantages such as low Costco Wholesale, it has also become across the scale nanometer measuring technique for having much vigor in ultraprecise engineering and being concerned. Especially grating interferometer, using micron or submicron gate away from diffraction grating as scale grating, swept by the diffraction interference of light It retouches principle and realizes high-performance reading, become one of the important development direction of high-precision optical grating measuring system.
But grating interferometer usually requires the optical component of complicated light channel structure and multiplicity to realize, exists simultaneously The influence of the complicated factors such as air turbulence, laser heat dissipation, measurement misalignment, limits the raising of measurement accuracy.
Chinese patent literature publication number CN107860318A (publication date on 03 30th, 2018) and CN207487600U are (public Open day on 06 12nd, 2018) a kind of plane grating interferometer displacement measurement system is individually disclosed, laser is with the angle Littrow Degree is incident to plane grating, so that it has preferable tolerance performance, but interfere arm is not total to optical path, therefore two beams is caused to measure The environmental disturbances of light cannot be completely the same, and especially when interferometer and tested grating are there are when certain angular deflection, two beams are measured Optical path difference can be generated between light, and influences last signal quality.
Summary of the invention
To solve the above-mentioned problems, the present invention provides a kind of high tolerances to be total to optical path grating interferometer, and realization has both Gao Rong The grating interferometer structure design of difference and altogether optical path characteristic, improves the actual use precision of grating interferometer in the application.
In order to achieve the above objectives, the present invention include light source, it is plane grating, the first polarization spectroscope, plane mirror, backward Reflecting mirror, quarter-wave plate, beam splitter, the second polarization spectroscope, third polarization spectroscope, optical fiber, photodetector;Plane Grating, the first polarization spectroscope, the first and second reflecting mirrors and the total light path module of retroreflector composition, quarter-wave plate, Beam splitter, the second polarization spectroscope, third polarization spectroscope and photodetector form post-processing module, and two modules pass through light Fibre transmission optical signal;Wherein the first polarization spectroscope and retroreflector, which are strictly aligned, is arranged above and below, two plane mirrors point It is not equidistantly placed in two sides, the second polarization spectroscope and third polarization spectroscope are individually positioned in the side of beam splitter, four light Electric explorer is individually positioned in the side of the second polarization spectroscope and third polarization spectroscope;The laser of laser emitting passes through light Fibre forms linear polarization p light and s light after being transferred into the light splitting of the first polarization spectroscope.
In above-mentioned technical proposal, laser is single-frequency laser, and plane grating is reflective diffraction gratings, and two planes are anti- It is parallel to penetrate mirror.
Compared with prior art, the present invention at least has technical effect beneficial below, and total light path module of the invention is real The total drive test amount and re-diffraction for having showed measurement light (linear polarization p light and s light) maintain the consistency of two beams measurement luminous environment, Improve measurement accuracy;The error that retroreflector can reduce plane grating deflection influences, while guaranteeing the symmetrical of optical path.Light The symmetry on road is while guaranteeing two beams measurement luminous environment consistency so that overall structure is easily installed and is aligned, avoid by Last signal quality is influenced in optical path difference, improves the tolerance performance of system totality.
Further, post-processing module includes quarter-wave plate, and the quarter-wave plate is for receiving total optical path mould The light received is simultaneously converted to circularly polarized light by the output light of block, is arranged in the emergent light optical path of the quarter-wave plate There is beam splitter, two outgoing light directions of the beam splitter are respectively arranged with the second polarization spectroscope and third polarization spectroscope, Two outgoing light directions of second polarization spectroscope are respectively arranged with the first photodetector and the second photodetector, the Two outgoing light directions of three polarization spectroscopes are respectively arranged with third photodetector and the 4th photodetector, re-diffraction P light and s light afterwards, interfere after quarter-wave plate is converted to circularly polarized light, and the optical signal containing interference information passes through The second polarization spectroscope and third polarization spectroscope are respectively enterd after beam splitter beam splitting, are formed in an interference region after being divided Optical interference signals, and phase successively differs 90 °, is received respectively by first to fourth photodetector.Photodetector detection is dry It relates to the Strength Changes of striped and is converted to electric signal, therefore obtain 90 ° of difference, the tetra- road electric signal of string wave changing rule, through filtering Wave processing obtains the square-wave signal of 90 ° of difference, is most obtained with pattern displacement and directional information through sensing counting afterwards.It can be same When measure grating moving distance and moving direction.
Further, the light source module and light between light path module is transmitted by the first optical fiber altogether, altogether light path module and Light between post-processing module is transmitted by the second optical fiber, and optical fiber transmits the heat affecting for efficiently avoiding laser, is subtracted simultaneously The influence of air turbulence is lacked;Overall structure is divided using module, and function is discrete, and structure is simple, easy to repair.
Further, reflecting mirror uses corner cube mirror, since corner cube mirror has two orthogonal right-angle surfaces and one A inclined-plane is compared with common reflecting mirror, and corner cube mirror has better stability and intensity to mechanical stress, is easily installed With the angle for adjusting reflecting mirror.
Further, the spacing of the spacing d1 of the second polarization spectroscope and beam splitter and third polarization spectroscope and beam splitter D2 is equal, keeps the light path in air consistent, keeps signal quality identical, avoid external environment bring signal difference, thus The influence to measured displacement is avoided, measurement accuracy is improved.
Further, laser is orthogonal polarization laser, guarantees the consistency of light intensity on orthogonal direction, and light splitting is avoided to produce Raw measurement light light-intensity difference influences the quality of interference fringe.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is that a kind of high tolerance of the present invention is total to optical path grating interferometer schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is present invention light path module linear polarization p light schematic diagram altogether;
Fig. 3 is present invention light path module linear polarization s light schematic diagram altogether;
Fig. 4 is that the second high tolerance of the present invention is total to optical path grating interferometer schematic diagram;
In figure, 1-laser, 2-gratings, the 3-the first polarization spectroscope, the 41-the first plane mirror, 42-the second Plane mirror, the 43-the first corner cube mirror, the 44-the second corner cube mirror, 5-retroreflectors, 6-quarter-waves Piece, 7-beam splitters, the 8-the second polarization spectroscope, 9-third polarization spectroscopes, the 101-the first optical fiber, the 102-the second optical fiber, 111-the first photodetector, the 112-the second photodetector, 113-third photodetectors, the 114-the four photodetection Device.
Specific embodiment
The following describes the present invention in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments.
In the description of the present invention, it is to be understood that, term " center ", " longitudinal direction ", " transverse direction ", "upper", "lower", The orientation or positional relationship of the instructions such as "front", "rear", "left", "right", "vertical", "horizontal", "top", "bottom", "inner", "outside" is It is based on the orientation or positional relationship shown in the drawings, is merely for convenience of description of the present invention and simplification of the description, rather than instruction or dark Show that signified device or element must have a particular orientation, be constructed and operated in a specific orientation, therefore should not be understood as pair Limitation of the invention.In addition, term " first ", " second " are used for description purposes only, it is not understood to indicate or imply opposite Importance or the quantity for implicitly indicating indicated technical characteristic.Define " first " as a result, the feature of " second " can be bright Show or implicitly include one or more of the features.In the description of the present invention, unless otherwise indicated, " multiple " contain Justice is two or more.In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that unless otherwise clearly defined and limited, art Language " installation ", " connected ", " connection " shall be understood in a broad sense, for example, it may be being fixedly connected, may be a detachable connection, or It is integrally connected;It can be mechanical connection, be also possible to be electrically connected;It can be directly connected, it can also be by between intermediary It connects connected, can be the connection inside two elements.For the ordinary skill in the art, can be understood with concrete condition The concrete meaning of above-mentioned term in the present invention.
Embodiment 1
With reference to Fig. 1, by taking the frequency stabilized carbon dioxide laser light source of standard wave length 590nm as an example, which is total to optical path grating interferometer By light source module, light path module and post-processing module three parts form altogether, transmit optical signal by optical fiber 10 between module.
Wherein, light source module includes the frequency stabilized carbon dioxide laser 1 of standard wave length 590nm, and light polarization is two and is mutually perpendicular to Linear polarization mode;Light path module includes 1200 lines/mm reflective holographic grating, the first polarization spectroscope 3, plane reflection altogether Mirror 41,42 and retroreflector 5;Post-processing module includes quarter-wave plate 6, beam splitter 7, the second polarization spectroscope 8, third Polarization spectroscope 9 and first to fourth photodetector.
Wherein, beam splitter 7, first is the gauge of 5 × 5 × 5mm to third polarization spectroscope and retroreflector 5 Very little, the standard size of plane mirror 4 is 5 × 5 × 1mm.The bottom surface of retroreflector 5 and the measurement gap of grating 2 are 2mm.
Referring to FIG. 1, the first polarization spectroscope 3 is located in the optical path of the light of the first optical fiber 101 outflow, retroreflector 5 the first polarization spectroscope 3 underface, interferometer and grating 2 be arranged below retroreflector 5, plane mirror 41 With 42 respectively equidistant parallel be placed on 5 two sides of retroreflector, the second optical fiber 102 inputs end connector for receiving from the first polarization The light that spectroscope 3 projects, output end connector export received light, immediately below 102 output end connector of the second optical fiber from up to Under be disposed with quarter-wave plate 6, beam splitter 7 and third polarization spectroscope 9, the second polarization spectroscope 8 and third polarization Spectroscope 9 is individually positioned in the two sides of beam splitter 7, and two light outlet sides of the second polarization spectroscope 8 are respectively arranged with first Photodetector 111 and the second photodetector 112, two light outlet sides of third polarization spectroscope 9 are respectively arranged with Three photodetectors 113 and the 4th photodetector 114.
Working principle of the present invention is as follows:
Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 are please referred to, the laser that laser 1 is emitted is transferred into the first polarization spectro by the first optical fiber 101 Mirror 3 forms linear polarization p light and s light after being divided;Linear polarization p light and s light pass through multiple reflections and two respectively in total light path module Secondary diffraction enters the second optical fiber 102 with same paths;P light and s light after re-diffraction, are converted to circle through quarter-wave plate 6 It is interfered after polarised light, the optical signal containing interference information respectively enters the second polarization spectroscope 8 after 7 beam splitting of beam splitter With third polarization spectroscope 9, the optical interference signals in 4 interference regions are formed after being divided, and phase successively differs 90 °, point It is not received by first to fourth photodetector.The Strength Changes of photodetector detection interference fringe are simultaneously converted to electric signal, Therefore 90 ° of difference, the tetra- road electric signal for obtaining string wave changing rule, the square-wave signal of 90 ° of difference is obtained through filtering processing, most Pattern displacement and directional information are obtained with by sensing counting.
Referring to FIG. 2, transmission direction is that line is inclined after the laser that optical fiber 101 transmits enters the light splitting of the first polarization spectroscope 3 Shake p light, after the reflection of plane mirror 42, first time diffraction occurs on grating 2 and enters retroreflector 5, in retroreflection After two secondary reflections occur in mirror 5, grating 2 is returned to the path parallel with incident light, second of diffraction occurs, the p after re-diffraction Light successively passes through the reflection of plane mirror 41 and the transmission of the first polarization spectroscope 3, into the second optical fiber 102.
Referring to FIG. 3, it is that line is inclined that the laser that optical fiber 101 transmits, which enters the first polarization spectroscope 3 light splitting back reflection direction, Shake s light, after the reflection of plane mirror 41, first time diffraction occurs on grating 2 and enters retroreflector 5, in retroreflection After two secondary reflections occur in mirror 5, grating 2 is returned to the path parallel with incident light, second of diffraction occurs, the s after re-diffraction Light successively passes through the reflection of plane mirror 42 and the reflection of the first polarization spectroscope 3, with identical with the p light after re-diffraction Path enters optical fiber 102.
Optical simulation is carried out to the present embodiment by Zemax software, when 2 relative interference instrument of grating does horizontal linear movement When, according to grating equation d (sin α+sin θ)=m λ, grating pitch d is 1/1200mm in formula, and diffraction time m takes ± 1 grade, light source Wavelength is 590nm, then diffraction angle=45 °.Laser 1 for beam profile having a size of 0.65mm, simulation result shows Gao Rong Optical path grating interferometer can achieve ± 1.3 ° by introducing retroreflector 5 in fact to the tolerance of the horizontal deflection of grating 2 to difference altogether Existing light is returned by the direction parallel with former road, recycles the autocollimatic principle of optical grating diffraction, while realizing re-diffraction, Substantially increase the tolerance performance of system.
Preferably, two plane mirrors can be at an angle, but keeps symmetry.
Preferably, the laser is the laser of cross-polarization.
Embodiment 2
Fig. 4 is that the second high tolerance of the present invention is total to optical path grating interferometer schematic diagram.Plane reflection in light path module altogether Mirror 41 and 42 is replaced by the first corner cube mirror 43 and the second corner cube mirror 44, while the first corner cube mirror 43 and second is straight The inclined-plane of corner reflector 44 is not parallel.
The high tolerance provided in above embodiment, which is total to optical path grating interferometer, realizes measurement light (linear polarization p light and s Light) total drive test amount and re-diffraction, maintain two beams measurement luminous environment consistency, improve measurement accuracy;Retroreflection The error that mirror can reduce grating deflection influences, while guaranteeing the symmetry of optical path;Optical fiber transmission efficiently avoids laser Heat affecting, while reducing the influence of air turbulence;Overall structure is divided using module, and function is discrete, and structure is simple, convenient for dimension It repairs.
The above content is merely illustrative of the invention's technical idea, and this does not limit the scope of protection of the present invention, all to press According to technical idea proposed by the present invention, any changes made on the basis of the technical scheme each falls within claims of the present invention Protection scope within.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of high tolerance is total to optical path grating interferometer, which is characterized in that including light source module, total light path module and post-processing mould Block, the light source module include laser (1), and the light path module altogether includes the first polarization spectroscope (3) and grating (2), the It is provided between one polarization spectroscope (3) and grating (2) retroreflector (5), first polarization spectroscope (3) will be for that will swash The light beam splitting that light device (1) issues is linear polarization p light and linear polarization s light, and retroreflector (5) two sides have been placed equidistant with the One reflecting mirror and the second reflecting mirror, the post-processing module are used to receive the output light of total light path module, and according to output light Line obtains grating (2) mobile distance.
2. a kind of high tolerance according to claim 1 is total to optical path grating interferometer, which is characterized in that post-processing module includes Quarter-wave plate (6), the quarter-wave plate (6) are used for the light that receives the output light of total light path module and will receive Line is converted to circularly polarized light, is provided with beam splitter (7), the beam splitter in the emergent light optical path of the quarter-wave plate (6) (7) two outgoing light directions are respectively arranged with the second polarization spectroscope (8) and third polarization spectroscope (9), and described second partially Two outgoing light directions of vibration spectroscope (8) are respectively arranged with the first photodetector (111) and the second photodetector (112), two outgoing light directions of third polarization spectroscope (9) are respectively arranged with third photodetector (113) and the 4th light Electric explorer (114).
3. a kind of high tolerance according to claim 2 is total to optical path grating interferometer, which is characterized in that second polarization point The spacing d1 of light microscopic (8) and beam splitter (7) is equal with the spacing d2 of third polarization spectroscope (9) and beam splitter (7).
4. a kind of high tolerance according to claim 1 is total to optical path grating interferometer, which is characterized in that the light source module and The light between light path module is transmitted by the first optical fiber (101) altogether, the light between light path module and post-processing module altogether Line is transmitted by the second optical fiber (102).
5. a kind of high tolerance according to claim 1 is total to optical path grating interferometer, which is characterized in that first reflecting mirror It is corner cube mirror with the second reflecting mirror.
6. a kind of high tolerance according to claim 1 is total to optical path grating interferometer, which is characterized in that the laser It (1) is orthogonal polarization laser.
7. a kind of high tolerance according to claim 1 is total to optical path grating interferometer, which is characterized in that first reflecting mirror It is arranged with the second mirror parallel.
8. a kind of high tolerance according to claim 1 is total to optical path grating interferometer, which is characterized in that the grating (2) is Reflective diffraction gratings.
CN201910356279.XA 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 A kind of high tolerance is total to optical path grating interferometer Pending CN110006349A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111207673A (en) * 2020-01-17 2020-05-29 中北大学 Displacement sensor based on isosceles triangle blazed grating structure
CN111536882A (en) * 2020-05-22 2020-08-14 复旦大学 Reading head, two-dimensional displacement measurement system and measurement method
CN113175881A (en) * 2021-04-10 2021-07-27 西安交通大学 Measurement device for improve grating reading gap tolerance
CN113237427A (en) * 2021-05-14 2021-08-10 清华大学 Common-path differential interference displacement measurement system and method

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CN111536882A (en) * 2020-05-22 2020-08-14 复旦大学 Reading head, two-dimensional displacement measurement system and measurement method
CN111536882B (en) * 2020-05-22 2021-04-13 复旦大学 Reading head, two-dimensional displacement measurement system and measurement method
CN113175881A (en) * 2021-04-10 2021-07-27 西安交通大学 Measurement device for improve grating reading gap tolerance
CN113237427A (en) * 2021-05-14 2021-08-10 清华大学 Common-path differential interference displacement measurement system and method

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Application publication date: 20190712