CN109975183A - A kind of soil pollutant migration rate calculation method - Google Patents

A kind of soil pollutant migration rate calculation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109975183A
CN109975183A CN201910172389.0A CN201910172389A CN109975183A CN 109975183 A CN109975183 A CN 109975183A CN 201910172389 A CN201910172389 A CN 201910172389A CN 109975183 A CN109975183 A CN 109975183A
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China
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soil
pollutant
migration rate
layer
concentration
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Inventor
上官宇先
侯红
秦鱼生
陈琨
喻华
曾祥忠
郭松
周子军
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Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute SAAS
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Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute SAAS
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • G01N15/0806Details, e.g. sample holders, mounting samples for testing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N2015/0023Investigating dispersion of liquids
    • G01N2015/0034Investigating dispersion of liquids in solids
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • G01N2015/0866Sorption

Abstract

The present invention discloses a kind of soil pollutant migration rate calculation method, is related to ecological environment field, and soil pollutant migration rate simulator is arranged including the use of the pedotheque of acquisition;The soil liquid of different depth in soil pollutant migration rate simulator is acquired and detected, the pollutant concentration data of the different depth in the soil liquid and the concentration data of indication ion are obtained;Migration rate analog function is obtained using the pollutant concentration data and indication ion concentration data of obtained different depth;Using migration rate analog function, and the concentration value of pedotheque pollutant concentration value or indication ion, obtain contaminant transportation rate in pedotheque, it using the method for the present invention computation migration rate, is not influenced, is calculated easy by rain factor, method is simple, for the ecological assessment of pollutant, ecological simulation etc. provides basis, also provides foundation for the outburst surroundings accident in environmental pollution.

Description

A kind of soil pollutant migration rate calculation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to ecological environment field more particularly to a kind of soil pollutant migration rate calculation method and analysis systems System.
Technical background
With progress of the epoch, pollutant in soil is increasingly valued by people, the inorganic pollution in soil, greatly It is partially soluble in water and is hydrolyzed to zwitterion, cationic pollutant such as heavy metal (lead, cadmium etc.), anionic pollutant is such as Arsenic, the oxygen-containing acid ion of the heavy metals such as antimony have negative electrical charge, since soil colloid is often with just due to its particularity Charge, transfer ability are greater than cationic pollutant.Current most of contaminant transportation rates are by static absorption solution The soil that analysis experiment calculates absorbs the absorption of pollutant and calculates, or is calculated by pure mathematics model.By static The calculated soil pollutant migration rate of adsorption experiment often only consider soil physical chemistry factor, and ignore The hydrodynamics factor of contaminant transportation.And calculated by pure mathematics model is only the hydrodynamic force for considering pollutant Factor, and ignore as the most important medium soil of contaminant transportation in the important suction-operated wherein played.
Summary of the invention
To solve problems of the prior art, this method provides a kind of soil pollutant migration rate migration calculating side Experimental provision and function is simulated and is combined by method, the present invention, and utilizes indication ion, and anionic can be calculated by obtaining one kind The method of the migration rate of pollutant in the soil, the characterization function of migration rate calculated using the present invention, not by Rain factor influences, and only considers heavy metal transformation factor, this has one for the migration feature for assessing different regions heavy metal from now on Determine reference significance, be the ecological assessment of pollutant, it is also the outburst surroundings accident in environmental pollution that ecological simulation etc., which provides basis, Foundation is provided.
Technical purpose to realize the present invention, one aspect of the present invention provide a kind of soil pollutant migration rate calculating side Method, comprising:
Using the soil of pedotheque location, migration rate simulation system is set;
By measuring the soil liquid of the different depth acquired in migration rate simulation system, obtain in the soil liquid The concentration of pollutant concentration and indication ion;
Migration rate analog function is obtained using obtained pollutant concentration and indication ion concentration;
Using migration rate analog function and the concentration value of pedotheque pollutant concentration value or indication ion, obtain Contaminant transportation rate in pedotheque.
Wherein, the pollutant in the soil liquid is heavy metal, including but not limited to antimony, cadmium, nickel.
Wherein, the indication ion is selected from one of sodium ion or potassium ion.
Wherein, the migration rate simulator is the cylinder with multilayer content.
Wherein, the organic glass of inner wall coarse of the cylinder by that can prevent side wall from flow phenomenon occurs is made.
Wherein, when pedotheque is multiple, the quantity of the cylinder increases with the increase of soil.
Wherein, the content in the cylinder from top to bottom includes
The first quartz sand layer including the first glass bead layer and under the first glass spheres matches water layer;
Positioned at the working lining for being used to place a kind of pedotheque under water layer;
The filter layer with fine grinding soil under working lining;And
Positioned at the stability maintenance layer of cylinder least significant end;
The stability maintenance layer is the material with fine mesh structure.
Wherein, the filter layer further includes filter paper layer, the second quartz sand layer and the second bead under fine grinding soil Layer.
Wherein, the height of the working lining is 5-6 times of cylinder internal diameter.
Wherein, the stability maintenance layer is the material with fine mesh structure.
Wherein, the material with fine mesh structure selects one of nylon wire or gauze.
Wherein, the aperture of the nylon wire or gauze is 0.1mm or so, one or two layers is set as, for keeping cylinder Stabilization.
Wherein, the diameter of bead used in first glass bead layer is 3mm, laying depth 2cm.
Wherein, quartz grain fineness number used in first quartz sand layer is 0.2mm, laying depth 3cm.
Wherein, the soil horizon is that soil to be detected is handled by fine grinding, and soil particle diameter is less than 2mm.
Wherein, the working lining 23 is the pedotheque of practical dry density, placing height for 5 times of cylinder internal diameter with On, in one embodiment of the invention, height 25cm, and by mono- layer of the every 5cm of pedotheque, layering is packed into earth pillar dress It sets.
Wherein, quartz grain fineness number used in second quartz sand layer 22 is 0.2mm, laying depth 2cm.
Wherein, the diameter of bead used in second glass bead layer 21 is 3mm, laying depth 3cm.
Wherein, the migration rate analog function are as follows:
Wherein, m=x2/ 4Dt, K=C0/CNa0
Wherein, C is the concentration of pollutant X, CNaFor the concentration of Na ion, C0For initial time pollutant concentration, CNa0It is first Begin moment Na concentration, and R indicates that retardation factor of the X in different soils particle, D indicate the dispersion coefficient of pollutant X in the soil.
Beneficial effect
1, pollutant in soil and sodium ion can more preferably be simulated using migration rate simulator provided by the invention Or the Transport of potassium ion, contaminant transportation rate evaluation can be carried out simultaneously to a variety of soil, structure is simple, material source Extensively, at low cost, it is easy to use.
2, using method provided by the invention can not consider heavy metal in soil migration rain factor in the case where, Different regions heavy metal transformation feature is calculated, calculating process need to only consider heavy metal transformation factor, and method is simple, reduce Complex technology in the prior art not only facilitates the migration of assessment different regions heavy metal special for the art Sign, and reduce calculating cost, it is the ecological assessment of pollutant, ecological simulation etc. provides basis, also in environmental pollution Outburst surroundings accident provides foundation.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is migration rate simulator structural schematic diagram shown in embodiment 1;
Fig. 2 is the migration rate simulator structural schematic diagram shown in embodiment 1 with multiple cylinders;
Fig. 3 is the different depth Na ion concentration scatter plot of embodiment 2;
Fig. 4 is 2 different depth antimony concentration scatter plot of embodiment.
Specific embodiment
Experimental method used in following embodiments is conventional method unless otherwise specified.Institute in following embodiments Material, reagent etc., are commercially available unless otherwise specified, and structure as used in the following examples is such as without spy It does not mentionlet alone bright, is conventional structure, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that specifically described content is illustrative rather than limit below Property processed, should not be limited the scope of the invention with this.
1 migration rate simulator of embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, migration rate simulation system provided by the invention includes quantitative liquid feeding device 1 and migration rate simulator 2 and adopt liquid device 3, wherein the circulation of quantitative liquid feeding device 1 and migration rate simulator 2 by pipeline realization liquid between.
Specifically, the quatitative liquid supplying device 1 includes fluidsupply container 11 and peristaltic pump 12;Fluidsupply container 11 is existing skill Any device that can contain liquid in art, peristaltic pump 12 are the prior art or commercially available any can control feed liquor The device of speed, those skilled in the art can control feed liquor flow velocity according to demand.
Further, the sylvite or sodium salt solution of pollutant are filled in the fluidsupply container 11.
Specifically, the liquid device 3 of adopting includes the first liquid holding device 31 below the migration rate simulator, is connected with vacuum Second liquid holding device 32 of pump 33.
Further, after the first liquid holding device 31 enters migration rate simulator from top for collection, by multiple filtration The soil liquid finally obtained, the second liquid holding device 32 are used to acquire the soil liquid in migration rate simulator in pedotheque, Since the collection of the soil liquid in pedotheque belongs to passive collection, therefore, it is necessary to use vacuum pump 33 to be acquired, In, the second liquid holding device 32 and vacuum pump 33 are the existing device that the soil liquid can be drawn from soil, can also be used Commercially available any device that the soil liquid can be extracted from soil.
Specifically, the migration rate simulator 2 is the cylinder with multilayer content, there is inlet up and down and go out Liquid mouth, for flowing into or from liquid, opening form can be using in the prior art any, but in order to prevent Fluid loss leads to data error, and the present invention uses opening mode as shown in Figure 1, and the cylinder is cylindrical organic glass Column, inner wall is rough surface, to prevent side wall from flow phenomenon occurs, increases the accuracy of data, reduces error.
It further, from bottom to top include: the nylon wire 28 that bottom of the pillar is set in the cylinder;It is placed on nylon wire On the first glass bead layer 27;The first quartz sand layer 26 being laid on bead 27;The filter paper being laid on quartz sand layer 22 Layer 25, for preventing soil erosion;Soil horizon 24 in filter paper layer is set;Working lining 23 on soil horizon 24 is set;In work Make the second glass marble 21 of the second quartz sand layer 22 that 2cm thickness is successively laid on layer 23 and 3cm thickness.
Specifically, the aperture of the nylon wire 28 is 0.1mm, one or two layers are set as, for keeping the stabilization of cylinder.
It should be noted that nylon wire 28 can also be using any softness with aperture structure in the prior art Material, such as gauze.
Specifically, the diameter of bead used in first glass bead layer 27 is 3mm, laying depth 2-3cm.
Specifically, quartz grain fineness number used in first quartz sand layer 26 is 0.2mm, laying depth 2-3cm.
Specifically, the soil horizon 24 is to handle soil to be detected by fine grinding, soil particle diameter is less than 2mm.
The present invention can prevent soil is excessively slightly caused-excessive to be permitted using soil particle diameter 2mm in conventional soil physical analysis Much holes, and the meticulous caused Inert absorbent substance activation of soil can be prevented, to reduce data error.
Specifically, the working lining 23 is the pedotheque of practical dry density, placing height for 5 times of cylinder internal diameter with On, in one embodiment of the invention, height 25cm, and by mono- layer of the every 5cm of pedotheque, layering is packed into earth pillar dress It sets.
Specifically, quartz grain fineness number used in second quartz sand layer 22 is 0.2mm, laying depth 2-3cm.
Specifically, the diameter of bead used in second glass bead layer 21 is 3mm, laying depth 2-3cm.
It should be noted that working lining 23 is same soil with two layers of soil horizon 24, be all for two layers it is levigate after soil, The soil that the setting of soil horizon 24 can be convenient working lining 23 is put into cylinder without the variation that soil texture is excessive, is guaranteed Solution in soil flows in uniform soil, reduces error.
It should be noted that quartz sand and bead are for reducing the impact to soil, due to inlet and liquid out Mouth has liquid and enters cylinder (such as entering cylinder from liquid outlet when input deionized water), therefore, in order to reduce inlet Soil is washed away with liquid at liquid outlet, is setting gradually bead and quartz sand at inlet and liquid outlet respectively. Wherein, the thickness that inlet and bead and quartz sand at liquid outlet is arranged in may be the same or different.
It should be noted that when it is a variety of for detecting soil, it is every to increase a kind of pedotheque, just increase a cylinder, and What is matched with cylinder adopts liquid device, then working lining is increased pedotheque.
In order to improve the accuracy of data, the cylinder and adopt liquid device that a working lining is quartz sand can be increased, due to stone Sand has typical granular texture similar with soil, but does not include other substances for having absorption property again, therefore avoid soil The interference of other adsorbents in earth, can be used for correction data, as shown in Figure 2.
The calculating of 2 migration rate of embodiment
It is (black viscous to loam (laterite) A, sand soil (alluviation moisture soil) B and clayey soil in one embodiment of the invention Soil) C carries out the migration rate calculating of pollutant antimony, while quartz sand is set as D, then migration is set in the way of embodiment 1 Velocity simulation device including four cylinders and adopts liquid device, and each intracorporal working lining of column places laterite A, alluviation tide respectively Native B and smolmitza C, quartz sand D calculate the migration rate in soil using the device, and the specific method is as follows:
1, the acquisition of the soil liquid
The preparation of 1.1 cylinders
The device that Application Example 1 provides, after the intracorporal material of column loads, using peristaltic pump from the leakage fluid dram of cylinder Slowly input deionized water, coutroi velocity are 20ml H-1, make the intracorporal material saturation of column, side by side the sky in void column body in soil Gas, opposite direction inputs deionized water later, flows into earth pillar from top to down, and after flow speed stability, input makes soil in deionized water 24 hours Column reaches stable state.
The penetration test of 1.2 pollutants
By 10mg L-1The sodium salt standard solution of pollutant antimony inputs earth pillar from top, after input 1PV (pore volume), The input for terminating pollutant sodium salt is changed to input deionized water and is rinsed to the soil of absorption, after experiment 24 hours, makes to pollute Substance complete penetration cylinder terminates experiment.
After test process, acquire the soil liquid of different depth, and in the soil liquid pollutant antimony concentration and Na ion concentration is detected, and pollutant antimony concentration value and Na ion concentration value are obtained.
2, the migration rate of pollutant calculates
Functional simulation is carried out to sodium ion according to the pollutant antimony concentration value of above-mentioned acquisition and Na ion concentration value, obtains figure Curve graph shown in 3 carries out functional simulation to antimony, obtains curve graph shown in Fig. 4, wherein
The mathematical function of sodium ion is respectively as follows: (laterite) A, sand soil (alluviation moisture soil) B and (black viscous in each soil Soil) C carries out the migration rate calculating of pollutant antimony, while will be set as D
Loam A:Na=1056-185 × ln (D-4.17);R2=0.624, n=98, P < 0.001
Sand soil B:Na=677-71.3 × ln (D-4.98);R2=0.499, n=98, P < 0.001
Clayey soil C:Na=1214-199 × ln (D-4.39);R2=0.346, n=98, P < 0.001
Quartz sand D:Na=865-171 × ln (D-4.92);R2=0.699, n=98, P < 0.001
Wherein D is depth of soil cm;
The mathematical function of each Antimony In The Soils ion is respectively as follows:
Loam A:Sb=0.257-0.054 × ln (D-4.74);R2=0.621, n=98, P < 0.001
Sand soil B:Sb=0.153-0.028 × ln (D-4.98);R2=0.598, n=98, P < 0.001
Clayey soil C:Sb=0.105-0.019 × ln (D-4.99);R2=0.104, n=98, P=0.001
Quartz sand D:Sb=0.285-0.063 × ln (D-4.99);R2=0.513, n=98, P < 0.001
Wherein D is depth of soil cm.
Recycle formula formulaWherein, m=x2/ 4Dt, K=C0/CNa0, calculate in soil Advection and dispersion effect and suction-operated pass through the advection and dispersion effect and suction in the ratio calculation soil of the Sb/Na in soil Attached effect.The calculation shows that, the average Sb/Na ratio in soil are respectively as follows: A:0.160 × 10 in four kinds of soil-3, B: 0.179×10-3, C:0.170 × 10-3Black earth and D:0.220 × 10-3.Since the ratio of Sb/Na is smaller, illustrate that antimony is not allowed more It is easily adsorbed by soil, it is more difficult to move in deep subsoil.Therefore the antimony that we calculate according to the ratiometer of Sb/Na is in different soil Migration rate in earth are as follows: quartz sand > moisture soil > black earth > red soil.The content of the different shape of this migration rate and Antimony In The Soils Identical, the content of the antimony of stable form is higher in soil, and the migration of Antimony In The Soils is poorer, conversely, migration is then stronger.Antimony exists The content of loam A and the stable form in clayey soil C is higher, and the content of the mobile form in B and D is higher.Therefore in earth Easier adsorbed by soil of antimony in native A and clayey soil C and migrate slow, and antimony is not easy in sand soil B and quartz sand D It is adsorbed and migrated fast by soil.
As it can be seen that method provided by the invention can be accurately obtained the migration rate of pollutant antimony, method is simple, universality Extensively, there is certain reference significance for assessing the migration feature of different regions heavy metal from now on, be the ecological assessment of pollutant, ecology Simulation etc. provides basis, also provides foundation for the outburst surroundings accident in environmental pollution.
Verify the derivation of the migration rate characterization function of 1 pollutant X of embodiment
It can reach and letter used in the prior art to verify function applied by the calculating of 2 migration rate of embodiment The identical effect of number, spy carry out calculating derivation using used function, and detailed process is as follows:
The hydrodynamic force formula of the migration of pollutant X in the soil can be indicated with formula 1:
Wherein: R indicates retardation factor of the X in different soils particle, is showing soil to the adsorption energy of pollutant X The size of power and retarded capability, D and v indicate that the dispersion coefficient and hole water flow velocity of pollutant X in the soil, c indicate pollutant Concentration, t indicates the time, and x indicates that the X for being in different soils depth, x ' are the location of pollutant X parameter, i.e., migration away from From the hydrodynamic force formula of the migration of the conventional use of pollutant X of party's formula the art in the soil.
The control equation such as formula (2) of the migration of sodium ion in corresponding soil NaX compound, because sodium ion is in soil Adsorption capacity in earth is weaker, and R can ignore, therefore be indicated with following formula
Wherein the boundary condition of pollutant can be used formula (3) and indicate to (5) three formula,
C (x, 0)=Ci, (3)
(it indicates to be set to X in place, when the time is 0, pollutant concentration Ci)
(indicate that pollutant is instantaneous input, after being more than, 0) pollutant input concentration is
(expression pollutant is unlimited distance, t moment, pollutant concentration 0, that is to say, that pollutant is with flowing concentration It gradually decreases, arrives unlimited distance, essentially 0).
Formula (1)-(5) analytic solutions such as formula (6)-(8) indicate
C (x, t)=Ci+(C0-Ci)A(x,t), (6)
C (x, t)=Ci+(C0-Ci)A(x,t). (8)
Formula (9) wherein, which can be used, for the analytic solutions of pollutant X indicates,
Because the migration of sodium ion in the soil, block characteristics R can ignore, the analytic solutions of factor sodium ion be can be used Formula (10) expression,
Because of Ci≈ 0, C0 are a constants, so:
In k=C among these0/CNa0It is also a constant (wherein C0For initial time pollutant concentration, CNa0For initial time Na concentration), Er Qieyin are as follows:
D < < 1, v < < 1, so
WhenIn summary the available formula 13-16 of formula:
Wherein,
M=x2/4Dt, (17)
Because of x > 0, D > 0, t > 0, so m > 0, and
It is the decreasing function of R, we can also sayIt is the liter function of the migration rate of pollutant in soil X.Wherein C For the concentration of pollutant X, CNaFor the concentration of Na ion.
As it can be seen that according to C/C in the soil liquid sample of different soils depth sampling acquirementNaNumerical-Mode draw up a simulation Function curve, the C/C by this curve in arbitrary pointNaNumerical value can calculate.And this numerical value C/CNaIt is exactly table Show anionic pollutant in the numerical value of the migration rate of different depth.
The above is only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, is not intended to limit the present invention in any form, though So the present invention has been disclosed as a preferred embodiment, and however, it is not intended to limit the invention, any technology people for being familiar with this patent Member without departing from the scope of the present invention, when the technology contents using above-mentioned prompt make it is a little change or be modified to The equivalent embodiment of equivalent variations, but anything that does not depart from the technical scheme of the invention content, it is right according to the technical essence of the invention Any simple modification, equivalent change and modification made by above embodiments, in the range of still falling within the present invention program.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of soil pollutant migration rate calculation method characterized by comprising
Using the pedotheque of acquisition, soil pollutant migration rate simulator is set;
The soil liquid of different depth in soil pollutant migration rate simulator is acquired and detected, is obtained in the soil liquid The pollutant concentration data of different depth and the concentration data of indication ion;
Migration rate analog function is obtained using the pollutant concentration data and indication ion concentration data of obtained different depth;
Using migration rate analog function and the concentration value of pedotheque pollutant concentration value or indication ion, soil is obtained Contaminant transportation rate in sample.
2. calculation method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the pollutant in the soil liquid is anionic weight Metal pollutant.
3. calculation method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the indication ion is in sodium ion or potassium ion It is a kind of.
4. calculation method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the migration rate simulation system includes quantitative liquid feeding Device, migration rate simulator and adopt liquid device;
Wherein, the migration rate simulator is the cylinder with multilayer content.
Wherein, the organic glass of inner wall coarse of the cylinder by that can prevent side wall from flow phenomenon occurs is made.
5. calculation method as claimed in claim 4, which is characterized in that the content in the cylinder from top to bottom includes
The first quartz sand layer including the first glass bead layer and under the first glass spheres matches water layer;
Positioned at the working lining for being used to place a kind of pedotheque under water layer;
The filter layer with fine grinding soil under working lining;And
Positioned at the stability maintenance layer of cylinder least significant end;
The stability maintenance layer is the material with fine mesh structure.
6. calculation method as claimed in claim 5, which is characterized in that the filter layer further includes the filter under fine grinding soil Paper layer, the second quartz sand layer and the second glass bead layer.
7. calculation method as claimed in claim 5, which is characterized in that the height of the working lining is 5-6 times of cylinder internal diameter.
8. calculation method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the migration rate analog function are as follows:
Wherein, m=x2/ 4Dt, K=C0/CNa0
Wherein, C is the concentration of pollutant X, CNaFor the concentration of Na ion, C0For initial time pollutant concentration, CNa0When being initial Na concentration is carved, R indicates that retardation factor of the X in different soils particle, D indicate the dispersion coefficient of pollutant X in the soil.
CN201910172389.0A 2019-03-07 2019-03-07 A kind of soil pollutant migration rate calculation method Pending CN109975183A (en)

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