CN109942274A - A method of using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for multi-stage porous haydite - Google Patents

A method of using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for multi-stage porous haydite Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109942274A
CN109942274A CN201910178465.9A CN201910178465A CN109942274A CN 109942274 A CN109942274 A CN 109942274A CN 201910178465 A CN201910178465 A CN 201910178465A CN 109942274 A CN109942274 A CN 109942274A
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haydite
temperature
red mud
stage porous
grain
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张兰
李如燕
董祥
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Kunming University of Science and Technology
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Kunming University of Science and Technology
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P40/00Technologies relating to the processing of minerals
    • Y02P40/60Production of ceramic materials or ceramic elements, e.g. substitution of clay or shale by alternative raw materials, e.g. ashes

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for the method for multi-stage porous haydite, belongs to solid waste resource recovery and field of environmental technology.Flyash, red mud and agricultural waste residue grain are uniformly mixed by the present invention, and water is added and is uniformly mixing to obtain mixed soil B;Mixed soil B is granulated to obtain haydite base sample C;Haydite base sample C is placed under the conditions of temperature is 90 ~ 120 DEG C and handles 60 ~ 180min, then is placed in 30 ~ 60 min of constant temperature processing under the conditions of temperature is 350 ~ 450 DEG C and obtains precast ceramsite;Precast ceramsite is placed under the conditions of temperature is 950 ~ 1150 DEG C and roasts 20 ~ 70min, furnace cooling obtains porous ceramic grain D;Porous ceramic grain D is added in alkaline solution, it adds sodium metaaluminate and is uniformly mixed and obtain haydite system for handling, it is warming up to the temperature of haydite system for handling at the uniform velocity as 80 ~ 140 DEG C and constant temperature handles 6 ~ 24 h, take out haydite and wash to neutrality, be drying to obtain multi-stage porous haydite.Multi-stage porous haydite of the present invention has both two kinds of cellular structures of macropore and micropore, has good water absorbing properties, water retention property and ion-exchange performance.

Description

A method of using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for multi-stage porous haydite
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for the method for multi-stage porous haydite, belongs to solid waste resource Change and field of environmental technology.
Background technique
With the fast development of the industry such as China's mining, metallurgy and power generation, the production of the solid waste such as flyash and red mud Raw amount is continuously increased.Flyash is a kind of similar pozzolana mixed material that fine coal is formed after high-temp combustion.China's fine coal Total volume of cargo in storage of ash increases more than 1,000,000,000 tons with annual 5.6 ~ 6.1 hundred million tons of speed.Red mud is that bauxite refines It is generated in aluminum oxide production process, every one ton of aluminium of production is discharged 1 ~ 2.5 ton of red mud.China is that maximum red mud generates in the world One of state, it is estimated that, for China's red mud discharge amount more than annual 6000000 tons, accumulative red mud accumulating amount has reached several hundred million tons.A large amount of powder Coal ash and the long-term air storage of red mud, do not only take up a large amount of arable land, and will cause the pollution of atmosphere, soil and water body, It is worldwide important subject to its joint disposal and utilization.
Currently, China's flyash is mainly for the production of cement, brick and the low value-added purposes such as pave the way, and utilization rate is 70% Left and right;Red mud is since with strong basicity, utilization rate is still less than 15%.
The haydite overwhelming majority is all closed pore haydite at present, uniform in size, quality is closely knit, there is enamel generation on surface, and has Higher intensity is mainly used for construction material or light-weight aggregate.Aperture haydite has macroporous structure macroscopic, abundant, main To be used as biofilm carrier to be widely used in sewage treatment, but the duct type of existing porous ceramic grain is single, specific surface area It is smaller, it is low to the removal efficiency of water pollutant, seriously limit its scope of application.
Summary of the invention
The technical issues of for aperture haydite, the present invention provide it is a kind of using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for multi-stage porous haydite Method, the present invention can be changed the single macroporous structure of haydite, introduce micropore or meso-hole structure, form multi-stage porous ceramsite material, can The specific surface area of haydite is significantly increased, improve its ion exchange and absorption property, it not only can be improved to water pollutant Removal efficiency, sponge city can also be extended to and seeped store the application such as material, Performance of Constructed Wetlands Substrates and sewage adsorption cleaning material Field.
A method of using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for multi-stage porous haydite, the specific steps are as follows:
(1) flyash and red mud are uniformly mixed and obtain mixture A;The drying of agricultural waste residue, crushing are obtained into agricultural waste residue grain;It will Mixture A is uniformly mixed with agricultural waste residue grain, and water is added and is uniformly mixing to obtain mixed soil B;
(2) the mixed soil B of step (1) is granulated to obtain haydite base sample C;
(3) the haydite base sample C of step (2) is placed under the conditions of temperature is 90 ~ 120 DEG C and handles 60 ~ 180 min, then be placed in temperature Constant temperature handles 30 ~ 60 min and obtains precast ceramsite under the conditions of being 350 ~ 450 DEG C;
(4) step (3) precast ceramsite is placed under the conditions of temperature is 950 ~ 1150 DEG C and roasts 20 ~ 70min, furnace cooling obtains more Hole haydite D;
(5) the porous ceramic grain D of step (4) is added in alkaline solution, add sodium metaaluminate and be uniformly mixed obtain haydite System for handling, the temperature for being at the uniform velocity warming up to haydite system for handling is 80 ~ 140 DEG C and constant temperature handles 6 ~ 24 h, takes out haydite and washes It washs to neutral, dry to constant weight up to multi-stage porous haydite;
It is calculated in mass percent, flyash accounts for 55% ~ 85% in step (1) the mixture A;
The mass ratio of step (1) the agricultural waste residue grain and mixture A are (5 ~ 25): 100;Agricultural waste residue be bagasse, sawdust, Coffee grounds, corncob it is one or more;
The partial size of haydite base sample C is 5 ~ 20 mm in rapid (2);
The concentration of step (5) the neutral and alkali solution is 0.5 ~ 4 mol/L, and alkaline solution is sodium hydroxide solution, potassium hydroxide Solution or sodium carbonate liquor, the liquid-solid ratio mL:g of alkaline solution and porous ceramic grain D are (4 ~ 10): 1, the additional amount of sodium metaaluminate is The 0 ~ 10% of porous ceramic grain D mass.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:
(1) present invention makees fluxing agent and agriculture using the alkaline components in raw material based on the sial component in flyash, red mud Organic components in woods waste residue carry out high-temperature roasting as pore creating material, then carry out hydro-thermal process, realize microporous molecular screen banks The original position divided in haydite surface and macropore duct loads and forms multi-stage porous haydite;
(2) specific surface area of haydite can be significantly increased using multi-stage porous haydite prepared by flyash and red mud for the method for the present invention, Improve its ion exchange and absorption property, its removal efficiency to water pollutant not only can be improved, sea can also be extended to Continuous city, which is seeped, stores the application fields such as material, Performance of Constructed Wetlands Substrates and sewage adsorption cleaning material;
(3) flyash and red mud can be effectively utilized in the present invention, can reduce the environmental hazard of 7 ash and red mud of fine coal, realizes powder The high added value resource utilization of coal ash and red mud;
(4) multi-stage porous haydite of the present invention have two kinds of cellular structures of micropore and macropore, have water imbibition is strong, water retention property is superior, The features such as ion-exchange performance height and good pollutant purification effect, water absorption rate and cation exchange capacity are respectively up to 57.3% With 2.3 meq/g.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of 1 haydite base sample of embodiment;
Fig. 2 is the shape appearance figure of 1 porous ceramic grain of embodiment;
Fig. 3 is the XRD diagram of 1 porous ceramic grain of embodiment;
Fig. 4 is the shape appearance figure of 1 multi-stage porous haydite of embodiment;
Fig. 5 is the XRD diagram of 1 multi-stage porous haydite of embodiment;
Fig. 6 is 2 multi-stage porous haydite of embodiment and commercially available haydite water retention property comparison diagram;
Fig. 7 is the XRD diagram of 3 multi-stage porous haydite of embodiment;
Fig. 8 is adsorption equilibrium thermoisopleth (30 DEG C) of the 4 multi-stage porous haydite of embodiment to ammonia nitrogen.
Specific embodiment
Invention is further described in detail With reference to embodiment, but protection scope of the present invention and unlimited In the content.
Embodiment 1: a method of using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for multi-stage porous haydite, the specific steps are as follows:
(1) flyash and red mud are uniformly mixed and obtain mixture A;Agricultural waste residue (bagasse) drying, crushing are obtained into agricultural Waste residue grain;Mixture A is uniformly mixed with agricultural waste residue grain, water is added and is uniformly mixing to obtain mixed soil B;Wherein with quality hundred Score meter, flyash accounts for 75% in mixture A;The mass ratio of agricultural waste residue grain and mixture A are 18:100;
(2) it is granulated the mixed soil B of step (1) to obtain haydite base sample C(and sees Fig. 1);Wherein the partial size of haydite base sample C is 10 mm;
(3) the haydite base sample C of step (2) is placed under the conditions of temperature is 110 DEG C and handles 90min, then being placed in temperature is 450 DEG C of items Constant temperature handles 30 min and obtains precast ceramsite under part;
(4) step (3) precast ceramsite is at the uniform velocity warming up under the conditions of temperature is 1100 DEG C with the rate of 6 DEG C/min and roasts 20min, Furnace cooling obtains porous ceramic grain D;
(5) the porous ceramic grain D of step (4) is added in alkaline solution (potassium hydroxide solution) to be uniformly mixed and obtains haydite processing System, the temperature for being at the uniform velocity warming up to haydite system for handling is 90 DEG C and constant temperature handles 12h, takes out haydite and washs to neutral, dry It is dry to constant weight up to multi-stage porous haydite;Wherein the concentration of alkaline solution (potassium hydroxide solution) is 2mol/L, alkaline solution (hydrogen-oxygen Change potassium solution) it with the liquid-solid ratio mL:g of porous ceramic grain D is 5:1;
The schematic diagram of the present embodiment porous ceramic grain D is shown in that Fig. 2 and XRD diagram are shown in that Fig. 3, the schematic diagram of multi-stage porous haydite are shown in Fig. 4 and XRD diagram See Fig. 5, from Fig. 2 ~ 5 it is found that the element of Fe in haydite embryo sample is fully converted to Fe in roasting process2O3, roast the more of acquisition Hole haydite internal gutter is mostly micron order macropore, and hole wall is relatively smooth;In hydrothermal treatment process in the duct of porous ceramic grain surface Part Si, Al component is dissolved by lye, so that aperture be made to increase to form multi-stage porous, and that treated is more through alkali liquor hydrothermal Grade hole haydite internal gutter is more loose, and a large amount of zeolite molecular sieve crystallites are deposited on hole wall;
The main object phase composition for roasting the porous ceramic grain obtained is quartz, mullite and bloodstone;It is more after alkali liquor hydrothermal is handled Quartz is mutually substantially reduced in the haydite of grade hole, forms the haydite compounded structure of zeolite-with chabasie for main object phase;
Water absorption rate detection: 8.857g multi-stage porous haydite is put into excessive water, guarantees that multi-stage porous haydite is all submerged in water, It impregnates 1h and takes out multi-stage porous haydite, the water droplet on multi-stage porous haydite surface is dried with wet rag, weighing its quality is 13.090 g, will Multi-stage porous haydite, which is put back in water, to be continued to be dipped to for 24 hours, is taken out multi-stage porous haydite and is dried multi-stage porous haydite surface with wet rag Water droplet, weighing its quality is 13.929 g;
Calculate water absorption rate: W1=(13.090-8.857)/ 8.857×100%=47.8%;
W2=(13.929-8.857)/ 8.857×100%=57.3%;
W in formula1、W2Respectively 1h water absorption rate, for 24 hours water absorption rate;
And commercially available haydite is used to carry out water absorption rate detection, water absorption rate is 19.2% for 24 hours, and the multi-stage porous haydite of the present embodiment absorbs water for 24 hours Rate is 2.98 times of commercially available haydite water absorption rate for 24 hours.
Embodiment 2: a method of using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for multi-stage porous haydite, the specific steps are as follows:
(1) flyash and red mud are uniformly mixed and obtain mixture A;Agricultural waste residue (sawdust) drying, crushing are obtained agricultural to give up Slag particle;Mixture A is uniformly mixed with agricultural waste residue grain, water is added and is uniformly mixing to obtain mixed soil B;Wherein with quality percentage Number is counted, and flyash accounts for 71.4% in mixture A;The mass ratio of agricultural waste residue grain and mixture A are 14:100;
(2) the mixed soil B of step (1) is granulated to obtain haydite base sample C;Wherein the partial size of haydite base sample C is 10mm;
(3) the haydite base sample C of step (2) is placed under the conditions of temperature is 105 DEG C and handles 110 min, then being placed in temperature is 400 DEG C Under the conditions of constant temperature processing 40min obtain precast ceramsite;
(4) step (3) precast ceramsite is at the uniform velocity warming up under the conditions of temperature is 950 DEG C with the rate of 5 DEG C/min and roasts 70min, Furnace cooling obtains porous ceramic grain D;
(5) the porous ceramic grain D of step (4) is added in alkaline solution (sodium carbonate liquor), adds sodium metaaluminate and mixes Haydite system for handling uniformly is obtained, the temperature for being at the uniform velocity warming up to haydite system for handling is 80 DEG C and constant temperature is handled for 24 hours, takes out haydite And it washs to neutral, dry to constant weight up to multi-stage porous haydite;Wherein the concentration of alkaline solution (sodium carbonate liquor) is 4mol/ The liquid-solid ratio mL:g of L, alkaline solution (sodium carbonate liquor) and porous ceramic grain D are 4:1;The additional amount of sodium metaaluminate is porous ceramic grain The 10% of D mass;
Water retention property test: under room temperature, the laterite powder for taking the multi-stage porous haydite of 10 g the present embodiment and 30 g to grind fills Divide and be mixed to get multi-stage porous haydite-laterite mixture, the laterite powder for taking the commercially available haydite of 10 g and 30 g to grind is sufficiently mixed To commercially available haydite-laterite mixture, taking 40 g laterite powder is laterite reference sample, then respectively by multi-stage porous haydite-laterite Mixture, commercially available haydite-laterite mixture, laterite reference sample are added in enough deionized waters and impregnate for 24 hours, to multi-stage porous After haydite-laterite mixture, commercially available haydite-laterite mixture, laterite reference sample respectively reach water suction saturation state, use respectively The extra water in syringe absorption multi-stage porous haydite-laterite mixture, commercially available haydite-laterite mixture, laterite reference sample upper layer, Initial mass M at this time is weighed respectively0, it is subsequently placed in 30 DEG C of drying box, measures the mass M of t momentt, when passing through unit Between water evaporation quantity △ Et, to characterize the water retention property of sample;
Unit time water evaporation quantity △ Et:
△Et=(M0 - Mt)/t (2-2)
In formula: △ EtWhen being expressed as t moment, unit time water evaporation quantity, g;M0It is expressed as being placed in mixture before drying box With the gross mass of beaker, g;MtIt is expressed as the gross mass of t moment mixture and beaker, g;
The present embodiment multi-stage porous haydite-laterite mixture, commercially available haydite-laterite mixture and laterite reference sample unit time water Divide evaporation capacity versus time curve as shown in fig. 6, the present embodiment multi-stage porous haydite-laterite mixture and Yunnan laterite Sample is compared with commercially available haydite-laterite mixture, and unit time evaporation capacity significantly reduces, and water retention property significantly improves.
Embodiment 3: a method of using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for multi-stage porous haydite, the specific steps are as follows:
(1) flyash and red mud are uniformly mixed and obtain mixture A;Agricultural waste residue (coffee grounds) drying, crushing are obtained into agricultural Waste residue grain;Mixture A is uniformly mixed with agricultural waste residue grain, water is added and is uniformly mixing to obtain mixed soil B;Wherein with quality hundred Score meter, flyash accounts for 84.7% in mixture A;The mass ratio of agricultural waste residue grain and mixture A are 14.4:100;
(2) the mixed soil B of step (1) is granulated to obtain haydite base sample C;Wherein the partial size of haydite base sample C is 15mm;
(3) the haydite base sample C of step (2) is placed under the conditions of temperature is 100 DEG C and handles 130 min, then being placed in temperature is 350 DEG C Under the conditions of constant temperature processing 60min obtain precast ceramsite;
(4) step (3) precast ceramsite is at the uniform velocity warming up under the conditions of temperature is 1150 DEG C with the rate of 6 DEG C/min and roasts 20min, Furnace cooling obtains porous ceramic grain D;
(5) the porous ceramic grain D of step (4) is added in alkaline solution (sodium hydroxide solution), adds sodium metaaluminate and mixes Conjunction uniformly obtains haydite system for handling, and the temperature for being at the uniform velocity warming up to haydite system for handling is 140 DEG C and constant temperature handles 6h, takes out pottery Grain is simultaneously washed to neutral, dry to constant weight up to multi-stage porous haydite;Wherein the concentration of alkaline solution (sodium hydroxide solution) is The liquid-solid ratio mL:g of 2.5mol/L, alkaline solution (sodium hydroxide solution) and porous ceramic grain D are 8:1;The additional amount of sodium metaaluminate It is the 4.4% of porous ceramic grain D mass;
The XRD diagram of the present embodiment multi-stage porous haydite is as shown in fig. 7, as can be known from Fig. 7, the present embodiment multi-stage porous haydite principal crystalline phase For the multi-stage porous haydite of NaP1;
Cation exchange capacity test: under the conditions of 25 DEG C of temperature, by the 1 of the multi-stage porous haydite of 5 g the present embodiment and 100 mL Mol/L ammonium acetate solution is uniformly mixed, and 24 h are shaken under the conditions of rate is 300r/min, and centrifugation obtains supernatant, uses Na Shi The concentration that spectrophotometry measures ammonium ion in supernatant is 0.883 mol/L,
Calculating cation exchange capacity (CEC) it is CEC=(1 mol/L -0.883 mol/L) × 0.1 L/5 g, the present embodiment Multi-stage porous haydite cation exchange capacity (CEC) it is 2.3 meq/g.
Embodiment 4: a method of using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for multi-stage porous haydite, the specific steps are as follows:
(1) flyash and red mud are uniformly mixed and obtain mixture A;Agricultural waste residue (corncob) drying, crushing are obtained into agricultural Waste residue grain;Mixture A is uniformly mixed with agricultural waste residue grain, water is added and is uniformly mixing to obtain mixed soil B;Wherein with quality hundred Score meter, flyash accounts for 84.7% in mixture A;The mass ratio of agricultural waste residue grain and mixture A are 17.8:100;
(2) the mixed soil B of step (1) is granulated to obtain haydite base sample C;Wherein the partial size of haydite base sample C is 15mm;
(3) the haydite base sample C of step (2) is placed under the conditions of temperature is 95 DEG C and handles 150 min, then being placed in temperature is 380 Constant temperature processing 50min obtains precast ceramsite under the conditions of DEG C;
(4) step (3) precast ceramsite is at the uniform velocity warming up under the conditions of temperature is 1100 DEG C with the rate of 5 DEG C/min and roasts 40min, Furnace cooling obtains porous ceramic grain D;
(5) the porous ceramic grain D of step (4) is added in alkaline solution (sodium hydroxide solution), adds sodium metaaluminate and mixes Conjunction uniformly obtains haydite system for handling, and the temperature for being at the uniform velocity warming up to haydite system for handling is 100 DEG C and constant temperature handles 15h, takes out Haydite is simultaneously washed to neutral, dry to constant weight up to multi-stage porous haydite;Wherein the concentration of alkaline solution (sodium hydroxide solution) is The liquid-solid ratio mL:g of 0.5mol/L, alkaline solution (sodium hydroxide solution) and porous ceramic grain D are 10:1;The additional amount of sodium metaaluminate It is the 10% of porous ceramic grain D mass;
The measurement of ammonia nitrogen saturated adsorption capacity: the multi-stage porous haydite of 1 g the present embodiment is respectively put into and a series of 40 mL chlorine are housed In the centrifuge tube for changing ammonium salt solution, wherein ammonium chloride solution concentration is respectively 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, 400 mg/L, 600 mg/ L, centrifuge tube is placed in constant-temperature table, in the item that temperature is 30 DEG C, rate is 300r/min by 800 mg/L and 1000 mg/L 48 h are shaken under part, centrifuge tube is taken out, and with 0.22 μm of water system miillpore filter filter and remove suspended substances matter, gained clear liquid is adopted Ammonia-nitrogen content is measured with Berthelot spectrophotometry;
Calculated equilibrium adsorption capacityQ e:
C iWithC eRefer respectively to initial ion concentration and counter-ion concentrations (mg/L) in solution;VRefer to containing adsorbate ion Liquor capacity (L),mFor the quality (g) of adsorbent;
Q e-C eCurve as shown in figure 8, using Langmuir adsorption isotherm line model to the curve carry out nonlinear fitting, obtain Temperature be 30 DEG C at multi-stage porous haydite to ammonia nitrogen maximum adsorption capacityQ mFor 11.3 mg/g.

Claims (5)

1. it is a kind of using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for the method for multi-stage porous haydite, which is characterized in that specific step is as follows:
(1) flyash and red mud are uniformly mixed and obtain mixture A;The drying of agricultural waste residue, crushing are obtained into agricultural waste residue grain;It will Mixture A is uniformly mixed with agricultural waste residue grain, and water is added and is uniformly mixing to obtain mixed soil B;
(2) the mixed soil B of step (1) is granulated to obtain haydite base sample C;
(3) the haydite base sample C of step (2) is placed under the conditions of temperature is 90 ~ 120 DEG C and handles 60 ~ 180min, then be placed in temperature and be Constant temperature handles 30 ~ 60 min and obtains precast ceramsite under the conditions of 350 ~ 450 DEG C;
(4) step (3) precast ceramsite is placed under the conditions of temperature is 950 ~ 1150 DEG C and roasts 20 ~ 70min, furnace cooling obtains more Hole haydite D;
(5) the porous ceramic grain D of step (4) is added in alkaline solution, add sodium metaaluminate and be uniformly mixed obtain haydite System for handling, the temperature for being at the uniform velocity warming up to haydite system for handling is 80 ~ 140 DEG C and constant temperature handles 6 ~ 24 h, takes out haydite and washes It washs to neutral, dry to constant weight up to multi-stage porous haydite.
2. according to claim 1 using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for the method for multi-stage porous haydite, it is characterised in that: with quality Percentage meter, flyash accounts for 55% ~ 85% in step (1) mixture A.
3. according to claim 1 using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for the method for multi-stage porous haydite, it is characterised in that: step (1) mass ratio of agricultural waste residue grain and mixture A are (5 ~ 25): 100;Agricultural waste residue is bagasse, sawdust, coffee grounds, corn Core it is one or more.
4. according to claim 1 using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for the method for multi-stage porous haydite, it is characterised in that: step (2) partial size of haydite base sample C is 5 ~ 20 mm in.
5. according to claim 1 using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for the method for multi-stage porous haydite, it is characterised in that: step (5) concentration of neutral and alkali solution is 0.5 ~ 4 mol/L, and alkaline solution is sodium hydroxide solution, potassium hydroxide solution or sodium carbonate The liquid-solid ratio mL:g of solution, alkaline solution and porous ceramic grain D are (4 ~ 10): 1, the additional amount of sodium metaaluminate is porous ceramic grain D matter The 0 ~ 10% of amount.
CN201910178465.9A 2019-03-11 2019-03-11 A method of using red mud and coal ash for manufacturing for multi-stage porous haydite Pending CN109942274A (en)

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