CN109932301A  A method of calculating the spontaneous imbibition twophase fluid relative permeability of compact reservoir  Google Patents
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 CN109932301A CN109932301A CN201910285062.4A CN201910285062A CN109932301A CN 109932301 A CN109932301 A CN 109932301A CN 201910285062 A CN201910285062 A CN 201910285062A CN 109932301 A CN109932301 A CN 109932301A
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Abstract
The present invention relates to a kind of methods for calculating the spontaneous imbibition process twophase fluid relative permeability of compact reservoir, are a kind of spontaneous dynamic effective means of imbibition twophase fluid seepage flow of evaluation compact reservoir.Calculating step successively includes: that (1) rock core prepares, and is used for spontaneous imbibition nuclear magnetic resonance experiment；(2) sample saturation simulation water flooding condition nuclear magnetic resonance T is obtained_{2}Spectrum；(3) the spontaneous imbibition experiment of sample nuclear magnetic resonance, obtains different spontaneous imbibition time T_{2}Spectrum；(4) different spontaneous imbibition time sample water saturations and T are calculated_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value；(5) spontaneous imbibition process twophase fluid relative permeability is calculated.Present invention combination saturatedwater phase and spontaneous imbibition process nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Spectrum, is accurately calculated the spontaneous imbibition process twophase fluid relative permeability of compact reservoir, lays the foundation for fine and close Reservoir Development dynamic evaluation evaluation.
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of calculation methods of the spontaneous imbibition twophase fluid relative permeability of reservoir, store up especially for densification
The calculating of the spontaneous imbibition twophase fluid relative permeability of layer.Mainly in combination with the spontaneous imbibition nuclear magnetic resonance experiment of compact reservoir rock core,
Quantitative calculating can be carried out to spontaneous imbibition process air water (or grease) the two phase fluid flow relative permeability of compact reservoir to fine and close oil, be
A kind of accurately and effectively spontaneous imbibition dynamic evaluation method of compact reservoir development process.
Background technique
With global energy requirements amount sharp increase and conventional gas and oil resource it is increasingly depleted, using fine and close oil gas as the nonof representative
Conventional resources exploration is paid more and more attention.Different from conventional reservoir, the fine and close micronano hole knot of oil and gas reservoir major developmental
Structure, reservoir properties are very poor, heterogeneous strong, and therefore, horizontal well multistage fracturing technology is used for compact reservoir exploitation, compact reservoir pole
The physical property of difference makes the extremely difficult realization of conventional waterflooding displacement of reservoir oil development scheme, and can obtain one with the development scheme of the spontaneous imbibition displacement of reservoir oil
Fixed effect, therefore, spontaneous imbibition air water (or grease) the twophase dynamic of accurate evaluation compact reservoir, for instructing compact reservoir height
Effect exploitation, has extremely important realistic meaning.
Currently, the experimental method of experiment indoor test twophase relative permeability mainly has steady state method and cold store enclosure.Reference
People's Republic of China's petroleum industry standard " measurement of SY/T 58431997 (2005) Gas And Water Relative Permeability " and " SY/T
The measurement of 53451999 oilwater relative permeability ", steady state method and cold store enclosure have strict demand to sample physical property, are such as directed to gas
The measurement of water twophase relative permeability, it is (0.5~1000) × 10 that steady state method, which is suitable for sample permeability range,^{3}μm^{2}, and unstable state
Method is suitable for sample permeability and is greater than 0.01 × 10^{3}μm^{2}.Meanwhile it needing accurately to measure air water, wateroil phase during the experiment
Flow, displacement pressure and the displacement time of fluid are based ultimately upon the phase permeability that darcy flow theory seeks corresponding to each phase, in turn
Obtain the relative permeability of each phase.And during spontaneous imbibition, the active force of two phase fluid flow process be mainly capillary pressure and
Gravity, and external displacement pressure is not present, therefore also can not accurately measure to obtain, this allows for conventional relative permeability test
And calculation method is not particularly suited for the calculating of the spontaneous imbibition process relative permeability of fine and close Reservoir Development fluid, thus to spontaneous
The dynamic characterization of imbibition process twophase fluid brings a series of difficulties.
Studies have shown that the T obtained based on the analysis of laboratory core nuclear magnetic resonance experiment_{2}Spectrum can effectively indicate that twophase fluid seeps
Stream process different water cut saturation degree condition fluid distrbution closes so as to set up the function of relative permeability and water saturation
System.Therefore, by monitoring the spontaneous imbibition process nuclear magnetic resonance T of compact reservoir_{2}Spectral structure, in conjunction with nuclear magnetic resonance computing permeability
SDR model can be derived from different water cut saturation degree condition fluid phase permeability, and then it is each to obtain different water cut saturation degree condition
The relative permeability of phase fluid provides support for the spontaneous imbibition twophase fluid seepage flow dynamic evaluation of compact reservoir development process.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of that present invention to provide it is a kind of calculate the spontaneous imbibition twophase fluid relative permeability of compact reservoir method, by
This obtained computation model, understanding and conclusion enrich the spontaneous imbibition fluid neuron network dynamic of fine and close developing of reservoirs reservoir
Evaluation method overcomes traditional experiment technology to the limitation of the spontaneous imbibition dynamic evaluation of fine and close developing of reservoirs.
To reach the above technical purpose, the present invention provides following technical scheme.
It is as follows that spontaneous imbibition twophase fluid relative permeability calculation formula is stored up in densification:
According to document (Kenyon W E.Nuclear magnetic resonance as a petrophysical
measurement.Nuclear Geophysics,1992,6,153171.)(Coates G R,Xiao L,Prammer M
G.NMR logging principles and applications.Halliburton Energy Services:
Houston, TX, 1999.) one kind is obtained based on nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}The method that spectrum calculates reservoir permeability, i.e. SDR model.It can be by
Following formula is indicated:
In formula, knuclearmagnetism calculates permeability, and unit is millidarcy (mD)；
φporosity, unit are decimal (f)；
Ccoefficient relevant to rock mineral composition, can be obtained, dimensionless by fitting experimental data；
M, ncoefficient relevant to physical properties of rock and microstructure, respectively equal to 4 and 2, dimensionless；
T_{2lm} lateral relaxation time T_{2}Logarithmic mean value, unit are millisecond (ms).For saturated water core sample, T_{2}Spectrum pair
Number average value can be calculated by the following formula:
In formula, T_{2i} nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Corresponding lateral relaxation time is composed, unit is millisecond (ms)；
m(T_{2i})different lateral relaxation time T_{2i}Corresponding range value, unit are amplitude (a.u.).
From formula (1) it is found that (wateroil phase, oil are nonwetted phase, and water is wetting phase for twophase fluid seepage flow；Air water
Twophase, gas are nonwetted phase, and water is wetting phase；Nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}In spectrum monitoring, water has NMR signal, simulation oil (fluorocarbon oil)
Gas is without NMR signal), then there is the phase permeability of NMR signal wetting phase fluid (w) that can be expressed as,
It can similarly obtain, for twophase fluid seepage state, the mutually infiltration of no nonwetted phase fluid of NMR signal (nw)
Rate can be expressed as,
In formula, k_{w}Phase fluid (water) phase permeability is soaked when the permeation oftwophase fluid, unit is millidarcy (mD)；
k_{nw}Nonwetted phase fluid (gas or oil) the phase permeability when permeation oftwophase fluid, unit are millidarcy (mD)；
S_{w}Phase fluid (water) saturation degree is soaked when the permeation oftwophase fluid, unit is decimal (f)；
S_{nw}Nonwetted phase fluid (gas or oil) saturation degree, S when the permeation oftwophase fluid_{nw}=1S_{w}, unit is decimal (f)；
T_{2lmw} twophase fluid seepage flow soaks phase fluid lateral relaxation time T_{2}Logarithmic mean value is composed, unit is millisecond (ms)；
T_{2lmnw}The nonwetted phase fluid lateral relaxation time T oftwophase fluid seepage flow_{2}Logarithmic mean value is composed, unit is millisecond
(ms)。
After spontaneous imbibition for a period of time, sample wetness phase fluid saturation degree (S_{wt}) can be expressed from the next:
For fractional saturation water core sample, it is assumed that its water saturation is S_{wt}, then nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value
It can be calculated by the following formula:
For no NMR signal phase (oil or gas) fluid, corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Spectrum logarithmic mean value can pass through
Following formula calculates:
In formula, S_{w} sample water saturation, unit are percent (%)；
S_{wt}Sample water saturation afterspontaneous imbibition for a period of time, unit are percent (%)；
m(T_{2i})_{Sw=Swt}Afterspontaneous imbibition for a period of time, sample water saturation is S_{wt}When NMR signal amplitude
Value, unit are amplitude (a.u.)；
T_{2lmw}Afterspontaneous imbibition for a period of time, sample water saturation is S_{wt}When have NMR signal phase (water) T_{2}Spectrum
Logarithmic mean value, unit are millisecond (ms)；
T_{2lmnw}Afterspontaneous imbibition for a period of time, sample water saturation is S_{wt}When without NMR signal phase (gas or
Oil) T_{2}Logarithmic mean value is composed, unit is millisecond (ms)；
t_{2} lateral relaxation time, unit are millisecond (ms)；
T_{2max} lateral relaxation time maximum value, unit are millisecond (ms).
Then simultaneous formula (1) and (3) are it is found that spontaneous imbibition twophase fluid seepage flow wetting phase fluid (water) of compact reservoir is opposite
Permeability indicates are as follows:
Then simultaneous formula (1) and (4) it is found that the spontaneous nonwetted phase fluid of imbibition twophase fluid seepage flow of compact reservoir (gas or
Oil) relative permeability expression are as follows:
In formula, k_{rw}The spontaneous imbibition process ofcompact reservoir soaks phase fluid relative permeability, dimensionless；
k_{rnw}The nonwetted phase fluid relative permeability of the spontaneous imbibition process ofcompact reservoir, dimensionless；
k_{w}The spontaneous imbibition process ofcompact reservoir soaks phase fluid phase permeability, mD；
k_{nw}The nonwetted phase fluid phase permeability of the spontaneous imbibition process ofcompact reservoir, mD.
It is first from formula (8) and (9) as can be seen that determine the relative permeability of the spontaneous imbibition twophase fluid of compact reservoir
It first must accurately seek the saturation degree (S of spontaneous imbibition process reservoir fluid_{w}, S_{nw}) and different saturation condition lateral relaxation time
T_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value (T_{2lmw}, T_{2lmnw})。
A method of calculate the spontaneous imbibition twophase fluid relative permeability of compact reservoir, successively the following steps are included:
(1) experiment rock core prepares；
(2) sample saturation simulation water flooding and corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Spectrum test；
(3) spontaneous imbibition nuclear magnetic resonance experiment；
(4) spontaneous imbibition process T_{2}Mutation analysis is composed, determines corresponding fluid saturation and nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Compose logarithmic mean
Value；
(5) the spontaneous imbibition process twophase fluid relative permeability of compact reservoir rock core is calculated.
Each step is specifically described below:
(1) experiment rock core prepares
According to National Standard of the People's Republic of China GB/T 291722012 " core analysis method ", rock sample is selected
It takes, prepare, clean.Section cutting in rock sample both ends is smooth, is used for spontaneous imbibition nuclear magnetic resonance experiment.Claimed with high Accuracy Electronic Balance
Measure sample dry weight m_{0}, vernier caliper measurement length L, diameter D, and reference standard measurement obtains helium porosity φ, nitrogen infiltration
Rate k.
(2) sample saturation simulation water flooding and corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Spectrum test
Steps are as follows: 1. nuclear magnetic resonance experiment device debugging.Standard specimen is selected to demarcate nuclear magnetic resonance experiment system, really
Determine T_{E}(echo sounding), T_{W}The parameters such as (waiting time), NECH (number of echoes).The present invention is selected for compact reservoir core sample
Nuclear magnetic resonance CPMG sequence, sampling parameter are respectively as follows: echo sounding T_{E}=0.254ms, waiting time T_{W}=6000ms, echo
Number NECH=12000,90 ° of pulsewidth P_{1}=5, scanning times N=32, the present invention in nuclear magnetic resonance experiment T_{2}Spectrum scanning selects this
Parameter；2. sample vacuumizes pressurization saturation, then stable displacement saturation.By rock core vacuumizing to 133Pa, add under 20MPa pressure
Pressure is saturated compact reservoir rock after saturation simulation water flooding 48 hours, then in the method for 0.01ml/min displacement simulation water flooding for 24 hours
Heart sample takes out sample with filter paper and sucks adsorption water droplet, weighs saturated water core sample quality m_{1}；3. sample saturation simulation
Stratum water state T_{2}Spectrometry.Sample is packed into nuclear magnetic resonance core holding unit, keeps debugging mode parameter constant, measurement obtains
Saturation simulation stratum water state T_{2}Spectrum.
(3) spontaneous imbibition nuclear magnetic resonance experiment
Steps are as follows: 1. by the saturation simulation water flooding core sample desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching, drying；2. by sample heatshrink tube (no nuclearmagnetism
Resonance signal) wrap up and weigh, after sample is placed in the spontaneous imbibition experimental provision of constant temperature in laboratory condition, using end face from
The mode of hair imbibition is tested, and is kept lower end surface to submerge in simulated formation water, is monitored sample quality after different selfpriming times
(m_{i}), while monitoring obtains corresponding states nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Spectrum；3. continuous spontaneous imbibition, corresponding detection obtains different spontaneous imbibitions
Time nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Spectrum, until sample nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Spectrum tends to be overlapped, and terminates experiment.
(4) spontaneous imbibition process T_{2}Mutation analysis is composed, determines corresponding fluid saturation and nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value
The saturation simulation water flooding and fractional saturation water state sample nuclear magnetic resonance T obtained based on step (2) (3) experiment_{2}
Spectrum is based on formula (5) and obtains sample saturation degree after the different spontaneous imbibition times；Meanwhile being based on saturatedwater phase nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}
Spectrum and fractional saturation water state nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Wetting phase fluid T is calculated in conjunction with formula (6) in spectrum_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value
T_{2lmw}；Meanwhile nonwetted phase fluid T is calculated in conjunction with formula (7)_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value T_{2lmnw}。
(5) the spontaneous imbibition process twophase fluid relative permeability of compact reservoir rock core is calculated.
The water saturation S being calculated based on step (1) to (4)_{w}, soak phase fluid T_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value T_{2lmw}, non
Soak phase fluid T_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value T_{2lmnw}, the spontaneous imbibition two phase flow of compact reservoir core sample is obtained in conjunction with formula (8) (9)
Body relative permeability.
The invention proposes a kind of new spontaneous imbibition process twophase fluid relative permeability calculation methods of compact reservoir, and
Propose the implementation steps that spontaneous imbibition process twophase fluid relative permeability is calculated based on analysis of experimental data.The present invention combines
The spontaneous imbibition process twophase fluid relative permeability calculation method of compact reservoir that spontaneous imbibition nuclear magnetic resonance experiment data propose,
It offers reference for the spontaneous imbibition process twophase fluid seepage flow dynamic evaluation of compact reservoir, and then is commented for fine and close Reservoir Development dynamic
Valence lays the foundation.
Compared with prior art, the present invention its remarkable advantage is: (1) means are advanced, and thinking is novel, and precision is high.In conjunction with
Lowfield nuclear magnetic resonance monitoring technology can effectively describe the spontaneous imbibition process different water cut saturation degree condition fluid of compact reservoir rock core
Distribution, accurately and reliably；(2) operability.Compared to conventional relative permeability experimental technique, the required relevant parameter of the present invention is equal
It can accurately be obtained by experimental monitoring, strong operability；(3) quantitative accurate.In conjunction with nuclear magnetic resonance lateral relaxation time spectrum and nuclearmagnetism
Resonance calculates permeability SDR model, can accurately calculate different water cut saturation degree condition wetting phase and the opposite infiltration of nonwetted phase fluid
Saturating rate.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is to test compact reservoir core sample schematic diagram for the spontaneous imbibition of nuclear magnetic resonance
Fig. 2 is the spontaneous imbibition process nuclear magnetic resonance T of compact reservoir core sample_{2}Spectral structure
Fig. 3 is the spontaneous imbibition process water saturation variation of sample
Fig. 4 is the spontaneous imbibition process twophase fluid relative permeability of compact reservoir rock core being calculated based on the present invention
Specific embodiment
Fig. 1 is the compact reservoir core sample schematic diagram for the spontaneous imbibition experiment of nuclear magnetic resonance.It is the length of rock sample, straight
The parameters such as diameter, porosity, permeability require to measure with standard GB/T/T 291722012.
Fig. 2 is the spontaneous imbibition process different time nuclear magnetic resonance T of compact reservoir core sample in example_{2}Spectral structure figure.
Fig. 3 is the spontaneous imbibition process water saturation variation of compact reservoir core sample in example.
Fig. 4 is that the spontaneous imbibition air water twophase that compact reservoir core sample is obtained based on nuclear magnetic resonance experiment in example is opposite
Permeability.
Application example:
By taking the spontaneous imbibition water of tight gas reservoir rock core as an example.The known compact reservoir core sample (shown in Fig. 1) is derived from certain gas
Field depth is at 631.09m, and sample porosity is 14.16%, and the gas permeability by kirschner correction is 0.373mD, measurement
Obtaining sample length is 4.261cm, diameter 2.495cm, dry weight 47.570g.
The sample saturatedwater phase and spontaneous imbibition process nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Spectral structure is as shown in Figure 2.
According to spontaneous imbibition process sample nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Different spontaneous imbibitions are calculated in conjunction with formula (5) in spectrum variation
Time sample water saturation is as shown in Figure 3.Wherein, sample water saturation is 79.078% after spontaneous imbibition.
Wetting phase and nonwetted phase fluid is calculated in conjunction with formula (6) (7), and Bu Tong the spontaneous imbibition time, to correspond to nuclearmagnetism total
Shake T_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value.Terminate (S with spontaneous imbibition_{w}=79.078%) for, corresponding water phase T_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value are as follows:
Corresponding gas phase T_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value are as follows:
Corresponding saturatedwater phase T_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value are as follows:
In conjunction with formula (8) (9) be calculated wetting phase and nonwetted phase fluid Bu Tong the spontaneous imbibition time correspond to it is aqueous full
With the lower gas phase of degree and water phase relative permeability, the spontaneous imbibition Process Gas of samplewater permeability saturation curve such as Fig. 4 institute is finally obtained
Show.Terminate (S with spontaneous imbibition_{w}=79.078%) for, corresponding water phase relative permeability are as follows:
Corresponding gas phase relative permeability are as follows:
Claims (4)
1. it is a kind of calculate the spontaneous imbibition twophase fluid relative permeability of compact reservoir method, successively the following steps are included:
(1) rock core prepares, and sample both ends section is polished for spontaneous imbibition nuclear magnetic resonance experiment；
(2) sample saturation simulation water flooding and corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Spectrum test, use vacuumize pressurization saturation 48h, again with
The method of 0.01ml/min displacement simulation water flooding for 24 hours is saturated compact reservoir core sample, is tested afterwards using lowfield nuclear magnetic resonance
Device detects saturatedwater phase sample nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Spectrum；
(3) the core sample desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching is dried, the heatshrink tube package of the no NMR signal of sample, using the spontaneous imbibition in end face
Mode carries out spontaneous imbibition experiment in laboratory environments, detects spontaneous imbibition process different time nuclear magnetic resonance in insulating box
T_{2}Spectrum, until detection nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Spectrum tends to be overlapped；
(4) spontaneous imbibition process nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Mutation analysis is composed, determines spontaneous imbibition process sample water saturation and two phase flow
Body nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value；
(5) the spontaneous imbibition process twophase fluid relative permeability of compact reservoir rock core is calculated.
2. a kind of method for calculating the spontaneous imbibition twophase fluid relative permeability of compact reservoir as described in claim 1, feature
It is, step (4) calculates spontaneous imbibition process sample water saturation using following formula:
In formula, S_{wt}Sample water saturation, % afterspontaneous imbibition for a period of time；
T_{2max} lateral relaxation time maximum value, ms；
m(T_{2i})_{Sw=Swt}Afterspontaneous imbibition for a period of time, sample water saturation is S_{wt}When NMR signal range value,
a.u.；
m(T_{2i})_{Sw=100%}NMR signal range value whensample fully saturated simulated formation water, a.u.；
t_{2} lateral relaxation time, ms.
3. a kind of method for calculating the spontaneous imbibition twophase fluid relative permeability of compact reservoir as described in claim 1, feature
It is, step (4) calculates wetting phase and nonwetted phase fluid nuclear magnetic resonance T using following formula_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value:
In formula, S_{w} sample water saturation, %；
φsample porosity, decimal；
T_{2i} nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Compose corresponding lateral relaxation time, ms；
T_{2lmw}Afterspontaneous imbibition for a period of time, sample water saturation is S_{wt}When have NMR signal phase (water) T_{2}Compose logarithm
Average value, ms；
T_{2lmnw}Afterspontaneous imbibition for a period of time, sample water saturation is S_{wt}When without NMR signal phase (gas or oil) T_{2}Spectrum
Logarithmic mean value, ms.
4. a kind of method for calculating the spontaneous imbibition twophase fluid relative permeability of compact reservoir as described in claim 1, feature
It is, step (4) calculates spontaneous imbibition process twophase fluid relative permeability using following formula:
In formula, k_{rw}The spontaneous imbibition process ofcompact reservoir soaks phase fluid relative permeability, dimensionless；
k_{rnw}The nonwetted phase fluid relative permeability of the spontaneous imbibition process ofcompact reservoir, dimensionless；
k_{w}The spontaneous imbibition process ofcompact reservoir soaks phase fluid phase permeability, mD；
k_{nw}The nonwetted phase fluid phase permeability of the spontaneous imbibition process ofcompact reservoir, mD；
Ksample permeability, mD；
T_{2lm} saturated water Conditions Sample nuclear magnetic resonance T_{2}Compose logarithmic mean value, ms；
M, ncoefficient relevant to physical properties of rock and microstructure, respectively equal to 4 and 2, dimensionless.
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