CN109916956B - Test method for quantitatively analyzing blasting energy distribution - Google Patents

Test method for quantitatively analyzing blasting energy distribution Download PDF

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CN109916956B
CN109916956B CN201910088730.4A CN201910088730A CN109916956B CN 109916956 B CN109916956 B CN 109916956B CN 201910088730 A CN201910088730 A CN 201910088730A CN 109916956 B CN109916956 B CN 109916956B
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test piece
water column
cubic test
cubic
water
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CN109916956A (en
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杨仁树
丁晨曦
郑昌达
肖成龙
赵勇
陈程
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China University of Mining and Technology Beijing CUMTB
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China University of Mining and Technology Beijing CUMTB
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Abstract

The embodiment of the invention discloses a test method for quantitatively analyzing blasting energy distribution, relates to the technical field of rock blasting research, and can realize quantitative analysis research on energy distribution in rock blasting. The method comprises the following steps: manufacturing a cubic test piece; blocking two ends of a blast hole of the cubic test piece; detonating lead azide explosives in the blast hole; acquiring a first video image of water column jet flow in the water injection cavity by using a high-speed camera; acquiring the jet height of a water column in a first time period; calculating the maximum jet velocity of the water column according to a first formula based on the jet height of the water column; calculating a first proportion of total explosion energy of the explosive gas according to the effective work and the total explosion energy of the lead azide explosive; determining a second proportion of the total energy of the explosion stress wave based on the first proportion; and quantitatively determining the blasting energy distribution according to the first proportion and the second proportion. The invention is suitable for experimental research and analysis of rock blasting action mechanism.

Description

Test method for quantitatively analyzing blasting energy distribution
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of rock blasting research, in particular to a test method for quantitatively analyzing blasting energy distribution.
Background
For a long time, in the projects of earth and rockfill excavation, mine exploitation and the like, lead azide is used as a main rock blasting explosive, and the energy released after blasting is mainly explosive stress waves and explosive gases, so that the distribution of the two kinds of blasting energy and the functions of the two kinds of blasting energy in rock breaking become objects of major attention and research of a plurality of scientific researchers and field technicians.
At present, the energy distribution of explosive stress waves and explosive gases in rock blasting, or the proportion of rock breaking action, is a qualitative research, and the research result is difficult to accurately guide blasting practice.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of this, the present invention aims to provide a test method for quantitatively analyzing blasting energy distribution, so as to implement quantitative analysis and research on each energy distribution in rock blasting, thereby providing a more accurate theoretical guidance basis for rock blasting engineering practice.
In order to achieve the above purpose, the embodiment of the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
in a first aspect, an embodiment of the present invention provides a test method for quantitatively analyzing a blasting energy distribution, including the steps of:
manufacturing a cubic test piece, wherein the cubic test piece is used for simulating blasting media;
a first horizontal through hole is formed in the cubic test piece at a position away from the bottom surface by a preset distance, and a blast hole is formed in the first horizontal through hole;
a first vertical hole is formed in the cubic test piece and perpendicular to the first horizontal through hole, the first vertical hole forms a water injection cavity, the first vertical hole is communicated with the first horizontal through hole, and a waterproof membrane is arranged at the communicated position of the first vertical hole and the first horizontal through hole to prevent water in the water injection cavity from being soaked into the blast hole;
injecting water into the water injection cavity;
putting lead azide explosives with preset dosage into the blast hole of the cubic test piece;
blocking two ends of a blast hole of the cubic test piece;
detonating lead azide explosives in the blast holes of the cubic test piece;
under the action of explosion energy, water column jet flow occurs in water in the water injection cavity of the cubic test piece; the explosion energy is explosion gas;
acquiring a first video image of water column jet flow in the water injection cavity by using a high-speed camera; the high-speed camera is a camera with the shooting speed of at least 20000 fps;
acquiring the jet height of a water column in a first time period;
calculating the maximum jet velocity of the water column according to a first formula based on the jet height of the water column; wherein the formula is:wherein, Δ h is the variation of the jet height of the water column in the first time period; Δ t is the time interval;
according to a second formulaCalculating the effective work of the explosion energy on the water column, wherein W is the effective work of the explosion energy on the water column; delta EkThe variation of the kinetic energy of the water column; m is the mass of the water column; v. ofmaxIs the maximum jet velocity of the water column.
Calculating a first proportion of total explosion energy of the explosive gas according to the effective work and the total explosion energy of the lead azide explosive;
determining a second proportion of the total energy of the explosion stress wave based on the first proportion; and quantitatively determining the blasting energy distribution according to the first proportion and the second proportion.
Preferably, after the determining the blasting energy distribution, the method further comprises: taking a plurality of cubic test pieces, and dividing the cubic test pieces into three groups, namely a first cubic test piece group, a second cubic test piece group and a third cubic test piece group, wherein each group comprises a plurality of cubic test pieces;
respectively putting the lead azide explosives of the first dosage set into blast holes of a plurality of cubic test pieces in the first cubic test piece group, the second cubic test piece group and the third cubic test piece group; the first charge set comprises a plurality of lead azide explosives of different weights;
respectively blocking two ends of a blast hole of a test piece in the first cubic test piece group by using fine sand mixed with glue; one end of a blast hole of a test piece in the second cubic test piece group is blocked by plasticine, and the other end of the blast hole is blocked by fine sand mixed with glue; blocking two ends of a blast hole of a test piece in the third cubic test piece group by using plasticine; respectively detonating lead azide explosives in blast holes of the test pieces in the first cubic test piece group, the second cubic test piece group and the third cubic test piece group;
acquiring water column jet flow video images in a water injection cavity of a cubic test piece in each test piece group by using a high-speed camera, and respectively marking the video images as a first group of video images, a second group of video images and a third group of video images;
acquiring a first water column jet flow height in a water injection cavity of each test piece in a first preset time period in a first cubic test piece group based on a first group of video images; acquiring a second water column jet flow height in the water injection cavity of each test piece in a first preset time period in a second cubic test piece group based on a second group of video images; acquiring a third water column jet flow height in the water injection cavity of each test piece in a first preset time period in a third cubic test piece group based on the third group of video images;
calculating the maximum jet velocity of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the first cubic test piece group according to the first formula based on the first water column jet height; calculating the maximum jet speed of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the second cubic test piece group according to the first formula based on the jet height of the second water column; calculating the maximum jet speed of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the third cubic test piece group according to the first formula based on the jet height of the third water column;
drawing a first change curve of the maximum jet velocity of the water column in each cubic test set along with a first medicine amount set based on the maximum jet velocity;
and determining the optimal blasting explosive quantity under different blast hole blocking conditions according to the first change curve.
Preferably, based on the first water column jet flow height, calculating the maximum jet flow speed of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the first cubic test piece group according to the first formula; calculating the maximum jet speed of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the second cubic test piece group according to the first formula based on the jet height of the second water column; based on the third water column jet flow height, the method further comprises the following steps after the maximum jet flow speed of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the third cubic test piece group is calculated according to the first formula:
calculating the effective work of the explosion energy in the first cubic test piece group, the second cubic test piece group and the third cubic test piece group on the water column in the water injection cavity of each test piece according to the second formula;
calculating a third ratio of explosive gas to total explosive energy under different blast hole blocking conditions based on the obtained effective work of the explosive energy to the water column in the water injection cavity of each test piece;
and determining the utilization rate of the detonation gas under different blast hole blocking conditions according to the obtained third proportion and the first proportion.
Preferably, the first time period is 0 to 200 mus.
Preferably, before the manufacturing of the cubic test piece, the method further comprises: whether the cubic test piece can be used for simulating blasting media only having the action of blasting gas is verified;
the validation experiment comprises: manufacturing a cubic test piece for verification;
a first horizontal through hole is formed in the cubic test piece at a position away from the bottom surface by a preset distance, and a blast hole is formed in the first horizontal through hole;
a first vertical hole is formed in the cubic test piece and perpendicular to the first horizontal through hole, the first vertical hole forms a water injection cavity, and the first vertical hole is not communicated with the first horizontal through hole and is used for shielding the effect of explosive gas on water in the water injection cavity;
injecting water into the water injection cavity;
respectively placing lead azide explosives with preset doses into blast holes of cubic test pieces for verification, and blocking two ends of the blast holes;
detonating lead azide explosives in the blast holes of the cubic test piece, and collecting a first state image of water in the water injection cavity by using a high-speed camera;
changing the dosage and the blast hole plugging material, detonating and collecting a second state image of water in the water injection cavity by using a high-speed camera;
determining whether water in the water injection cavity has water column jet flow according to the first state image and the second state image:
and if not, determining that the explosion stress wave has no influence on the jet flow of the water column.
Preferably, the diameter of the first vertical hole is 3mm, the water injection height is 55mm, the water injection mass is 0.39g, and the diameter of the blast hole is 4 mm.
Preferably, the first drug dosage set comprises: 20. 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mg.
The test method for quantitatively analyzing the blasting energy distribution provided by the embodiment of the invention comprises the following steps: manufacturing a cubic test piece, wherein a first horizontal through hole is formed in the position, away from the bottom surface, of the cubic test piece at a preset distance, and a blast hole is formed in the first horizontal through hole; a first vertical hole is formed in the cubic test piece and perpendicular to the first horizontal through hole, the first vertical hole forms a water injection cavity, the first vertical hole is communicated with the first horizontal through hole, and a waterproof membrane is arranged at the communicated position of the first vertical hole and the first horizontal through hole to prevent water in the water injection cavity from being soaked into the blast hole; injecting water into the water injection cavity; respectively placing lead azide explosives with preset doses into blast holes of a first cubic test piece, a second cubic test piece and a third cubic test piece; blocking two ends of a blast hole of the cubic test piece; detonating lead azide explosives in the blast holes of the cubic test piece; under the action of explosion energy, water column jet flow occurs in water in the water injection cavity of the cubic test piece; the explosion energy is explosion gas, and a first video image of water column jet flow in the water injection cavity is acquired by a high-speed camera; the high-speed camera is a camera with the shooting speed of at least 20000 fps; acquiring the jet height of a water column in a first time period; calculating the maximum jet velocity of the water column according to a first formula based on the jet height of the water column; calculating the effective work of the explosion energy on the water column; calculating a first proportion of total explosion energy of the explosive gas according to the effective work and the total explosion energy of the lead azide explosive; determining a second proportion of the total energy of the explosion stress wave based on the first proportion; and quantitatively determining the blasting energy distribution according to the first proportion and the second proportion. The cubic test piece with the structure is manufactured and used for developing a water column jet flow blasting experiment only having the action of explosive gas, a water column jet flow image in a water injection cavity is collected through a high-speed camera, the water column jet flow height is obtained based on the image, the maximum jet flow speed of a water column is calculated, and the effective work of the explosive energy on the water column is further calculated.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments or the prior art will be briefly described below, it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present invention, and for those skilled in the art, other drawings can be obtained according to the drawings without creative efforts.
FIG. 1 is a schematic flow chart of a test method for quantitatively analyzing blasting energy distribution according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of an embodiment of a cubic test piece according to the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating a water column jet process at a dosage of 20mg in a third cubic test set according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic structural diagram of an embodiment of a cubic test piece for verification according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a graph of the maximum water column jet velocity as a function of charge for different blast hole blockage conditions in an embodiment of the invention;
fig. 6 is a graph showing the variation relationship between the charge amount C and the effective work W against water column under different blast hole blockage conditions in the embodiment of the invention.
Detailed Description
Embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
It should be understood that the described embodiments are only some embodiments of the invention, and not all embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
Referring to fig. 1 and fig. 2, the test method for quantitatively analyzing blasting energy distribution in the embodiment of the present invention is suitable for experimental research and analysis of rock blasting action mechanism, and is particularly suitable for quantitative experimental research of distribution and action ratio of two main blasting energies in blasting, so as to provide a relatively accurate theoretical guidance basis for rock blasting engineering practice. The method comprises the following steps:
step 101, manufacturing a cubic test piece; the cubic test piece is used for simulating blasting media.
In this embodiment, the blasting medium refers to rock in actual blasting, and in order to determine the distribution and proportion of blasting energy as accurately as possible, a rock test block can be selected according to the physical and mechanical properties of the rock in actual blasting to manufacture a cubic rock test piece, which is used as an object of quantitative analysis, so that an experimental analysis basis can be provided for actually analyzing the distribution and proportion of the action of the blasting energy in actual blasting in rock breaking.
And 102, arranging a first horizontal through hole on the cubic test piece at a preset distance from the bottom surface, wherein the first horizontal through hole forms a blast hole.
103, arranging a first vertical hole on the cubic test piece and perpendicular to the first horizontal through hole, wherein the first vertical hole forms a water injection cavity, the first vertical hole is communicated with the first horizontal through hole, and a waterproof membrane is arranged at the position where the first vertical hole is communicated with the first horizontal through hole so as to prevent water in the water injection cavity from entering the blast hole.
And 104, injecting water into the water injection cavity, wherein the water injection height does not exceed the height of the first vertical hole.
In this embodiment, as an optional embodiment, the diameter of the first vertical hole of the cubic test piece is 3mm, the height of water injection is 55mm, the mass of water injection is 0.39g, and the diameter of the blast hole is 4 mm.
It is understood that in actual rock blasting, the explosive stress wave and the explosive gas are two main powers of rock breaking, and the important components as blasting energy are important objects for those skilled in the art to study. In order to distinguish the effects of the explosion stress wave and the explosive gas in the blasting, the structure of the cubic test piece in the embodiment is adopted, and a water column jet blasting experiment only with the effect of the explosive gas can be carried out.
In order to verify that the specific cubic test piece provided in the embodiment can separate the respective effects of the explosion stress wave and the explosive gas in the blasting, a verification experiment is performed before quantitative analysis of the distribution and the proportion of the blasting energy is performed, so as to prove that the cubic test piece in the embodiment can perform a water column jet blasting experiment only with the effect of the explosive gas. As an alternative embodiment, before the manufacturing of the cubic test piece, the method further includes: and (3) carrying out a verification experiment on whether the cubic test piece can be used for simulating the blasting medium only having the action of the blasting gas.
The validation experiment comprises: manufacturing a cubic test piece for verification; and a first horizontal through hole is arranged on the cubic test piece at a preset distance from the bottom surface, and the first horizontal through hole forms a blast hole.
On the cube test piece, perpendicular to first horizontal through-hole is equipped with first vertical hole, first vertical hole forms the water injection cavity, first vertical hole and first horizontal through-hole do not communicate, specifically can make the two have 2 ~ 3 mm's separation interval for the effect of shielding explosive gas to the water in the water injection cavity. Injecting water into the water injection cavity; and respectively putting the lead azide explosives with preset doses into blast holes of cubic test pieces for verification, and blocking two ends of the blast holes.
In this embodiment, it can be understood that, because the water injection hole and the blast hole are not communicated, explosive gas generated by explosive explosion cannot enter the water injection hole, and the explosive gas cannot have an effect on the water column. Therefore, it is considered that the action of the explosive gas on the water in the water injection cavity is shielded, and only the action of the explosive stress wave on the water is generated at the time of explosion.
Detonating lead azide explosives in the blast holes of the cubic test piece, and collecting a first state image of water in the water injection cavity by using a high-speed camera; changing the dosage and the blast hole plugging material, detonating and collecting a second state image of water in the water injection cavity by using a high-speed camera; determining whether water column jet flow exists in the water injection cavity according to the first state image and the second state image; and if not, determining that the explosion stress wave has no influence on the jet flow of the water column.
In this embodiment, the state image of water is observed in the verification experiment process shot by the high-speed camera, and no matter how much the charge is changed or what blocking form is adopted, for example, cement and glue mixture, only cement and the like, the water in the water injection hole does not have the phenomenon of water column jet, that is, the mechanical energy of water is not changed by the action of the explosion stress wave. From this it follows: in the experiment based on water column jet blasting, the effect of the explosion stress wave on the water column can be basically ignored, and then in the experiment based on jet blasting experiment quantitative analysis blasting energy distribution, the effect of the explosion gas can be considered to be only.
105, putting a lead azide explosive with a preset dosage into a blast hole of a cubic test piece;
in this embodiment, the amount of the drug to be put into the blast hole may be set as desired, for example, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, or 80 mg.
And step 106, blocking two ends of a blast hole of the cubic test piece.
In this embodiment, the material for plugging the blast hole may be: fine sand, plasticine, or combinations thereof, with glue incorporated therein.
And 107, detonating the lead azide explosives in the blast holes of the cubic test piece.
In this embodiment, the explosive may be initiated by a high-voltage discharge with a metal probe.
108, under the action of explosion energy, water column jet flow occurs in water in a water injection cavity of the cubic test piece; the explosive energy is explosive gas.
It can be understood that, according to the verification experiments in the foregoing, the explosion stress wave has no influence on the jet flow of the water column, and therefore, the jet flow of the water column in the water injection hole is almost entirely caused by the action of the explosion gas, i.e., the explosion energy in the embodiment can be understood as the explosion gas.
Step 109, acquiring a first video image of the water column jet flow in the water injection cavity by using a high-speed camera; the high-speed camera is a camera with the shooting speed of at least 20000fps, and particularly, the time interval between the shooting of two adjacent pictures is 50 mus.
Referring to fig. 3, from the image captured by the high speed camera it is seen that: and the water column in the water injection hole generates jet phenomenon after the explosive explodes. The water can be approximately used as incompressible liquid, and when t is 100 mu s, the water column rushes out of the water injection hole; when t is 200 mus, the water column continues to jet, and the length of the water injection hole is longer than before. When t is more than or equal to 300 mu s, the integral form of the water column changes because the cohesive force of the aqueous medium is zero, the jet velocities of all sections of the water column are inconsistent, the middle part of the water column becomes thin, and the water discharged by jet flow is gradually atomized, so that the motion state of the water column tends to be complex. And in the time of 0-200 mu s, the integral form of the water column is complete, the movement state of integral 'lifting' is presented, the integral jet flow movement of the water column is coordinated, the jet flow speed of the water column at the stage reaches the peak value, and the jet flow is most stable.
And 110, acquiring the jet height of the water column in the first time period.
In this embodiment, it can be known from the water column jet state diagram presented in the aforementioned image that the water column motion state is consistent and the jet is most stable within 0-200 μ s. Thus, as an alternative embodiment, the first time period is 0 to 200 μ s.
Step 111, calculating the maximum jet flow speed of the water column according to a first formula based on the jet flow height of the water column; wherein the formula is:wherein, Δ h is the variation of the jet height of the water column in the first time period; Δ t is the time interval.
It will be appreciated that from the concept of differentiation, the smaller the Δ t, the more accurate the maximum jet velocity determined.
Step 112, according to the second formulaCalculating the effective work of explosion energy to the water column, delta EkThe variation of the kinetic energy of the water column; m is the mass of the water column, for example 0.39 g; v. ofmaxIs the maximum jet velocity of the water column.
And 113, calculating the first proportion of the total explosion energy of the explosive gas according to the effective work and the total explosion energy of the lead azide explosive.
In this example, the total explosion energy of the lead azide explosive is E0≈Qv=1.506J/mg,QvIs the explosive heat of lead azide, eta is W/E0The first ratio, namely the distribution and the ratio of the blasting energy of the blasting gas in the rock blasting can be calculated by multiplying 100%.
Step 114, determining a second proportion of the total explosion energy of the explosion stress wave based on the first proportion; and quantitatively determining the blasting energy distribution according to the first proportion and the second proportion.
It can be understood that the explosion energy mainly comprises explosive gas and explosion stress wave, the proportion of the explosive gas is determined, and the rest can be regarded as the proportion of the explosion stress wave. And quantitatively determining the action distribution of the blasting energy based on the first proportion and the second proportion.
The test method for quantitatively analyzing the blasting energy distribution provided by this embodiment is to fabricate a cubic test piece with a specific structure, can be used for developing a water column jet blasting experiment only with the action of explosive gas, and acquiring a water column jet image in the water injection cavity through a high-speed camera, acquiring the water column jet height based on the image, and calculating the maximum jet velocity of the water column, further calculating the effective work of the explosion energy to the water column, because the explosion energy only has the action of the explosion gas, the first proportion of the explosion gas in the total explosion energy can be calculated according to the effective work, and the second proportion of the explosion stress wave can be correspondingly obtained, therefore, the blasting energy distribution condition can be quantitatively determined according to the first proportion and the second proportion, the quantitative analysis and research of each energy distribution in rock blasting are realized, and a more accurate theoretical guidance basis is provided for rock blasting engineering practice.
In order to determine the optimal blasting explosive quantities in different blast hole blocking modes, in this embodiment, as an optional embodiment, after the determining the blasting energy distribution, the method further includes: and taking a plurality of cubic test pieces, and dividing the cubic test pieces into three groups, namely a first cubic test piece group, a second cubic test piece group and a third cubic test piece group, wherein each group comprises a plurality of cubic test pieces.
Respectively putting the lead azide explosives of the first dosage set into blast holes of a plurality of cubic test pieces in the first cubic test piece group, the second cubic test piece group and the third cubic test piece group; the first dosage set includes a plurality of different weights of lead azide explosives, e.g., 20, 30, 40, 50mg, etc.
Respectively blocking two ends of a blast hole of a test piece in the first cubic test piece group by using fine sand mixed with glue; one end of a blast hole of a test piece in the second cubic test piece group is blocked by plasticine, and the other end of the blast hole is blocked by fine sand mixed with glue; and (4) blocking two ends of the blast hole of the test piece in the third cubic test piece group by using plasticine.
In this embodiment, it can be understood that, in order to achieve the purpose of the experiment, guidance control needs to be performed on the blasting energy, so that the cubic test piece after blasting is cracked to influence the normal development of the experiment, and the blasting energy needs to be restrained and controlled by blocking two ends of the blast hole. In addition, in order to determine the utilization rate of the blasting energy under different blast hole blocking conditions, the three groups of comparison experiments are performed to determine the blast hole blocking mode corresponding to the optimal blasting energy. Wherein the plasticine has stronger plasticity and has weaker constraint on explosion energy when being used as a blocking substance; the fine sand is solidified after being mixed with glue, is very firm, and has stronger constraint on explosion energy when being used as a blocking substance. Thus, in contrast, the first cubic test set is labeled as a strongly constrained test set, the second cubic test set is labeled as a moderately constrained test set, and the third cubic test set is labeled as a weakly constrained test set. The loading in each experimental group is a set of variables, e.g., 20, 30, 40, 50mg, etc.
And respectively detonating the lead azide explosives in the blast holes of the test pieces in the first cubic test piece group, the second cubic test piece group and the third cubic test piece group.
After detonation, under the action of blasting energy, a water column jet phenomenon occurs in the water injection cavity.
Acquiring water column jet flow video images in a water injection cavity of a cubic test piece in each test piece group by using a high-speed camera, and respectively marking the video images as a first group of video images, a second group of video images and a third group of video images; the high-speed camera is a camera with the shooting speed of 20000 fps.
Acquiring a first water column jet flow height in a water injection cavity of each test piece in a first preset time period in a first cubic test piece group based on a first group of video images; acquiring a second water column jet flow height in the water injection cavity of each test piece in a first preset time period in a second cubic test piece group based on a second group of video images; and acquiring a third water column jet flow height in the water injection cavity of each test piece in the third cubic test piece group within the first preset time period based on the third group of video images.
Calculating the maximum jet velocity of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the first cubic test piece group according to the first formula based on the first water column jet height; calculating the maximum jet speed of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the second cubic test piece group according to the first formula based on the jet height of the second water column; and calculating the maximum jet speed of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the third cubic test piece group according to the first formula based on the jet height of the third water column.
In this example, the maximum jet velocity of the water column corresponding to different charge amounts and different blast hole blocking conditions in each experimental group (i.e., under different blast hole blocking conditions) was calculated and tabulated as shown in table 1.
TABLE 1
And drawing a first variation curve of the maximum jet velocity of the water column in each cubic test set along with the first drug quantity set based on the maximum jet velocity, as shown in fig. 5.
In this embodiment, the fitting relationship under the strong constraint condition of the relationship between the charge amount and the water column jet velocity under different plugging conditions may also be determined based on the maximum jet velocity: v. ofmax=-0.07C2+ 13.74C; the fitting relation under the middle constraint condition is as follows: v. ofmax=-0.035C2+ 10.29C; the fitting relation under the weak constraint condition is as follows: v. ofmax=-0.05C2+9.94C。
And determining the optimal blasting explosive quantity under different blast hole blocking conditions according to the first change curve.
In a specific embodiment, the relation between the charge and the water column jet velocity obtained in the above way can be used as a reference basis for determining the optimal blasting charge.
In this embodiment, in order to determine the blasting energy utilization rate under different blast hole blocking conditions for guiding the blasting practice, as an optional embodiment, the maximum jet velocity of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the first cubic test piece group is calculated according to the first formula based on the first water column jet height; calculating the maximum jet speed of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the second cubic test piece group according to the first formula based on the jet height of the second water column; based on the third water column jet flow height, the method further comprises the following steps after the maximum jet flow speed of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the third cubic test piece group is calculated according to the first formula:
and calculating the effective work of the explosion energy in the first cubic test piece group, the second cubic test piece group and the third cubic test piece group on the water column in the water injection cavity of each test piece according to the second formula. Specifically, the effective work corresponding to the corresponding charge under different blast hole plugging conditions (different experimental groups) is calculated and obtained as shown in table 2.
TABLE 2
In this embodiment, a graph of a variation relationship between the charge C of different blast hole blocking strips falling and the effective work W of the different blast hole blocking strips on a water column can be drawn according to the calculated data in table 2, as shown in fig. 6. According to the curve chart, the effective work W of the explosive on the water column and the loading quantity C can meet the linear relation, and the method specifically comprises the following steps: the fitting relation under the strong constraint condition is as follows: w ═ 0.98C; the fitting relation under the middle constraint condition is as follows: w ═ 0.79C; the fitting relation under the weak constraint condition is as follows: w is 0.50C. According to the physical meaning of the change relation curve, the slope of the curve represents the blasting work doing size of the single mass explosive under the current constraint condition, and the blasting work doing size can be called as the effective work of the single mass explosive. Therefore, the effective work of the explosive per unit mass under the conditions of strong constraint, medium constraint and weak constraint is respectively 0.98J/mg, 0.78J/mg and 0.50J/mg, and the effective work is the action of the explosive gas. It can be seen that the effective work per unit mass of explosive detonation gradually decreases as the blasting restriction is weakened. According to the change relation curve chart, the optimal blasting charge amount under different blast hole blocking conditions can be determined.
And calculating a third ratio of total explosion energy of the explosive gas under different blast hole blocking conditions based on the obtained effective work of the explosion energy on the water column in the water injection cavity of each test piece. And determining the utilization rate of the detonation gas under different blast hole blocking conditions according to the obtained third proportion and the first proportion.
The utilization rate is fully called total explosion energy utilization efficiency, namely the ratio of effective work done on water column jet flow to total explosive explosion energy. In this embodiment, the total explosion energy utilization efficiency η of 0.98/1.506 × 100% and 65% under the conditions of strong constraint, medium constraint and weak constraint is obtained according to the quotient of the calculated effective work value and the total explosion energy of the lead azide explosive. According to the analysis of the previous embodiment, the energy of explosive explosion mainly consists of explosive gas energy and explosive stress wave energy, the explosive gas energy generated by lead azide explosion accounts for 65% of the total energy of explosion, and the utilization efficiency of the explosive gas energy under the conditions of strong constraint, medium constraint and weak constraint is 100%, 80% and 51% respectively. Therefore, the blasting energy utilization rate under different blast hole blocking conditions can be quantitatively analyzed, and theoretical guide basis can be provided for blasting engineering practice.
According to the utilization rate of the explosive gas obtained by quantification, the total energy utilization rate of explosive explosion is gradually reduced along with the weakening of the constraint action. Under the strong constraint condition, the energy of the explosive gas can be considered to be completely converted into work on water column jet flow, so that the utilization rate of the explosive energy under the condition of blast hole blockage is important.
The test method for quantitatively analyzing the blasting energy distribution provided by the embodiment of the invention is based on a water column jet blasting experiment, provides a specific scheme for researching and determining the energy distribution or the proportion of the blasting gas and the blasting stress wave in the blasting process, can quantitatively determine the blasting energy distribution condition, realizes the quantitative analysis research on each energy distribution in rock blasting, provides a new idea for researching the energy distribution characteristics of the blasting stress wave and the blasting gas of the rock blasting, and can provide a more accurate theoretical guidance basis for rock blasting engineering practice to a certain extent.
It will be understood by those skilled in the art that all or part of the processes of the methods of the embodiments described above can be implemented by a computer program, which can be stored in a computer-readable storage medium, and when executed, can include the processes of the embodiments of the methods described above. The storage medium may be a magnetic disk, an optical disk, a Read-Only Memory (ROM), a Random Access Memory (RAM), or the like.
The above description is only for the specific embodiment of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any changes or substitutions that can be easily conceived by those skilled in the art within the technical scope of the present invention are included in the scope of the present invention. Therefore, the protection scope of the present invention shall be subject to the protection scope of the claims.

Claims (7)

1. A test method for quantitatively analyzing blasting energy distribution is characterized by comprising the following steps: manufacturing a cubic test piece, wherein the cubic test piece is used for simulating blasting media;
a first horizontal through hole is formed in the cubic test piece at a position away from the bottom surface by a preset distance, and a blast hole is formed in the first horizontal through hole;
a first vertical hole is formed in the cubic test piece and perpendicular to the first horizontal through hole, the first vertical hole forms a water injection cavity, the first vertical hole is communicated with the first horizontal through hole, and a waterproof membrane is arranged at the communicated position of the first vertical hole and the first horizontal through hole to prevent water in the water injection cavity from being soaked into the blast hole;
injecting water into the water injection cavity;
putting lead azide explosives with preset dosage into the blast hole of the cubic test piece;
blocking two ends of a blast hole of the cubic test piece;
detonating lead azide explosives in the blast holes of the cubic test piece;
under the action of explosion energy, water column jet flow occurs in water in the water injection cavity of the cubic test piece; the explosion energy is explosion gas;
acquiring a first video image of water column jet flow in the water injection cavity by using a high-speed camera; the high-speed camera is a camera with the shooting speed of at least 20000 fps;
acquiring the jet height of a water column in a first time period;
calculating the maximum jet velocity of the water column according to a first formula based on the jet height of the water column; wherein the formula is:wherein, delta h is the jet height of the water column in the first time periodThe amount of change in degree; Δ t is the time interval;
according to a second formulaCalculating the effective work of the explosion energy on the water column, wherein W is the effective work of the explosion energy on the water column; delta EkThe variation of the kinetic energy of the water column; m is the mass of the water column; v. ofmaxThe maximum jet velocity of the water column;
calculating a first proportion of total explosion energy of the explosive gas according to the effective work and the total explosion energy of the lead azide explosive;
determining a second proportion of the total energy of the explosion stress wave based on the first proportion; and quantitatively determining the blasting energy distribution according to the first proportion and the second proportion.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein after said determining the blast energy profile, the method further comprises: taking a plurality of cubic test pieces, and dividing the cubic test pieces into three groups, namely a first cubic test piece group, a second cubic test piece group and a third cubic test piece group, wherein each group comprises a plurality of cubic test pieces;
respectively putting the lead azide explosives of the first dosage set into blast holes of a plurality of cubic test pieces in the first cubic test piece group, the second cubic test piece group and the third cubic test piece group; the first charge set comprises a plurality of lead azide explosives of different weights;
respectively blocking two ends of a blast hole of a test piece in the first cubic test piece group by using fine sand mixed with glue; one end of a blast hole of a test piece in the second cubic test piece group is blocked by plasticine, and the other end of the blast hole is blocked by fine sand mixed with glue; blocking two ends of a blast hole of a test piece in the third cubic test piece group by using plasticine;
respectively detonating lead azide explosives in blast holes of the test pieces in the first cubic test piece group, the second cubic test piece group and the third cubic test piece group;
acquiring water column jet flow video images in a water injection cavity of a cubic test piece in each test piece group by using a high-speed camera, and respectively marking the video images as a first group of video images, a second group of video images and a third group of video images;
acquiring a first water column jet flow height in a water injection cavity of each test piece in a first preset time period in a first cubic test piece group based on a first group of video images; acquiring a second water column jet flow height in the water injection cavity of each test piece in a first preset time period in a second cubic test piece group based on a second group of video images; acquiring a third water column jet flow height in the water injection cavity of each test piece in a first preset time period in a third cubic test piece group based on the third group of video images;
calculating the maximum jet velocity of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the first cubic test piece group according to the first formula based on the first water column jet height; calculating the maximum jet speed of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the second cubic test piece group according to the first formula based on the jet height of the second water column; calculating the maximum jet speed of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the third cubic test piece group according to the first formula based on the jet height of the third water column;
drawing a first change curve of the maximum jet velocity of the water column in each cubic test set along with a first medicine amount set based on the maximum jet velocity;
and determining the optimal blasting explosive quantity under different blast hole blocking conditions according to the first change curve.
3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the maximum jet velocity of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the first cubic test piece group is calculated according to the first formula based on the first water column jet height; calculating the maximum jet speed of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the second cubic test piece group according to the first formula based on the jet height of the second water column; based on the third water column jet flow height, the method further comprises the following steps after the maximum jet flow speed of the water column corresponding to each test piece in the third cubic test piece group is calculated according to the first formula:
calculating the effective work of the explosion energy in the first cubic test piece group, the second cubic test piece group and the third cubic test piece group on the water column in the water injection cavity of each test piece according to the second formula;
calculating a third ratio of explosive gas to total explosive energy under different blast hole blocking conditions based on the obtained effective work of the explosive energy to the water column in the water injection cavity of each test piece;
and determining the utilization rate of the detonation gas under different blast hole blocking conditions according to the obtained third proportion and the first proportion.
4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the first period of time is 0 to 200 μ s.
5. The method of claim 1, further comprising, prior to said making a cubic test piece: whether the cubic test piece can be used for simulating blasting media only having the action of blasting gas is verified;
the validation experiment comprises: manufacturing a cubic test piece for verification;
a first horizontal through hole is formed in the cubic test piece at a position away from the bottom surface by a preset distance, and a blast hole is formed in the first horizontal through hole;
a first vertical hole is formed in the cubic test piece and perpendicular to the first horizontal through hole, the first vertical hole forms a water injection cavity, and the first vertical hole is not communicated with the first horizontal through hole and is used for shielding the effect of explosive gas on water in the water injection cavity;
injecting water into the water injection cavity;
respectively placing lead azide explosives with preset doses into blast holes of cubic test pieces for verification, and blocking two ends of the blast holes;
detonating lead azide explosives in the blast holes of the cubic test piece, and collecting a first state image of water in the water injection cavity by using a high-speed camera;
changing the dosage and the blast hole plugging material, detonating and collecting a second state image of water in the water injection cavity by using a high-speed camera;
determining whether water column jet flow exists in the water injection cavity according to the first state image and the second state image;
and if not, determining that the explosion stress wave has no influence on the jet flow of the water column.
6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the first vertical hole has a diameter of 3mm, a water injection height of 55mm, a water injection mass of 0.39g, and a blast hole diameter of 4 mm.
7. The method of claim 2, wherein the first drug dosage set comprises: 20. 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mg.
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