CN109899050A - Form the bed gas reservoir fracturing process of complex fracture network - Google Patents

Form the bed gas reservoir fracturing process of complex fracture network Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109899050A
CN109899050A CN201910299598.1A CN201910299598A CN109899050A CN 109899050 A CN109899050 A CN 109899050A CN 201910299598 A CN201910299598 A CN 201910299598A CN 109899050 A CN109899050 A CN 109899050A
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gas reservoir
bed gas
fracturing
well
pit shaft
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姜婷婷
张建华
任高峰
张春阳
宣德全
齐鹏
徐冰冰
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Wuhan University of Technology WUT
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Wuhan University of Technology WUT
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Abstract

The invention belongs to petrol resources exploitation fields, and in particular, to a kind of bed gas reservoir fracturing process for forming complex fracture network.The bed gas reservoir fracturing process for forming complex fracture network, using the bed gas reservoir pressing crack construction operating system for forming complex fracture network, comprising the following steps: S1, detecting earth stress in situ;S2, formation parameter and rock physical and mechanic parameter are obtained;S3, the modeling of three-dimensional geological mechanical model and fracturing parameter simulation;S4, live pressing crack construction and technology controlling and process;It is assessed after S5, fracturing effect.Compared with the existing technology, the invention has the following beneficial effects: solve cannot be formed in bed gas reservoir fracturing process complicated fracture network, it is not energetic to flaw size in bed gas reservoir, not yet form more unified fracturing operation step and flow technologies problem;Applied widely, strong operability forms unified operating process and step, is easy to the fracturing work of field factories.

Description

Form the bed gas reservoir fracturing process of complex fracture network
Technical field
The invention belongs to petrol resources exploitation fields, and in particular, to a kind of bed gas reservoir for forming complex fracture network Fracturing process.
Background technique
The coal bed gas recovery ratio in Production of Coal-bed Gas Wells and bed gas reservoir is how improved, is always coal bed gas large-scale commercial applications Melt technical problem present in hair and safe coal recovery process.Transformation in situ is carried out to bed gas reservoir using fracturing process, It is one of the effective ways for solving this problem so that forming complicated fracture network in bed gas reservoir.It is using at present Pressure break mode is primarily present following technical problem during being transformed to bed gas reservoir:
(1) fracture pattern formed is more single, cannot form complicated fracture network.Due to coal seam thickness is small, Coal petrography physical property anisotropy is strong, chicken-wire cracking formed it is more sensitive to construction parameter so that existing bed gas reservoir fracturing process The crack of middle formation cannot sufficiently be connected to the existing crack in bed gas reservoir, it is more difficult to form fracture network based on single crack.
(2) it can not achieve and flaw size in bed gas reservoir quantified.For crack in existing hydraulic fracturing process The key parameters such as propagation direction and fracture width lack effective means and are monitored, often through pressure break heel row in fracturing process Liquid measure and cumulative gas production index judge whether fracturing parameter is reasonable, lack between fracturing effect and construction operation parameter Quantization influence relationship.This brings problem to the optimization of later period fracturing parameter, while previously obtained fracturing effect is preferable Construction operation parameter be applied to the even different well of new block and tend not to get a desired effect.
(3) more unified fracturing operation step and process are not yet formed.The step of hydraulic fracturing process is more, operation stream Journey is complicated, so that different designers and operator be also different or even same designer and operator are directed to a batch of Well also can be different.Allow for there are many accidentalia for influencing bed gas reservoir cracking initiation during CBM Fracturing in this way.
It needs to invent a kind of bed gas reservoir fracturing process for these reasons, bed gas reservoir fracturing work, quantization is instructed to apply The relationship of work parameter and fracture pattern and size forms unified operating procedure and process.
Summary of the invention
For formation present in bed gas reservoir fracturing process fracture pattern it is more single, cannot be formed it is complicated Fracture network can not achieve and be quantified to flaw size in bed gas reservoir, not yet form more unified fracturing operation step With flow technologies problem, the present invention provides a kind of bed gas reservoir fracturing process.
To achieve the above object, technical scheme is as follows:
The bed gas reservoir pressing crack construction operating system for forming complex fracture network is tested former including the use of small volume hydraulic fracture Position crustal stress pressing crack construction operating system, in which: further include the second vertical pit shaft, microseism signal surface acquisition system, in well Cable and wave detector;The depth of second vertical pit shaft is identical as the depth of the first vertical pit shaft;It is equipped in second vertical pit shaft Cable in well, the central axes of cable are overlapped with the central axes of the second vertical pit shaft in well;Cable bottom and the second Vertical Well in well Cylinder bottom is at a distance of certain spacing, it is ensured that the wave detector that cable bottom connects in well is suspended in the second vertical pit shaft;Cable in well Top is connected at the vertical pit shaft pithead position in ground second with microseism signal surface acquisition system;It is equipped on cable in well Multiple wave detectors, first wave detector are located at cable bottom in well.
Preferably, stress fracturing construction operation system, including the first Vertical Well in situ is tested using small volume hydraulic fracture Cylinder, oil pipe, packer, top sealing member, pressure sensor, water outlet, sealed bottom component and temperature sensor;First is perpendicular The bottom of straight well cylinder is located at bed gas reservoir detecting earth stress layer position bottom or less;Oil pipe is lowered into coal seam by the first vertical pit shaft At the top of gas reservoir detecting earth stress layer position, the central axes of oil pipe are overlapped with the central axes of the first vertical pit shaft, oil pipe bottom and packing It is connected at the top of device;Packer top is equipped with top sealing member, water outlet is arranged among packer, packer lower part is equipped with Sealed bottom component;Pressure sensor is installed, packer bottom is equipped with temperature sensor at water outlet position.
Preferably, multiple wave detectors are installed in well on cable with identical spacing.
The bed gas reservoir fracturing process for forming complex fracture network, using the coal bed gas of above-mentioned formation complex fracture network Hide pressing crack construction operating system, comprising the following steps:
S1, detecting earth stress in situ
S2, formation parameter and rock physical and mechanic parameter are obtained
S3, the modeling of three-dimensional geological mechanical model and fracturing parameter simulation
S4, live pressing crack construction and technology controlling and process
It is assessed after S5, fracturing effect.
Preferably, specific step is as follows by S1: carrying out no less than 3 injections/reflux operation, records fracturing fluid in whole process Injection pressure power, fracture closure pressure, fracturing fluid injection rate and fracturing fluid cumulative injection are pumped, the crustal stress of the bed gas reservoir is obtained Parameter.
Preferably, the specific method is as follows by S2: using 3-d seismic exploration technology to bed gas reservoir pressing crack construction operation block It is explored, specifies the block bed gas reservoir thickness, whether bearing, water-bearing layer position, water-bearing layer are connected to coal seam, tomography Distribution and turn-off;By drilling well in the block, coal seam thickness and its regularity of distribution, coal gangue layer position and its thickness are specified;Benefit With exploratory well obtain coal seam sample, carry out coal petrography, gangue, overlying rock physical and mechanical experiment, obtain coal petrography, gangue, The density of overlying rock, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, porosity, saturation degree, permeability, uniaxial compressive strength, uniaxial tension are strong Degree, internal friction angle, cohesion, fracture toughness, specific surface area and chemical component parameter.
Preferably, the specific method is as follows by S3: using obtain the formation parameter of bed gas reservoir, rock physical and mechanic parameter, Stress establishes the three-dimensional geological mechanical model of bed gas reservoir hydraulic fracturing;The model is a cuboid, and bed gas reservoir is located at mould Among type, pressure break wellbore at the top of the model up to bed gas reservoir bottom, using the complete well of perforating modes;It include coal bed gas in model Hiding, overlying rock, lower sleeping rock stratum, pit shaft, coal gangue layer;To different pump injection pressure power, discharge capacity, time, fracturing fluid viscosity, fracturing fluid Crack propagation law is simulated in bed gas reservoir under the conditions of density, proppant type and proppant particle size parameters;Pass through logarithm Value simulation calculated result is analyzed, the specific value of optimization above-mentioned parameter;According to calculated result to fracturing parameter into Row optimization, comprising: proppant density, proppant type, pressure break different phase proppant concentration, pump injection pressure power, pump note the time and Pump note discharge capacity.
Preferably, the specific method is as follows by S4: tripping in fracturing work tubing string to destination layer position is injected into target coal seam gas reservoir Fracturing fluid records pressure break liquid pump injection pressure power, fracturing fluid injection rate, fracturing fluid cumulative injection during fracturing work;It opens Direction, length and the width that micro-earthquake monitoring system in second vertical pit shaft extends crack in bed gas reservoir hydraulic fracturing process Degree information is monitored, and adjusts pressing crack construction job parameter and technique in time according to monitoring result.
9, the bed gas reservoir fracturing process according to claim 8 for forming complex fracture network, which is characterized in that S5 The specific method is as follows: by the way that various parameters after the well fracturing work are monitored and are recorded, choosing for three days on end that flowing bottomhole pressure (FBHP) is not It is not more than 100m greater than 0.3MPa, day gas production3Data before count daily fluid production rate, cumulative liquid production, daily produce gas Amount, highest daily output tolerance, stable production period, cumulative gas production, dynamic oil level and casing pressure parameter;Compare highest gas production, stable yields Time and cumulative gas production key index, evaluate fracturing effect;According to rear assessment evaluation result, fracturing work ginseng is proposed Several and technique Optimized Measures.
Preferably, in S1 specific steps: boring the first vertical pit shaft into bed gas reservoir, then carried out well and well cementation is made Industry;Oil pipe needed for tripping in small volume hydraulic fracture tests crustal stress test, carries out detecting earth stress;For utility waterpower pressure The precision for splitting experiment test crustal stress, in bed gas reservoir the first vertical pit shaft diameter deviation control within 5%, with ensure across Formula packer setting can seal up entire pit shaft cross section when expanding;It is first that bottom is close when carrying out straddle packers and setting Envelope component is set, and then sets top sealing member;For recording the pressure sensor measurement accuracy of injection pressure break hydraulic coupling For 0.01MPa;For monitoring whether packer is effectively 0.1 DEG C with the temperature sensor measurement precision of record bottom hole temperature (BHT);It is small The fracturing fluid used in type hydraulic fracturing experiments and bed gas reservoir pressing crack construction operation process is aqueous fracturing fluid.
Compared with the existing technology, the invention has the following beneficial effects: solve in bed gas reservoir fracturing process to be unable to shape At complicated fracture network, it is not energetic to flaw size in bed gas reservoir, not yet form more unified fracturing operation Step and flow technologies problem;Applied widely, strong operability forms unified operating process and step, easily work on site The fracturing work of factory.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is to test stress fracturing construction operation system in situ using small volume hydraulic fracture;
Fig. 2 is the bed gas reservoir pressing crack construction operating system to form complex fracture network;
In figure: 1, first vertical pit shaft, 2, oil pipe, 3, packer, 4, top sealing member, 5, pressure sensor, 6, go out The mouth of a river, 7, sealed bottom component, 8, temperature sensor, the 9, second vertical well shaft, 10, microseism signal surface acquisition system, 11, cable in well, 12, wave detector.
Specific embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, using small volume hydraulic fracture test stress fracturing construction operation system in situ, including first vertical Pit shaft 1, oil pipe 2, packer 3, top sealing member 4, pressure sensor 5, water outlet 6, sealed bottom component 7 and temperature sensing Device 8;Wherein: the bottom of the first vertical pit shaft 1 is located at bed gas reservoir detecting earth stress layer position bottom or less;Oil pipe 2 passes through first Vertical pit shaft 1 is lowered at the top of bed gas reservoir detecting earth stress layer position, the central axes of the central axes of oil pipe 2 and the first vertical pit shaft It is overlapped, is connected at the top of 2 bottom of oil pipe and packer 3;3 top of packer is equipped with top sealing member 4, sets among packer 3 Water outlet 6 is set, 3 lower part of packer is equipped with sealed bottom component 7;Water outlet is equipped with pressure sensor 5, pressure at 6 position Sensor 5 is used to measure the Fluid pressure at water outlet position;3 bottom of packer is equipped with temperature sensor 8, for measuring ground Layer temperature.
Shown in Fig. 2, the bed gas reservoir pressing crack construction operating system of complex fracture network is formed, is forced including the use of miniature water Test stress fracturing construction operation system in situ is split, further includes the second vertical pit shaft 9, microseism signal surface acquisition system 10, cable 11 and wave detector 12 in well;The depth of second vertical pit shaft 9 is identical as the depth of the first vertical pit shaft 1;Second is vertical Cable 11 in well are installed, the central axes of cable 11 are overlapped with the central axes of the second vertical pit shaft in well in pit shaft 9;Cable in well 11 bottoms and the second vertical pit shaft bottom are at a distance of certain spacing, it is ensured that the wave detector that 11 bottom of cable connects in well is suspended on second In vertical pit shaft 9;In well the top of cable 11 at the vertical pit shaft pithead position in ground second with microseism signal ground acquisition system System 10 is connected;Multiple wave detectors are installed, first wave detector is located at cable bottom in well in well on cable 11;Wave detector is with phase Same spacing is installed in well on cable, wide for monitoring crack propagation direction and crack in bed gas reservoir hydraulic fracturing process Spend the changing rule of key parameter.
The bed gas reservoir fracturing process for forming complex fracture network, using the bed gas reservoir of above-mentioned formation complex fracture network Pressing crack construction operating system, comprising the following steps:
S1, detecting earth stress in situ
The first vertical pit shaft is bored into bed gas reservoir, has then carried out well and well cementing operation;Tripping in small volume hydraulic fracture is surveyed Oil pipe needed for trying crustal stress test, carries out detecting earth stress;For the essence of utility hydraulic fracturing experiments test crustal stress Degree, the first vertical pit shaft diameter deviation control is within 5% in bed gas reservoir, energy when ensuring that straddle packers set expansion It is enough to seal up entire pit shaft cross section;First set sealed bottom component when straddle packers are set, it then will top Portion's seal member is set;Pressure sensor measurement accuracy for recording injection pressure break hydraulic coupling is 0.01MPa;It is sealed for monitoring Every device temperature sensor measurement precision that is whether effective and recording bottom hole temperature (BHT) for 0.1 DEG C.
In this case study on implementation, the pressure break used in small volume hydraulic fracture experiment and bed gas reservoir pressing crack construction operation process Liquid is aqueous fracturing fluid;In order to reduce influence of the single measurement error to whole measurement result, need to carry out no less than 3 times notes Enter/flow back operation, records pressure break liquid pump injection pressure power, fracture closure pressure, fracturing fluid injection rate and fracturing fluid in whole process Cumulative injection obtains the parameters and earth stress of the bed gas reservoir.
S2, formation parameter and rock physical and mechanic parameter are obtained
Bed gas reservoir pressing crack construction operation block is explored using 3-d seismic exploration technology, specifies the block coal seam Gas reservoir (coal seam) thickness, bearing, water-bearing layer position, whether water-bearing layer is connected to coal seam, tomography is distributed and turn-off;By The block drills well, specifies coal seam thickness and its regularity of distribution, coal gangue layer position and its thickness;The coal seam obtained using exploratory well Sample has carried out coal petrography, gangue, overlying rock physical and mechanical experiment, obtain they density, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Porosity, permeability, uniaxial compressive strength, uniaxial tensile strength, internal friction angle, cohesion, fracture toughness, compares table at saturation degree Area and chemical component parameter.
S3, the modeling of three-dimensional geological mechanical model and fracturing parameter simulation
Using formation parameter, rock physical and mechanic parameter, the crustal stress for obtaining bed gas reservoir, bed gas reservoir waterpower pressure is established The three-dimensional geological mechanical model split;The model is a cuboid, and bed gas reservoir is located among model, and pressure break wellbore is from model top Portion is up to bed gas reservoir bottom, using the complete well of perforating modes;It include bed gas reservoir, overlying rock, lower sleeping rock stratum, well in model Cylinder, coal gangue layer;To different pump injection pressure power, discharge capacity, time, fracturing fluid viscosity, fracturing fluid density, proppant type and proppant Crack propagation law is simulated in bed gas reservoir under the conditions of particle size parameters;Calculated result is simulated by logarithm to be analyzed, The specific value of optimization above-mentioned parameter;Fracturing parameter is optimized according to calculated result, comprising: proppant density, Proppant type, pressure break different phase proppant concentration, pump injection pressure power, pump note time and pump note discharge capacity;
S4, live pressing crack construction and technology controlling and process
Tripping in fracturing work tubing string injects fracturing fluid into target coal seam gas reservoir, records fracturing work mistake to destination layer position Pressure break liquid pump injection pressure power, fracturing fluid injection rate, fracturing fluid cumulative injection in journey;Open the microseism in the second vertical pit shaft Monitoring system is monitored the direction of crack extension, length and width information in bed gas reservoir hydraulic fracturing process, and according to Monitoring result adjusts pressing crack construction job parameter and technique in time;
It is assessed after S5, fracturing effect
By the way that various parameters after the well fracturing work are monitored and are recorded, chooses flowing bottomhole pressure (FBHP) for three days on end and be not more than 0.3MPa, day gas production are not more than 100m3Data before count daily fluid production rate, cumulative liquid production, average daily gas production, most Height daily output tolerance, stable production period, cumulative gas production, dynamic oil level and casing pressure parameter;Compare highest gas production, stable production period and Cumulative gas production key index, evaluates fracturing effect;According to rear assessment evaluation result, fracturing work parameter and work are proposed The Optimized Measures of skill.
So far, it can effectively solve that complicated split cannot be formed in bed gas reservoir press process using the method for the present invention Seam network, can not achieve flaw size in bed gas reservoir is quantified, not yet formed more unified fracturing operation step and The technical problem of process has the advantages that implementation steps are clear and strong operability.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of bed gas reservoir pressing crack construction operating system for forming complex fracture network, is tested including the use of small volume hydraulic fracture Stress fracturing construction operation system in situ, it is characterised in that: further include the second vertical pit shaft, microseism signal ground acquisition system Cable and wave detector in system, well;The depth of second vertical pit shaft is identical as the depth of the first vertical pit shaft;In second vertical pit shaft Cable in well is installed, the central axes of cable are overlapped with the central axes of the second vertical pit shaft in well;Cable bottom and second in well Vertical pit shaft bottom is at a distance of certain spacing, it is ensured that the wave detector that cable bottom connects in well is suspended in the second vertical pit shaft;Well It is connected at the vertical pit shaft pithead position in ground second with microseism signal surface acquisition system at the top of middle cable;In well on cable Multiple wave detectors are installed, first wave detector is located at cable bottom in well.
2. the bed gas reservoir pressing crack construction operating system according to claim 1 for forming complex fracture network, feature exist In, utilize small volume hydraulic fracture test stress fracturing construction operation system, including the first vertical pit shaft, oil pipe, packing in situ Device, top sealing member, pressure sensor, water outlet, sealed bottom component and temperature sensor;The bottom of first vertical pit shaft Below the bottom of bed gas reservoir detecting earth stress layer position;Oil pipe is lowered into bed gas reservoir crustal stress by the first vertical pit shaft and surveys It tries at the top of layer position, the central axes of oil pipe are overlapped with the central axes of the first vertical pit shaft, are connected at the top of oil pipe bottom and packer;Envelope Top sealing member is installed every device top, water outlet is set among packer, packer lower part is equipped with sealed bottom component; Pressure sensor is installed, packer bottom is equipped with temperature sensor at water outlet position.
3. the bed gas reservoir pressing crack construction operating system according to claim 2 for forming complex fracture network, feature exist In multiple wave detectors are installed in well on cable with identical spacing.
4. a kind of bed gas reservoir fracturing process for forming complex fracture network, multiple using formation described in one of claim 1-3 The bed gas reservoir pressing crack construction operating system of miscellaneous fracture network, which comprises the following steps:
S1, detecting earth stress in situ
S2, formation parameter and rock physical and mechanic parameter are obtained
S3, the modeling of three-dimensional geological mechanical model and fracturing parameter simulation
S4, live pressing crack construction and technology controlling and process
It is assessed after S5, fracturing effect.
5. the bed gas reservoir fracturing process according to claim 4 for forming complex fracture network, which is characterized in that S1 is specific Steps are as follows: carrying out no less than 3 injections/reflux operation, records pressure break liquid pump injection pressure power, crack closure pressure in whole process Power, fracturing fluid injection rate and fracturing fluid cumulative injection, obtain the parameters and earth stress of the bed gas reservoir.
6. the bed gas reservoir fracturing process according to claim 5 for forming complex fracture network, which is characterized in that S2 is specific Method is as follows: being explored using 3-d seismic exploration technology to bed gas reservoir pressing crack construction operation block, specifies the block coal Layer gas reservoir thickness, bearing, water-bearing layer position, whether water-bearing layer is connected to coal seam, tomography is distributed and turn-off;By in the area Block drills well, specifies coal seam thickness and its regularity of distribution, coal gangue layer position and its thickness;It is tried using the coal seam that exploratory well obtains Sample carries out coal petrography, gangue, overlying rock physical and mechanical experiment, obtains coal petrography, gangue, the density of overlying rock, Young mould Amount, Poisson's ratio, porosity, saturation degree, permeability, uniaxial compressive strength, uniaxial tensile strength, internal friction angle, cohesion, fracture Toughness, specific surface area and chemical component parameter.
7. the bed gas reservoir fracturing process according to claim 6 for forming complex fracture network, which is characterized in that S3 is specific Method is as follows: using formation parameter, rock physical and mechanic parameter, the crustal stress for obtaining bed gas reservoir, establishing bed gas reservoir waterpower The three-dimensional geological mechanical model of pressure break;The model is a cuboid, and bed gas reservoir is located among model, and pressure break wellbore is from model Top is up to bed gas reservoir bottom, using the complete well of perforating modes;It include bed gas reservoir, overlying rock, lower sleeping rock stratum, well in model Cylinder, coal gangue layer;To different pump injection pressure power, discharge capacity, time, fracturing fluid viscosity, fracturing fluid density, proppant type and proppant Crack propagation law is simulated in bed gas reservoir under the conditions of particle size parameters;Calculated result is simulated by logarithm to be analyzed, The specific value of optimization above-mentioned parameter;Fracturing parameter is optimized according to calculated result, comprising: proppant density, Proppant type, pressure break different phase proppant concentration, pump injection pressure power, pump note time and pump note discharge capacity.
8. the bed gas reservoir fracturing process according to claim 7 for forming complex fracture network, which is characterized in that S4 is specific Method is as follows: tripping in fracturing work tubing string to destination layer position, and fracturing fluid is injected into target coal seam gas reservoir, records fracturing work mistake Pressure break liquid pump injection pressure power, fracturing fluid injection rate, fracturing fluid cumulative injection in journey;Open the microseism in the second vertical pit shaft Monitoring system is monitored the direction of crack extension, length and width information in bed gas reservoir hydraulic fracturing process, and according to Monitoring result adjusts pressing crack construction job parameter and technique in time.
9. the bed gas reservoir fracturing process according to claim 8 for forming complex fracture network, which is characterized in that S5 is specific Method is as follows: by the way that various parameters after the well fracturing work are monitored and are recorded, choosing flowing bottomhole pressure (FBHP) for three days on end and is not more than 0.3MPa, day gas production are not more than 100m3Data before count daily fluid production rate, cumulative liquid production, average daily gas production, most Height daily output tolerance, stable production period, cumulative gas production, dynamic oil level and casing pressure parameter;Compare highest gas production, stable production period and Cumulative gas production key index, evaluates fracturing effect;According to rear assessment evaluation result, fracturing work parameter and work are proposed The Optimized Measures of skill.
10. the bed gas reservoir fracturing process according to claim 9 for forming complex fracture network, which is characterized in that S1 tool In body step: boring the first vertical pit shaft into bed gas reservoir, then carried out well and well cementing operation;Tripping in small volume hydraulic fracture is surveyed Oil pipe needed for trying crustal stress test, carries out detecting earth stress;For the essence of utility hydraulic fracturing experiments test crustal stress Degree, the first vertical pit shaft diameter deviation control is within 5% in bed gas reservoir, energy when ensuring that straddle packers set expansion It is enough to seal up entire pit shaft cross section;First set sealed bottom component when straddle packers are set, it then will top Portion's seal member is set;Pressure sensor measurement accuracy for recording injection pressure break hydraulic coupling is 0.01MPa;It is sealed for monitoring Every device temperature sensor measurement precision that is whether effective and recording bottom hole temperature (BHT) for 0.1 DEG C;Small volume hydraulic fracture experiment and coal seam The fracturing fluid used in gas reservoir pressing crack construction operation process is aqueous fracturing fluid.
CN201910299598.1A 2019-04-15 2019-04-15 Form the bed gas reservoir fracturing process of complex fracture network Pending CN109899050A (en)

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Application publication date: 20190618