CN1098882A - 多酶体系制备果菜汁和蛋白乳液的方法 - Google Patents

多酶体系制备果菜汁和蛋白乳液的方法 Download PDF

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CN1098882A
CN1098882A CN 93109779 CN93109779A CN1098882A CN 1098882 A CN1098882 A CN 1098882A CN 93109779 CN93109779 CN 93109779 CN 93109779 A CN93109779 A CN 93109779A CN 1098882 A CN1098882 A CN 1098882A
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enzyme
vegetable juice
juice
protein
fruit
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CN 93109779
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English (en)
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吴文才
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吴文才
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; THEIR TREATMENT, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23FCOFFEE; TEA; THEIR SUBSTITUTES; MANUFACTURE, PREPARATION, OR INFUSION THEREOF
    • A23F3/00Tea; Tea substitutes; Preparations thereof
    • A23F3/06Treating tea before extraction; Preparations produced thereby
    • A23F3/08Oxidation; Fermentation
    • A23F3/10Fermentation with addition of microorganisms or enzymes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; THEIR TREATMENT, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23LFOODS, FOODSTUFFS, OR NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES A23B - A23J; THEIR PREPARATION OR TREATMENT, e.g. COOKING, MODIFICATION OF NUTRITIVE QUALITIES, PHYSICAL TREATMENT; PRESERVATION OF FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS, IN GENERAL
    • A23L2/00Non-alcoholic beverages; Dry compositions or concentrates therefor; Their preparation
    • A23L2/02Non-alcoholic beverages; Dry compositions or concentrates therefor; Their preparation containing fruit or vegetable juices
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; THEIR TREATMENT, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23LFOODS, FOODSTUFFS, OR NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES A23B - A23J; THEIR PREPARATION OR TREATMENT, e.g. COOKING, MODIFICATION OF NUTRITIVE QUALITIES, PHYSICAL TREATMENT; PRESERVATION OF FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS, IN GENERAL
    • A23L2/00Non-alcoholic beverages; Dry compositions or concentrates therefor; Their preparation
    • A23L2/42Preservation of non-alcoholic beverages
    • A23L2/50Preservation of non-alcoholic beverages by irradiation or electric treatment without heating
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; THEIR TREATMENT, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23LFOODS, FOODSTUFFS, OR NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES A23B - A23J; THEIR PREPARATION OR TREATMENT, e.g. COOKING, MODIFICATION OF NUTRITIVE QUALITIES, PHYSICAL TREATMENT; PRESERVATION OF FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS, IN GENERAL
    • A23L2/00Non-alcoholic beverages; Dry compositions or concentrates therefor; Their preparation
    • A23L2/70Clarifying or fining of non-alcoholic beverages; Removing unwanted matter
    • A23L2/84Clarifying or fining of non-alcoholic beverages; Removing unwanted matter using microorganisms or biological material, e.g. enzymes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; THEIR TREATMENT, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23LFOODS, FOODSTUFFS, OR NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES A23B - A23J; THEIR PREPARATION OR TREATMENT, e.g. COOKING, MODIFICATION OF NUTRITIVE QUALITIES, PHYSICAL TREATMENT; PRESERVATION OF FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS, IN GENERAL
    • A23L25/00Food consisting mainly of nutmeat or seeds; Preparation or treatment thereof
    • A23L25/40Fermented products; Products treated with microorganisms or enzymes

Abstract

本发明为一种应用多酶体系制备果菜汁和蛋白 乳液的方法,其制备经过以下步骤:打浆、精磨、生物 酶促水解、微生物淬灭等,多酶体系包括由超高活性 蛋白酶、淀粉酶、果胶酶、脂肪酶、纤维素酶、半纤维素 酶、葡萄糖转化酶和溶菌酶等八种生物酶。应用本发 明制备果菜汁和动植物蛋白乳液,可使产汁率和原料 利用率从传统方法的40-85%大幅度提高到95- 99.9%,并且几乎完全保持原果的风味和营养成分。 对原料没有选择性,可处理干果、鲜果、瓜、菜和各类 坚果、豆类以及动物组织和部分粮食产品,使之成为 营养饮品。此外,与传统方法相比,简化了工艺,产品 的储存稳定性大为改善。

Description

本发明涉及一种应用酶法果菜榨汁和蛋白质乳化的方法。

瓜果菜汁的生产,一般是采用榨汁法,在生产过程中,需要加入生物酶,以提高果汁的产汁率和进行果汁澄清。通常是只加入果胶酶、纤维素酶和少量淀粉酶处理果浆和进行果汁澄清,造成大量的蛋白质、脂肪和膳食纤维素等营养成分的流失,使产汁率的提高受到限制,一般只有40-85%,而水溶性半纤维素的存在,则造成果汁缺乏良好的低温储存性能,在冷藏过程中产生絮聚物;此外,生产过程中广泛采用的巴氏高温灭菌法和超滤法,由于大量的营养要素,尤其是维生素和氨基酸被破坏,而导致风味和营养价值的损失。

动植物蛋白乳液作为一类广泛应用的极有价值的营养饮品,在加工技术上,一直采取蛋白分离再乳化的方法,这种加工方法的缺陷是加工工艺复杂,由于原料的利用率很低。同时,采用蛋白质分离再乳化方法制备的乳液,普遍存在储存稳定性问题。

无论是瓜果、菜汁的加工,还是蛋白乳液的制备,除坚果和豆类原料外,几乎无法以干燥品作为加工原料,因而生产厂家受到原料季节性供应的制约。

本发明的目的在于提供一种新的酶法制取果菜汁和蛋白乳液的方法,以提高产汁率,同时保持产品原有风味和营养成份,并改善产品的储存性能,简化加工工艺。

本发明所采用的多酶体系包括由超高活性的蛋白酶、淀粉酶、果胶酶、脂肪酶、纤维素酶、半纤维素酶、葡萄糖转化酶和溶菌酶八种生物酶组成的体系,其中蛋白酶10-50%,果胶酶5-50%,淀粉酶10-50%,脂肪酶1-50%,纤维素酶5-50%,半纤维素酶5-25%,葡萄糖转化酶0-20%,溶菌酶1-50%,总重量组成为100%。酶的活性单位为200000-1000000IU/克。

应用上述多酶体系经过以下步骤制备果菜汁和蛋白乳液:打浆、精磨、生物酶促水解、微生物淬灭。在酶促水解过程中,生物酶的酶比活性浓度为1-100IU/克底物,酶促水解温度在20-70℃,酶促水解时间为5分钟至72小时。在后处理时,采用功率为1.5-8KW、频率为50-100KHz高频大功率超声波对果菜汁、乳液进行细菌和酶的淬灭,以达到在低温下对果菜汁、乳液进行后处理的目的,保持产品的营养和风味以及产品储存的稳定性。

采用多酶体系制备果菜汁和蛋白乳液具有以下优点:1.可以大幅度提高产汁率,产汁率从传统方法的40-85%提高到95-99%;2.由于对全果连皮带核进行处理,其果汁、乳液的营养保全效果好,特别是蛋白质、氨基酸和微量元素含量普遍优于传统方法;3.本方法对原料没有选择性,可以处理干果、鲜果、坚果和豆类,瓜菜等,还可直接利用植物蛋白种子全果制备乳液,不需分离作业;4.由于采用高频大功率超声波的对果菜汁、蛋白乳液进行常温下微生物淬灭,产品能够完全保持原料鲜果风味,并且储存的稳定性好。

5.生产工艺过程大大简化,节省了设备投资。

下面提供本发明的实施例。

实施例1:应用本发明处理京欣一号西瓜制备西瓜清汁。取超高活性的蛋白酶10%,果胶酶38%,淀粉酶10%,脂肪酶2%,纤维素酶6%,半纤维素酶20%,葡萄糖转化酶5%,溶菌酶9%,其总重量组成为100%,酶比活性浓度为30IU/克底物,西瓜经打浆、精磨后,浆液细度小于47微米,反应温度在20-40℃,反应时间3小时,过滤后,热澄清6小时,然后对果汁进行超微过滤后,用50KHz、1500W超声波进行微生物淬灭,果汁产汁率为99.6%,制得的果汁氨基酸、微量元素、维生素含量和固形物含量可溶性均与原西瓜基本相同,质感鲜亮。

实施例2:应用本发明处理山楂干制备山楂清汁。取超高活性蛋白酶15%,果胶酶5%,脂肪酶5%,淀粉酶10%,纤维素酶45%,半纤维素酶10%,溶菌酶10%,酶比活性浓度为55IU/克底物,将山楂干打浆、精磨后,浆液细度小于25微米,与酶反应温度50-70℃,反应时间40小时,经过滤、澄清后,进行超微处理,然后应用80KHz、2800W超声波进行微生物淬灭,获得果汁营养成分、固形物含量、风味与鲜山楂汁相同,转化率为96.7%。

实施例3:应用本发明处理核桃仁制备核桃汁乳液。超高活性生物酶组成为:蛋白酶30%,果胶酶15%,脂肪酶27%,淀粉酶10%,纤维素酶5%,半纤维素酶5%,葡萄糖转化酶2%,溶菌酶6%,酶比活性浓度16IU/克底物,10%原浆液粒度小于20微米,反应温度25-40℃,反应时间为15分钟。反应完毕后,采用高频大功率超声波(50KHz/1500W)进行微生物淬灭,所获得的乳液稳定性好,无沉淀物,变温(0-50℃)试验200天,不分层不变质,相当于经春夏秋冬四季保存二年。

实施例4:应用本发明制备菠萝汁。超高活性生物酶组成为:蛋白酶10%,脂肪酶2%,果胶酶25%,纤维素酶25%,半纤维素酶20%,葡萄糖转化酶10%,溶菌酶8%,酶比活性浓度为3IU/克底物,将原料连皮打浆,浆液细度小于20微米粒度,浆液温度为50-70℃,与生物酶反应2小时经过滤、澄清后,用高频大功率超声波进行微生物淬灭,所得果汁的营养成分和固形物含量、风味与原果相同,外观质感鲜亮。原料转化率为99.4%。

Claims (3)

1.一种应用多酶体系制备果菜汁和蛋白乳液的方法,其制备经过以下步骤:打浆、精磨、生物酶促水解和微生物淬灭,多酶体系包括由超高活性的蛋白酶、淀粉酶、果胶酶、脂肪酶、纤维素酶、半纤维素酶、葡萄糖转化酶和溶菌酶八种生物酶组合的体系。
2.根据权利要求1所述的多酶体系制备果菜汁和蛋白乳液的方法,其特征在于生物酶的酶比活性浓度为1-100IU/克底物,酶促水解温度为20-70℃,酶促水解时间为5分钟至72小时,进行微生物淬灭的高频大功率超声波频率为50-100KHz,功率为1.5-8KW。
3.根据权利要求1所述的多酶体系制备果菜汁和蛋白乳液的方法,其特征在于酶活性单位为200000-1000000IU/克,酶的组成为蛋白酶10-50%,果胶酶5-50%,淀粉酶10-50%,脂肪酶1-50%,纤维素酶5-50%,半纤维素酶5-25%,葡萄糖转化酶1-20%,溶菌酶1-50%,各组分重量之和为100%。
CN 93109779 1993-08-17 1993-08-17 多酶体系制备果菜汁和蛋白乳液的方法 CN1098882A (zh)

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CN 93109779 CN1098882A (zh) 1993-08-17 1993-08-17 多酶体系制备果菜汁和蛋白乳液的方法
US08726011 US5738887A (en) 1993-08-17 1996-10-04 Process of preparing fruit/vegetable juice and protein emulsion with multi-enzyme system

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