CN109884112B - Detection method realized by soil frost heaving detection device without external power supply - Google Patents

Detection method realized by soil frost heaving detection device without external power supply Download PDF

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CN109884112B
CN109884112B CN201910240854.XA CN201910240854A CN109884112B CN 109884112 B CN109884112 B CN 109884112B CN 201910240854 A CN201910240854 A CN 201910240854A CN 109884112 B CN109884112 B CN 109884112B
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frost heaving
area
soil
measuring
frozen soil
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CN109884112A (en
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杨英姿
徐定杰
徐扬
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Abstract

A detection method realized by a soil frost heaving detection device without an external power supply. In cold district engineering construction, the frost heaving deformation monitoring degree of difficulty of frozen soil is big, inefficiency, the most external power source that need last of current soil frost heaving detection device makes the corresponding cooperation instrument and equipment in earth's surface more, and area is big, and is more to earth's surface destruction part, operating procedure is loaded down with trivial details. The chassis is provided with a sleeve, the upper end of the sleeve is fixedly connected with an upper anchor plate, an elastic part is arranged in the sleeve, the stressed end of a tension sensor penetrates through the upper anchor plate to be connected with one end of the elastic part, and the other end of the elastic part is connected with the chassis through a connecting rod; the method comprises the steps of correspondingly installing an earth frost heaving detection device at each measuring point, obtaining frost heaving amount data of a frost heaving layer where each measuring point is located at different time periods through the earth frost heaving detection devices, and summarizing according to the frost heaving amount data fed back by each measuring point to obtain the frost heaving deformation condition of the frost heaving in a test area. The invention is used for monitoring the frost heaving amount of the frozen soil.

Description

Detection method realized by soil frost heaving detection device without external power supply
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of civil engineering, and particularly relates to a detection method realized by a soil frost heaving detection device without an external power supply.
Background
China is the third country of world frozen soil, and the frozen soil occupies more than half of the territory area of China in seasons. The construction of engineering structures in frozen soil areas has many cases of engineering disasters caused by frost heaving and thaw collapse. Whether the characteristic value of frost heaving deformation of frozen soil is accurately obtained in the development process of frost heaving and thawing sinking in a laboratory or in a construction site, a reliable detection device and a method are needed. However, the frost heaving deformation of the on-site soil body has very different frost heaving values due to different freezing depths and geological conditions of various places, so that an actual value of the frost heaving deformation of an engineering construction area needs to be obtained. An important means for obtaining soil frost heaving is to observe the frost heaving amount of the seasonal frost heaving layer on site, such as embedding a plurality of frost-heaving nails, fixing the distance between the frost-heaving nails and periodically observing the elevation of the frost-heaving nails by a level gauge. And the frost heaving amount of each point is reflected by the variation of the elevation of each frost heaving nail. If the frost heaving amount changes slightly, the precision requirement is difficult to meet by monitoring the elevation change of the frost heaving nail; the invention discloses a method and a device for observing frost heaving of a soil layer of a high-speed railway in a seasonal frozen soil area on site by CN104929098A, which provides that holes are dug in the frozen soil layer, a lower anchor plate is embedded, a measuring rod displacement meter and an upper anchor plate are connected by an isometric joint, the upper anchor plate and the lower anchor plate are driven to move by the frost heaving deformation of the seasonal frozen soil layer, and the frost heaving amount of the seasonal frozen soil layer is observed by the measuring rod displacement meter. In order to prevent the upper anchor plate from being lifted after the soil body is frozen and deformed, the upper anchor plate, the plastic pipe and the filled low-temperature lubricating grease form a vacuum cavity to generate negative pressure to adsorb the upper anchor plate, a vent pipe is arranged on the upper anchor plate and extends out of the soil layer, and the vent hole is communicated with the outside to interfere the temperature of the soil body and limit the horizontal arrangement of the device. The patent "CN 103966993A soil body frost heaving detection device and method for detecting the soil body frost heaving amount", excavate the inspection hole at the frost heaving layer, pass through anchor assembly with body and measuring staff and be fixed in not frost heaving layer, the drill way department of inspection hole sets up the displacement caliber, is provided with a plurality of annular weakening areas on the body at intervals, and when the soil body frost heaving, the weakening area divides into a plurality of pipe sections that can the independent motion with the body, guarantees that the benchmark of soil body frost heaving measurement does not change. The measuring device has the disadvantages that the orifice of the detection hole is arranged on the ground surface, the displacement measurer needs to be arranged on the ground surface, frost heaving deformation of a certain underground area cannot be obtained, the gap between the pipe body and the wall of the detection hole is filled with filler, a cement pouring layer is filled in a non-weakened area, and a loose sand layer is filled in a weakened area. The respective backfilling of the two fillers can cause the soil characteristics of the observation area to change, and directly influences the measurement result;
the laboratory measures the frost heaving displacement of the soil sample mostly adopt a dial indicator, a spring draw bar displacement sensor, a strain gauge and the like, and because the measures must be contacted with the sample, a restraining force is inadvertently given to the sample, so that the measurement accuracy is reduced. The patent (201410068723.5 a device that laser sensor measured frozen soil frost heaving displacement) has proposed utilizing laser displacement sensor to measure the frozen soil frost heaving displacement of frozen soil under the condition of contactless soil sample, easy operation, and is reliable, great improvement experimental efficiency of software testing and precision, but this method can only be applicable to laboratory soil sample at present, can not be used to the job site. In the same patent, "CN 108572189A a static and dynamic comprehensive test system considering soil expansion and contraction characteristics under temperature gradient", "CN 108519405A a set of test equipment for studying the relationship between force and deformation in soil frost heaving process", "CN 108445192A a multifunctional frost heaving and thawing test device", "CN 108333323A a soil frost heaving rate measuring device and measuring method", "CN 207557254U a temperature-controllable soil frost heaving test device", and the like, the sensor is placed outside the soil to monitor the frost heaving deformation of the whole soil, and the system is suitable for a test device or a test system for simulating field environmental conditions in a laboratory.
Therefore, the monitoring of frost heaving deformation in the soil body freezing and thawing circulation process and deformation in the horizontal or vertical direction in the freezing method construction process has important significance for the infrastructure construction of frozen soil areas, and a means for accurately, reliably and quickly acquiring the frost heaving deformation of the soil body on site is needed. In a word, due to the complex geological conditions of a construction site and the research requirements of the frost heaving and thawing and sinking process of local soil bodies in a laboratory, the frost heaving deformation monitoring of the frozen soil is difficult and poor in accuracy, so that the construction quality of infrastructure in a frozen soil area is seriously affected, and the problem is not solved well until now. Particularly, most of the existing soil frost heaving detection devices need continuous external power supplies, so that the corresponding ground surface matching instruments and equipment are more, the structure is complex, the occupied area is large, the ground surface is damaged more parts, and the operation steps are complicated.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a soil frost heaving detection device and a detection method, which are used for solving the problem that the construction quality control of infrastructure in a frozen soil area is difficult to ensure due to the large difficulty and poor accuracy in monitoring frost heaving deformation of frozen soil caused by complex geological conditions of a construction site and the research requirements of a laboratory local soil frost heaving and thawing process.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention for solving the technical problems is as follows:
the utility model provides a soil frost heaving detection device of no external power supply, it includes chassis, sleeve pipe, goes up anchor disc, force sensor, elastic component and connecting rod, be provided with the sleeve pipe on the chassis, anchor disc on the sheathed tube upper end fixedly connected with, elastic component set up in the sleeve pipe, force sensor's stress end is passed and is connected with the one end of elastic component by anchor disc, and the other end of elastic component is connected with the chassis through the connecting rod.
As a preferable scheme: the chassis is provided with an inner cylinder, the chassis and the inner cylinder are coaxially arranged and fixedly connected into a whole, the lower end of the sleeve is sleeved on the inner cylinder, and the inner wall of the sleeve is in sliding fit with the outer wall of the inner cylinder.
As a preferable scheme: the tension sensor is a hook type electronic balance.
As a preferable scheme: the upper anchor disc is provided with a protective cover.
As a preferable scheme: the elastic member is a spring.
The detection method is realized by using the external power supply-free soil frost heaving detection device according to the first embodiment, the number of the measuring points in the test region and the distribution positions of the measuring points are determined according to the type of the frost in the test region, an external power supply-free soil frost heaving detection device is correspondingly installed at each measuring point, the frost heaving amount data of the frost heaving layer where each measuring point is located at different time periods are obtained through the external power supply-free soil frost heaving detection device, and the frost heaving deformation condition of the frost in the test region is obtained through summarizing according to the frost heaving amount data fed back by each measuring point.
As a preferable scheme: dividing the number of frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas and frost heaving insensitive frozen soil areas in a test area according to a geological survey report, and measuring the area A of one frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1Dividing the ground surface of the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area into a plurality of first cells, wherein the area of each first cell is S1The central position in each first cell is the position of a measuring point, and the number N of the measuring points in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1=A1/S1Similarly, the number of the measuring points in other frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas is determined to be N one by one2、N3…Nn
Measuring the area B of a frost heaving insensitive frozen soil region1Dividing the ground surface of the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area into a plurality of second cells, wherein the area of each second cell is S2The number M of the measuring points is arranged in the frost heaving non-sensitive frost soil area1=B1/S2Similarly, determining the number of the measuring points in other frost heaving non-sensitive frozen soil areas as M one by one2、M3…Mm(ii) a Thereby obtaining the total number of test points in the test area.
As a preferable scheme: the detection process of the frost heaving detection device comprises the following four steps:
the method comprises the following steps: looking up geological data to obtain the depth of the unfrozen soil layer in the area, and selecting a tension sensor with corresponding precision according to the requirement of test precision;
step two: excavating holes, manually tamping the bottom of the holes, and then placing the holes into a chassis;
step three: connecting an elastic piece with the upper end of a connecting rod, connecting the lower end of the connecting rod with a chassis, placing a casing on the chassis, backfilling raw soil on the outer side of the casing in a layered manner, tamping in a layered manner, fixedly installing an upper anchor disk on the casing, and arranging a tension sensor on the upper anchor disk;
step four: starting the tension sensor, and recording the tension value of the tension sensor as F0When the sleeve pipe moves upwards under the driving of frost heaving deformation of the frozen soil layer, the elastic part is elongated, and then the tension value of the tension sensor is recorded as F1The frost heaving deformation is (F)1-F0) Elastic coefficient of the elastic component, data recording, and closing the tension sensor.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
1. the invention has simple structure, flexible application range, no need of auxiliary support of a structure outside the ground surface, low assembly difficulty, simple steps, flexible and unlimited landfill depth and landfill direction and applicability to large and small areas. The frozen soil frost heaving quantity is obtained simply, directly and accurately. The monitoring difficulty is low, the disturbance to the on-site soil body is small, and comprehensive and accurate monitoring data can be quickly obtained in a short time.
2. The invention can be used for detecting individual measuring points in local areas and batch measuring points in larger areas, thereby comprehensively evaluating frost heaving and thawing-sinking of soil bodies in laboratories and on sites.
3. The detection target of the invention is frozen soil between the upper anchor plate and the chassis, the change of the distance between the upper anchor plate and the chassis can reflect the frost heaving degree of the soil between the upper anchor plate and the chassis, the change of the force value on the tension sensor is recorded in real time, indirectly and accurately, and the detection result is reliable.
4. The tension sensor is a hook type electronic balance, the measuring range selection range is wide, the precision is high, only a battery is needed, an external power supply is not needed, a liquid crystal display screen displays test data, when the device is used for monitoring for a long time, a power switch can be turned on during measurement to read data, and the electronic balance is in a closed state at ordinary times, so that the energy consumption is saved, and the inconvenience caused by the need of providing the external power supply for various displacement sensors in the prior art is overcome.
5. The length of the casing is designed according to engineering and laboratory requirements, namely, frost heaving deformation at different depths is flexibly and conveniently monitored, and a plurality of measuring devices can be simultaneously embedded at different depths in a soil body to obtain the difference value of the frost heaving amounts of different frost heaving layers.
6. The invention has the advantages of simple structure, low manufacturing cost, simple operation steps, low difficulty, time saving and labor saving.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic front view of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the front view structure of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the working state of the present invention;
in the figure, 1-chassis; 2-a sleeve; 3-mounting an anchor disc; 4-a tension sensor; 5-an elastic member; 6-connecting rod; 7-inner cylinder; 8-a protective cover; 11-holes; 14-frost heaving layer.
Detailed Description
In order that the objects, aspects and advantages of the invention will become more apparent, the invention will be described by way of example only, and in connection with the accompanying drawings. It is to be understood that such description is merely illustrative and not intended to limit the scope of the present invention. Moreover, in the following description, descriptions of well-known structures and techniques are omitted so as to not unnecessarily obscure the concepts of the present invention.
It should be noted that, in order to avoid obscuring the present invention with unnecessary details, only the structures and/or processing steps closely related to the aspects of the present invention are shown in the drawings, and other details not closely related to the present invention are omitted.
The first embodiment is as follows: the embodiment is described with reference to fig. 1, fig. 2 and fig. 3, and includes a chassis 1, a casing 2, an upper anchor plate 3, a tension sensor 4, an elastic member 5 and a connecting rod 6, where the casing 2 is disposed on the chassis 1, the upper end of the casing 2 is fixedly connected with the upper anchor plate 3, the elastic member 5 is disposed in the casing 2, a stressed end of the tension sensor 4 penetrates through the upper anchor plate 3 to be connected with one end of the elastic member 5, and the other end of the elastic member 5 is connected with the chassis 1 through the connecting rod 6.
Further, the connecting rod 6 is preferably a steel strand, and the selected material is a high-strength and high-modulus metal material. The length of the connecting rod 6 is 1/3-1/2 of the length of the sleeve 2. The connecting rod 6 has the effect of assisting the invention in extending the test depth, and can assist the elastic piece 5 in extending the elastic measurement depth, thereby being beneficial to extending the use length of the sleeve 2, ensuring that the applicable measurement depth of the invention is not limited, and being beneficial to reducing the manufacturing cost.
Further, the sleeve 2 is a metal round pipe, the selected material is a light aluminum alloy material, the length and the diameter of the sleeve 2 are adjusted according to the depth of the non-frozen layer soil of each region, the length range of the sleeve 2 is 30 cm-150 cm, and the diameter range of the sleeve 2 is 7 cm-9 cm.
Furthermore, the upper end of the sleeve 2 is in threaded connection with the upper anchor plate 3, the upper anchor plate 3 is a metal disc, and the diameter of the metal disc ranges from 16 cm to 20 cm. The selected material is an aluminum alloy material with light weight and high strength.
Further, the chassis 1 is formed by fixedly connecting a section of sleeve with a metal disc, and the diameter is 16-20 cm.
Furthermore, a center hole is processed at the center of the upper anchor disc 3, the stress end of the tension sensor 4 penetrates through the center hole to be connected with the upper end of the elastic element 5, and the lower end of the elastic element 5 is connected with the chassis 1.
The second embodiment is as follows: the embodiment is further limited by the first embodiment, the chassis 1 is provided with an inner cylinder 7, the chassis 1 and the inner cylinder 7 are coaxially arranged and fixedly connected into a whole, the lower end of the sleeve 2 is sleeved on the inner cylinder 7, and the inner wall of the sleeve 2 is in sliding fit with the outer wall of the inner cylinder 7.
Furthermore, the connection mode of the chassis 1 and the inner cylinder 7 is preferably formed by fixedly connecting a section of sleeve with a metal disc, and the diameter range of the metal disc is 16-20 cm.
The third concrete implementation mode: in this embodiment, which is a further limitation of the first or second embodiment, the tension sensor 4 is a hook-type electronic balance. The electronic balance is an existing product, and the working process of the electronic balance is the same as that of an existing electronic balance. The tension sensor 4 used in the present invention is a tension sensor with a built-in battery.
The fourth concrete implementation mode: the present embodiment is further limited to the first, second or third embodiment, and the upper anchor disk 3 is provided with a protective cover 8.
The fifth concrete implementation mode: this embodiment is a further limitation of the first, second, third or fourth embodiment, and the elastic member 5 is a spring. The spring is made of stainless steel materials, the wire diameter, the outer diameter and the length of the spring can be determined according to the maximum frost heaving amount of frozen soil and the test precision, and the corresponding spring can be selected according to the length of the sleeve. Other finished parts having elasticity may be substituted.
The sixth specific implementation mode: the present embodiment is described with reference to fig. 1, 2, and 3, and includes the following:
the method comprises the steps of determining the number of measuring points in a test area and the distribution positions of the measuring points according to the type of frozen soil in the test area, correspondingly installing an earth frost heaving detection device without an external power supply at each measuring point, acquiring frost heaving data of a frost heaving layer where each measuring point is located at different time periods through the earth frost heaving detection device without the external power supply, and summarizing according to the frost heaving data fed back by each measuring point to obtain the frost heaving deformation condition of the frozen soil in the test area.
Dividing a test area according to a geological survey report, wherein the division principle is that the test area is divided according to frost heaving sensitive and frost heaving insensitive properties, the division of frost heaving sensitive and frost heaving insensitive is based on data from the geological survey report, the division principle is the prior art, the number of frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas and frost heaving insensitive frozen soil areas is counted respectively after the test area is divided, the number of measuring points is determined in each frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area, and the number of measuring points is determined in each frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area, and the determination process is as follows:
when the number of the frost heaving sensitive frost regions is n, the area A of one frost heaving sensitive frost region1Dividing a plurality of first cells on the ground surface of the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area, wherein the area of each first cell is S1The number N of the measuring points in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1=A1/S1Similarly, the number of the measuring points in other frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas is determined to be N one by one2、N3…Nn;S1Has a value range of 0.25 to 1m2I.e. the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in the longitudinal or transverse direction in the frost heave sensitive frozen soil area1The size of the first small grid is 50-100 cm, and the shape of the first small grid is square for convenience of calculation;
in the step, the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in the longitudinal or transverse direction in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area is determined1Then, the grid is drawn according to the space, and finally the number N of the measuring points is determined1=A1/S1
In this step S1Has a value range of 0.25 to 1m2,S1The value range is determined according to the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in the longitudinal or transverse frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1Calculating to obtain that the shape of the first cell is square for convenient calculation; the intersection point of two diagonal lines in each first cell is a measuring point position, and the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points1Is the distance between the centers of the two upper anchor disks 3, the distance G1The value range of the upper anchor plate 3 is determined according to the outer diameter of the upper anchor plate 3 and the requirement of the non-interfering minimum distance between two adjacent upper anchor plates 3, the outer diameter of the upper anchor plate 3 is determined according to the requirement of the upper anchor plate 3 and the size of the tension sensor 4 and the casing 2, and the sufficient soil body, namely G, is ensured to be clamped between the upper anchor plate 3 and the chassis 1150-100 cm, and the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points1After the determination, the area of the first cell in which the measuring point is positioned can be obtained because the measuring point is positioned at the central position of the first cell, and the actual cell division operation is carried out, so that the cell division mode can ensure that the measuring point is positioned at the central position of the first cellThe final determined position of the measuring point is more accurate.
When the number of the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil areas is m, the area B of one frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area1Dividing a plurality of second cells on the ground surface of the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area, wherein the area of each second cell is S2The number M of the measuring points is arranged in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1=B1/S2Similarly, determining the number of the measuring points in other non-frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas as M respectively one by one2、M3…Mm;S2Has a value range of 4 to 16m2I.e. the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in the longitudinal or transverse direction of the frost heaving insensitive frost soil area2The size of the grid is 200-400 cm, and the shape of the small grid is square for convenient calculation;
in the step, the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in the longitudinal or transverse direction in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area is determined2Then, the grid is drawn according to the space, and finally the number M of the measuring points is determined1=B1/S2
In this step S2Has a value range of 4 to 16m2,S2The value range is determined according to the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in the longitudinal or transverse direction in the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area2Calculating to obtain that the shape of the second cell is square for convenient calculation; the intersection point of two diagonal lines in each second cell is a measuring point position, and the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points2Is the distance between the centers of the two upper anchor disks 3, the distance G2The value range of the upper anchor plate 3 is determined according to the outer diameter of the upper anchor plate 3 and the requirement of the non-interfering minimum distance between two adjacent upper anchor plates 3, the outer diameter of the upper anchor plate 3 is determined according to the requirement of the upper anchor plate 3 and the size of the tension sensor 4 and the casing 2, and the sufficient soil body, namely G, is ensured to be clamped between the upper anchor plate 3 and the chassis 12200-400 cm, and the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points2After the determination, the area of the second small grid in which the measuring point is located can be obtained because the measuring point is the central position of the second small grid in which the measuring point is located, and the final determined position of the measuring point can be ensured to be more accurate in a grid dividing mode when the actual grid dividing operation is performed.
N1、N2、N3…NnAnd M1、M2、M3…MmThe sum of the total number of the soil frost heaving detection devices is the total number of the test points in the test area, the central position in each first small grid or each second small grid is the position of the soil frost heaving detection device without the external power supply;
the frost heaving sensitive frost region is a measuring point concentrated region in the testing region, a frost heaving detection device is installed according to the distribution position condition of measuring points in the frost heaving sensitive frost region, a frost heaving detection device is installed at each measuring point, frost heaving amount data of a frost heaving layer 14 where each measuring point is located in the region in different time periods are obtained through the frost heaving detection device, and the frost heaving deformation condition of the frost heaving in the testing region is obtained through summarizing the frost heaving amount data fed back by each frost heaving sensitive frost region and the frost heaving non-sensitive frost region. The same principle is applied to the installation process of the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area.
The invention combines geological survey conditions with a prototype machine to carry out a plurality of tests, measuring points are arranged at intervals of 50-100 cm in the horizontal direction and the longitudinal direction in the plane of the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area as the optimal setting range, the measuring points are arranged according to 1-4 measuring points in the unit area of each square meter, the measuring points are arranged at intervals of 200-400 cm in the horizontal direction and the longitudinal direction in the plane of the frost heaving non-sensitive area, the measuring points can be arranged according to 1-4 measuring points in the unit area of each 16 square meters, in addition, the number of the measuring points is set in the engineering field with complicated geological conditions and special requirements according to unequal intervals.
The frost heaving property of the soil is divided into non-frost heaving, weak frost heaving, strong frost heaving and extra-strong frost heaving according to the frost heaving rate of 0-1%, 1-3.5%, 3.5-6%, 6-10% and more than 10%. Frost heaving, strong frost heaving and extra strong frost heaving belong to frost heaving sensitive frozen soil, while non-frost heaving and weak frost heaving belong to frost heaving non-sensitive frozen soil.
The seventh embodiment: the embodiment is further limited by the sixth specific embodiment, the frost heaving of the frozen soil is divided into in-situ frost heaving and segregation frost heaving, the in-situ frost heaving is composed of elastic deformation of a soil framework and water-ice phase change incremental deformation, the segregation frost heaving depends on the change of a temperature field and the migration amount of unfrozen water, the selection of the measuring range of the sensor and the arrangement number of measuring points are determined by a frost heaving sensitive type frozen soil area, a frost heaving non-sensitive frozen soil area and a monitoring area, the water content of soil bodies under important infrastructure engineering, a roadbed and a road surface is rich, the local difference is large, the number of monitoring points needs to be increased, for example, a seasonal frozen soil area along a river is provided, as the water content of the soil bodies is generally higher, one measuring point is arranged at intervals of 50-100 cm in each transverse direction and longitudinal direction in a plane, the measuring points are arranged at intervals of 1-4 measuring points in each square meter unit area, the distance from the river is 200-400 cm, the method is characterized in that the measuring points are arranged according to the number of 1-4 in a unit area of 16 square meters, the geological conditions are complex, and the number of the measuring points is arranged according to unequal intervals in an engineering field with special requirements.
The specific implementation mode is eight: this embodiment is a further limitation of the sixth or seventh embodiment, and the detection process of the eighth embodiment includes the following four steps:
the method comprises the following steps: looking up geological data to obtain the depth of the unfrozen soil layer in the area, and selecting a tension sensor 4 with corresponding precision according to the requirement of test precision;
step two: excavating a hole 11, manually tamping the bottom of the hole 11, and then placing the hole into the chassis 1;
step three: connecting an elastic part 5 with the upper end of a connecting rod 6, connecting the lower end of the connecting rod 6 with a chassis 1, placing a casing 2 on the chassis 1, backfilling raw soil on the outer side of the casing 2 in a layered manner, tamping in a layered manner, fixedly installing an upper anchor plate 3 on the casing 2, and arranging a tension sensor 4 on the upper anchor plate 3;
step four: starting the tension sensor 4, and recording the tension value of the tension sensor 4 as F0When the sleeve 2 moves upwards under the driving of frost heaving deformation of the frozen soil layer, the elastic part 5 is stretched, and the tension value of the tension sensor 4 is recorded as F1The frost heaving deformation is (F)1-F0) The elastic coefficient of the elastic part 5, data recording and closing of the tension sensor 4;
and finally, summarizing the frost heaving amount of the frost heaving layer 14 recorded by each measuring point in the test area through an earth frost heaving detection device without an external power supply, drawing a three-dimensional image of the plane position of each measuring point and the frost heaving deformation amount of the measuring point, and describing that the water content of the soil body in a local area is higher when the frost heaving deformation of the local area in the test area is overlarge, and subsequently adopting corresponding technical measures to reduce the influence of the frost heaving, wherein the frost heaving condition of the frost heaving layer 14 in the test area can be comprehensively evaluated through analysis of the maximum value, the minimum value and the average value of the frost heaving amount.
Furthermore, the diameter of the hole 11 in the above steps is 15-25 cm, the optimal value of the diameter is 20cm, and the diameter has universality.
The specific implementation method nine: the present embodiment is further limited to the sixth, seventh or eighth specific embodiments, and the monitoring period of the present invention is a whole winter period, and the specific time is from the beginning of the autumn when the average air temperature of the first year is close to 0 ℃ to the beginning of the spring when the average air temperature of the second year rises to 0 ℃ or more.
The following examples are described in conjunction with the beneficial effects of the present invention:
the first embodiment is as follows:
the test area is the shoulder of the X area in H city of northeast China, the depth of the unfrozen soil layer in the test area is 2100mm according to a geological survey report, the number of the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas in the test area is divided into 8 according to the size of the test area being 10m multiplied by 20m, the number of the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil areas is 12, and the area A of one frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area is determined according to the importance degree of the geological survey part1And the first small cell area S in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1Measurement of A1=8m2Area S of each first cell1=1m2And (3) installing a frost heaving detection device in each first cell, and carrying out the next detection, wherein the specific operation process is as follows:
the method comprises the following steps: looking up geological data to obtain the depth of the unfrozen soil layer in the area, and selecting a tension sensor 4 with corresponding precision according to the requirement of test precision;
step two: excavating a hole 11, manually tamping the bottom of the hole 11, and then placing the hole into the chassis 1;
step three: connecting an elastic part 5 with the upper end of a connecting rod 6, connecting the lower end of the connecting rod 6 with a chassis 1, placing a casing 2 on the chassis 1, backfilling raw soil on the outer side of the casing 2 in a layered manner, tamping in a layered manner, fixedly installing an upper anchor plate 3 on the casing 2, and arranging a tension sensor 4 on the upper anchor plate 3;
step four: the tension sensor 4 is started to record the tension value F of the tension sensor 4 when the recording time point is 11 months in 2018 and 20 am 8 am0=20g, the distance between the chassis 1 and the upper anchor plate 3 is 500mm, the elastic coefficient of the elastic part 5 is 300g/mm, when the sleeve 2 is driven to move upwards by frost heaving deformation of a frozen soil layer in 2018, 12 months in 12, 20 days in the morning 8, the elastic part 5 is stretched, and the display value on the display screen of the tension sensor 4 is F1=920g, the frost heaving deformation is (F)1-F0) The elastic coefficient of the elastic member is 900/300 mm, 3.0mm, data is recorded, and the tension sensor 4 is closed.
Along with the frost heaving of the soil body, the distance between the chassis 1 and the upper anchor plate 3 is continuously increased, so that the distance between the tension sensor 4 and the chassis 1 is gradually increased, when the soil body is frozen, the tension sensor 4 is started at the same measuring point at the 30 am 8 of the 1 month and the 30 th month in 2019, and the display value on the display screen of the tension sensor 4 is F1=1120g, the frost heaving deformation is (F)1-F0) The elastic coefficient 1100/300 of the elastic element is 3.6mm, and the data is recorded and the tension sensor 4 is switched off. Comparing the frost heaving deformation amounts obtained twice, wherein the difference between the frost heaving deformation amounts is small, the influence of the environment temperature on the soil body frost heaving deformation corresponding to the measuring point is small from the end of 12 months to the end of the next month, and by analogy, testing is carried out on other measuring points, the plane positions of the measuring points and the frost heaving deformation amounts are collected to draw a three-dimensional image, the change trend along with the time is marked, the frost heaving deformation degree of the testing area is quantitatively evaluated, and guidance suggestions are given. When the frost heaving deformation of one local area in the test area is too large, the water content of the soil body in the local area is indicated to be higher, corresponding technical measures can be subsequently adopted to reduce the influence of frost heaving, and the frost heaving condition of the frost heaving layer 14 in the test area can be comprehensively evaluated through analysis of the maximum value, the minimum value and the average value of the frost heaving amount and the change rule along with time.

Claims (2)

1. A detection method realized by a soil frost heaving detection device without an external power supply comprises a chassis, a sleeve, an upper anchor plate, a tension sensor, an elastic element and a connecting rod, wherein the chassis is provided with the sleeve;
the chassis is provided with an inner cylinder, the chassis and the inner cylinder are coaxially arranged and fixedly connected into a whole, the lower end of the sleeve is sleeved on the inner cylinder, and the inner wall of the sleeve is in sliding fit with the outer wall of the inner cylinder;
the tension sensor is a hook type electronic balance;
a protective cover is arranged on the upper anchor disc;
the elastic piece is a spring;
the method is characterized in that: determining the number of measuring points in a test area and the distribution position of each measuring point according to the frozen soil type of the test area, correspondingly installing an earth frost heaving detection device without an external power supply at each measuring point, acquiring frost heaving data of a frost heaving layer where each measuring point is located at different time periods through the earth frost heaving detection device without the external power supply, and summarizing according to the frost heaving data fed back by each measuring point to obtain the frozen soil frost heaving deformation condition in the test area:
dividing the number of frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas and frost heaving insensitive frozen soil areas in a test area according to a geological survey report, and measuring the area A of one frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area when the number of the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas is n1Dividing the ground surface of the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area into a plurality of first cells, wherein the area of each first cell is S1The central position in each first cell is the position of a measuring point, and the number N of the measuring points in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1=A1/S1Similarly, the number of the measuring points in other frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas is determined to be N one by one2、N3…Nn
S1Has a value range of 0.25 to 1m2,S1The value range is determined according to the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in the longitudinal or transverse frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1Calculated, the shape of the first cell is squareShaping; the intersection point of two diagonal lines in each first cell is a measuring point position, and the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points1Is the distance between the circle centers of the two upper anchor disks, and the distance G1The value range of the upper anchor disk is determined according to the outer diameter of the upper anchor disk and the requirement of the non-interfering minimum distance between the two adjacent upper anchor disks, the outer diameter of the upper anchor disk is determined according to the requirement of the upper anchor disk and the size of the tension sensor and the size of the sleeve, and the upper anchor disk and the chassis are ensured to be clamped with enough soil, namely G150-100 cm, and the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points1After the determination, the area of the first cell where the measuring point is located can be obtained as the measuring point is located at the center of the first cell;
when the number of the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil areas is m, the area B of one frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area1Dividing a plurality of second cells on the ground surface of the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area, wherein the area of each second cell is S2The number M of the measuring points is arranged in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1=B1/S2Similarly, determining the number of the measuring points in other non-frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas as M respectively one by one2、M3…Mm;S2Has a value range of 4 to 16m2I.e. the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in the longitudinal or transverse direction of the frost heaving insensitive frost soil area2200-400 cm, and the shape of the small grid is square;
firstly, determining the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points longitudinally or transversely in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area2Then, the grid is drawn according to the space, and finally the number M of the measuring points is determined1=B1/S2
S2Has a value range of 4 to 16m2,S2The value range is determined according to the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in the longitudinal or transverse direction in the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area2Calculating to obtain that the shape of the second cell is square for convenient calculation; the intersection point of two diagonal lines in each second cell is a measuring point position, and the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points2Is the distance between the circle centers of the two upper anchor disks, and the distance G2Is based on the anchorThe outer diameter of the anchor plate and the minimum distance between two adjacent upper anchor plates are determined according to the requirements of the size of the upper anchor plate, the size of the tension sensor and the size of the sleeve, and sufficient soil is guaranteed to be clamped between the upper anchor plate and the chassis, namely G2200-400 cm, and the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points2After the determination, the area of the second cell where the measuring point is located can be obtained as the measuring point is located at the center of the second cell;
N1、N2、N3…Nnand M1、M2、M3…MmThe sum of the total number of the test points in the test area is the total number of the test points, the corresponding number of the soil frost heaving detection devices are prepared, and the central position in each first small grid or each second small grid is the position of the soil frost heaving detection device without the external power supply.
2. The detection method according to claim 1, characterized in that: the detection process of the frost heaving detection device comprises the following four steps:
the method comprises the following steps: looking up geological data to obtain the depth of an unfrozen layer of soil in a test area, and selecting a tension sensor with corresponding precision according to the test precision requirement;
step two: excavating holes, manually tamping the bottom of the holes, and then placing the holes into a chassis;
step three: connecting an elastic piece with the upper end of a connecting rod, connecting the lower end of the connecting rod with a chassis, placing a casing on the chassis, backfilling raw soil on the outer side of the casing in a layered manner, tamping in a layered manner, fixedly installing an upper anchor disk on the casing, and arranging a tension sensor on the upper anchor disk;
step four: starting the tension sensor, and recording the tension value of the tension sensor as F0When the sleeve pipe moves upwards under the driving of frost heaving deformation of the frozen soil layer, the elastic part is elongated, and then the tension value of the tension sensor is recorded as F1The frost heaving deformation is (F)1- F0) Elastic coefficient of the elastic component, data recording, and closing the tension sensor.
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