CN109870084B - VCR mining method hole-sweeping-free blasting charge structure and construction method thereof - Google Patents

VCR mining method hole-sweeping-free blasting charge structure and construction method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109870084B
CN109870084B CN201910210429.6A CN201910210429A CN109870084B CN 109870084 B CN109870084 B CN 109870084B CN 201910210429 A CN201910210429 A CN 201910210429A CN 109870084 B CN109870084 B CN 109870084B
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explosive
hole
detonating
layer
particle
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CN109870084A (en
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史秀志
苟永刚
霍晓锋
邱贤阳
万士义
陈佳
杨福波
柯武阳
陈资南
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Anhui Tongguan Lujiang Mining Co ltd
Central South University
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Anhui Tongguan Lujiang Mining Co ltd
Central South University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a hole-sweeping-free blasting charge structure in a VCR mining method and a construction method thereof, wherein a plurality of layers of explosives are filled in a blasting section of a blast hole in a layered mode, each layer of explosive is separated by a particle stuffing at intervals, and the explosives are led out of the blast hole through a detonation component and are connected with a detonation network; the length of the explosive on the topmost layer is smaller than that of the rest layers of explosives, a particle stuffing is filled in a blast hole above the explosive on the topmost layer, and a water column is filled in the blast hole above the particle stuffing. The invention adopts a reasonable and scientific charging structure, and adopts a combined blocking structure of a small amount of explosive, a particle blocking object and a water column on the upper part of the top explosive, thereby effectively preventing the hole blocking phenomenon of the top unexploded section from the root, saving the extra economic cost caused by the workload of hole sweeping for blasting the hole blocking, avoiding the delay of the production period and greatly reducing the negative effect caused by large-dose blasting in the VCR mining method.

Description

VCR mining method hole-sweeping-free blasting charge structure and construction method thereof
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the mine mining blasting technology, and particularly relates to a hole-sweeping-free blasting charge structure in a VCR mining method and a construction method thereof.
Background
Mineral resources are one of the basic guarantees of the social industrialization process, and along with the continuous deterioration of the quality and the mining conditions of the existing mineral resources, the mining gradually changes to the technical direction with high efficiency, low cost and large scale. The chamber method (VCR mining method) in the vertical deep hole ore breaking stage is an advanced mining method applied after continuous practice summary and development improvement. VCR mining is employed by more and more mines due to its remarkable characteristics of high efficiency, safety, and low cost.
The mining method comprises the steps of firstly drilling all vertically and downwards parallel arranged blast holes in an upper rock drilling chamber, and dividing the blast holes into a slot drawing area and a side caving area according to a blasting sequence. The broached area is the key in the entire mining cycle and provides a free surface and compensation space for the landslide area. The slot-drawing area generally adopts a sectional blasting process to collapse ores, and then the ore-drawing operation is carried out in the bottom structure, so that the construction process is simple and safe. However, the layered blasting causes the drilled holes to be reused, and the previous blasting may cause a phenomenon in which the remaining plugging material is recoiled to block the remaining holes. Therefore, after each blasting, the operation of dredging the blast hole is the necessary prerequisite work for ensuring the next blasting operation, which is often called hole sweeping operation.
Hole sweeping operation is generally carried out by modes of blowing holes by high-pressure air of an air pipe, serially connecting steel pipes and tamping through the holes, adopting a hydraulic infiltration method, erecting a drilling machine to drill blast holes when the holes are seriously blocked and the like. The high-pressure air blowing hole has extremely low working efficiency and long time due to relatively low air pressure value; in addition, high pressure wind tends to cause small debris to recoil to the hole trauma and the operator, thus, the method is less applicable. The steel pipe concatenates is only comparatively practical to the short hole, and intensity of labour is big. The hydraulic infiltration method adopts a mode of filling water into the plugged hole, and the plugged material of the blast hole slowly falls down by means of the permeability and gravity of the water, but the feasibility and the time duration of the mode cannot be predicted and controlled. Therefore, the mine generally adopts a drilling mode of a standing drilling machine with strong controllability to carry out hole sweeping operation. However, even when this method is applied, the processes of site cleaning, rig erection, pipeline laying, hole sweeping, and rig and pipeline removal after blasting are required again, so that the blasting progress is seriously affected, and the economic, time, and labor costs are high.
Disclosure of Invention
The technical problem solved by the invention is as follows: aiming at the problem that a rear section blast hole is easy to be blocked by front section blasting in the existing VCR mining method, a hole-cleaning-free blasting charge structure and a construction method thereof are provided.
The invention is realized by adopting the following technical scheme:
a VCR mining method does not have hole-sweeping blasting loaded structure, fill in the blasting section of the said blast hole with several layers of explosive hierarchically, separate through the interval of the particle packing between every layer of explosive, the said explosive is led out to the outside of blast hole and connected the priming network through the priming assembly; the length of the explosive on the topmost layer is smaller than that of the rest layers of explosives, a particle stuffing is filled in a blast hole above the explosive on the topmost layer, and a water column is filled in the blast hole above the particle stuffing.
Furthermore, a positioning block is fixed at the bottom of the blasting section of the blast hole, the explosives and the particle packing are distributed in the blast hole above the positioning block at intervals, and the explosives at the bottommost layer are separated from the positioning block through the particle packing.
Furthermore, the positioning block is a cylindrical cement block matched with the inner diameter of the blast hole in size, and the cylindrical cement block is hoisted and positioned at the bottom of the blast hole from the top of the blast hole through a rope.
Further, the water column is a sealed water column bag filled with liquid.
Furthermore, the detonation component is embedded in the explosive at the lowest part of the corresponding explosive layer.
Furthermore, the detonation assembly comprises two detonating tube detonators with detonating tube leg wires, and the two detonating tube detonators are bundled and fixed together and inserted into the explosive.
Furthermore, the detonating component also comprises a detonating cord which is folded and bound on the detonating tube detonator.
Further, the particle diameter of the particle stuffing is 0.2-2 mm.
The invention also discloses a construction method of the hole-sweeping-free blasting charge structure by the VCR mining method, which specifically comprises the following steps:
step one, blocking the bottom of a blast hole in the blasting section through a positioning block, and then filling a particle filler to reach a designed resistance line value;
inserting the detonating component into the explosive package and fixing the detonating component into the detonating explosive package, putting the detonating explosive package on the particle stuffing inside the blast hole through the rope and the descending speed of the detonating explosive package in cooperation with the detonating pin line of the detonating component, and fixing the detonating pin line at the orifice;
step three, after the initiating explosive package in the step two is placed, continuously stacking non-initiating explosive packages into the blast hole to reach the designed explosive height of the bottom layer explosive;
filling a particle filling material on the bottom explosive to reach the initial height of the 2 nd layer of explosive;
step five, repeating the step two to the step four, completing the explosive filling construction from the layer 2 of explosives to the topmost layer, and ensuring that the length of the topmost layer of explosives is smaller than that of other layers of explosives;
step six, firstly filling a particle filling material on the top explosive, and then continuously filling a water column;
and step seven, connecting the detonating tube pin lines of all the detonating explosive packages fixed on the orifices together, and then carrying out the work of clearing the field and detonating.
Furthermore, the bottom layer explosive is adopted in the same blast hole to delay blasting to the top layer explosive.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the explosive loading amount of the topmost layer in the explosive loading structure is reduced, and the upward propagation explosion energy of the lower explosive is effectively suppressed; the top explosive can also form a downward blasting funnel when exploded, so that broken stones and fine particles which do not completely fall off on the free surface near the blast hole are cleaned; the particle stuffing filled above the top explosive can effectively buffer the explosive explosion energy, and most of the energy is transferred to an upper water column by utilizing the characteristic that water absorbs energy and deforms randomly, so that the phenomenon that the absorbed energy is concentrated and distributed in particle plugs to cause extrusion and hole plugging is avoided, and the concentration effect of the explosive energy is greatly reduced; the filled water column increases the weight of a plug on the upper part of the top explosive, and the punching phenomenon caused by the over-light weight of fine particles is prevented; after the top layer explosive is exploded, the water column energy absorption is deformed to cause the water column outer bag to break and enter the interior of the blasthole which is not exploded above, so that the blasthole is further dredged and cleaned on the premise of protecting the wall surface of the blasthole, and the explosive charging work of the next stage of the blasthole is effectively guaranteed.
Compared with the traditional methods of hole blowing by a high-pressure air pipe, tamping through a series-connected steel pipe, a hydraulic infiltration method, hole sweeping by a drilling machine and the like, the invention adopts a reasonable and scientific charging structure, particularly adopts a combined blocking structure of a small amount of particle blocking objects and water columns on the upper part of top explosive, and effectively prevents the hole blocking phenomenon of the top unexploded section from the root. The extra economic cost caused by the workload of cleaning holes during blasting hole plugging is saved, and the delay of the production period is avoided. Thus, the negative effects of large cartridge blasting in VCR mining are greatly reduced.
In conclusion, the invention provides the hole-cleaning-free blasting charge structure for the VCR mining method and the construction method thereof, wherein the charge structure is simple, safe, efficient and reliable in operation process.
The invention is further described with reference to the following figures and detailed description.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of a blast hole charging structure in an embodiment.
Fig. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of the initiation assembly in the embodiment.
Reference numbers in the figures: the method comprises the following steps of 1-detonator foot line, 2-water column, 3-particle stuffing, 4-detonator, 5-explosive, 6-positioning block, 7-binding rope, 8-detonating cord and 100-blast hole.
Detailed Description
Examples
Referring to fig. 1, the charging structure is a preferred scheme of the invention, which is a hole-sweeping-free blasting charging structure for a full-through downward vertical blast hole of a VCR mining method and is suitable for a downward deep hole with a diameter of 90-250 mm. The method specifically comprises a plurality of layers of explosives 5 which are filled in a blasting section of the blast hole 100 in a layered mode, and all the explosives 5 are led out to the outside of the blast hole through an initiation assembly and are connected with an initiation network. Wherein, the explosives are positioned at the bottom of the blasting section of the blast hole 100 through a positioning block 6, and each layer of explosives 5 is separated by a particle stuffing 3. The explosive 5 at the bottom layer is separated from the positioning block 6 by the particle packing 3, the blast hole above the explosive 5 at the top layer is filled with the particle packing 3, and the blast hole above the particle packing 3 at the layer is filled with the water column 2.
In the embodiment, strip-shaped explosive packages are continuously stacked in the blast hole for each layer of explosive 5, so as to avoid that sundries such as rocks and the like are rushed into the blast hole which is not blasted at the top to cause hole blocking due to overlarge blasting power of blasting in the hole, in fig. 1, the explosive at the bottom layer is taken as the explosive at the 1 st layer, 1-n layers of explosives are sequentially arranged on the explosive at the top layer, the explosive at the n nth layer is taken as the explosive at the top layer, and the number of n is designed according to the height of an ore body and the required explosive amount of each blasting. The length of the explosive 5 at the n-th layer in the figure 1 is smaller than that of the rest layers of explosives below, so that the explosive quantity of the explosive 5 at the topmost layer is smaller than that of the rest layers, the particle stuffing 3 and the water column 2 filled above the top layer explosive are combined, the upward explosion energy of the lower layer explosive is effectively suppressed, the upward explosion impact force is buffered, the phenomenon that the top plate of the upper rock drilling chamber is damaged by recoil generated by the particle plugs due to too light compression and blocking of the upper non-explosion blast holes is effectively avoided.
In addition, in the embodiment, the positioning block 6 arranged at the bottom of the blasting section of the blast hole 100 is a cylindrical cement block matched with the inner diameter of the blast hole, that is, the cement block can freely slide up and down in the blast hole 100, a metal wire is fixed in the cement block as a rope for fixedly hoisting the cement block, when filling the blast hole, the cement block is firstly suspended from the orifice to the bottom of the blasting section of the blast hole through the metal wire for positioning and blocking, the depth of the cement block is determined according to the length of the metal wire, and the position of the cement block is the lowest position of the blasting section of the blast hole, which is designed for filling explosives. After the cement block is hoisted in place, the other end of the metal wire is bolted to a fixing strip which is arranged at the orifice position of the blast hole, the length of the fixing strip should exceed the diameter of the blast hole, the fixing strip can be transversely arranged at the orifice position of the blast hole and cannot transversely enter the hole, and the cement block is fixedly hoisted at the bottom of the blasting section of the blast hole by the fixing strip.
The granular packing of this embodiment uses yellow sand or rock powder having a particle size of 0.2 to 2mm, and it should be noted that the gap between the positioning block 6 and the inner wall of the blast hole 100 is not excessively large, so that a large amount of leakage from the gap is prevented when the granular packing is charged.
The water column 2 of this embodiment uses a cylindrical sealed water column bag filled with water.
Referring to fig. 1 and 2, each layer of explosive 5 of this embodiment is structured such that a bottom layer of explosive is used as an initiating explosive, that is, the initiating component corresponding to each layer of explosive 5 is embedded in the explosive at the lowermost part of the layer of explosive, and then the rest of the non-initiating explosive in the layer is stacked above the initiating component. Therefore, the detonating reliability between the detonating component and the layer of explosive 5 in the filling process can be ensured, and the detonating component is prevented from being easily separated from the layer of explosive in the charging process. In addition, in order to enhance the detonation reliability of the detonation assembly, the detonation assembly of the embodiment adopts two detonating tube detonators 4 with long detonating tube detonator leg wires 1, the two detonating tube detonators 4 are bundled into a whole by a bundling rope 7 or an adhesive tape and then inserted into an explosive package to serve as a detonating explosive package, the two detonating tube detonators 4 bundled together ensure the detonation reliability of the explosive package, the explosion rejection phenomenon after the detonating tube detonator leg wires 1 in a hole are cut is effectively avoided, in addition, the embodiment also bundles and fixes a folded detonating cord 8 on the outer sides of the two detonating tube detonators 4, the detonating cord 8 is folded and bundled and fixed on the outer sides of the two detonating tube detonators 4, the detonating tube detonators 4 further ensure the detonation reliability of explosives, the volume of the detonation assembly is increased, and the bonding area with the explosive package is larger.
The specific parameters of the charge designed in this example are as follows:
the explosive layers from the layer 1 to the layer n-1 are normal equivalent charges, and the length of each charge layer is 1.2-3.0 m. The length of the n-th layer of explosive, namely the topmost layer of explosive, is 0.3 to 0.5 times of the length of the n-1-th layer of explosive.
The distance between the resisting line of the bottom of the explosive in the 1 st layer and the free surface of the lower part of the blasting section of the blast hole is 0.5-1.8m, and the length of the spacer from the 1 st layer to the upper part of the n-1 st layer, namely the length of the particle stuffing spaced between each layer of explosives, is 1.0-2.5 m.
The length of the particle stuffing filled on the upper part of the n-th layer of explosive is 0.7-1.3m, and the length of the water column continuously filled on the upper part is 1.2-3.0 m.
And carrying out VCR mining blasting on the groove-drawing area of the large-diameter deep hole stope of the underground mine according to the specific parameters, wherein the specific blast hole charging construction method is as follows.
All the blastholes 100 are downward blastholes drilled by a T-150 type down-the-hole drill, the diameter of the blastholes is 165mm, and the hole depth is determined according to the height of a stope. The blasting equipment adopts strip-shaped emulsion explosives and common nonel detonators, the diameter of each explosive charge is 140mm, and the length of each explosive charge is 0.5 m; the granular filling 3 is yellow sand which is common material.
Wherein, in the layer 1 explosive to the layer n-1 explosive in the blast hole blasting section, the number of explosive charges is 4; the distance of the resisting line from the bottom of the explosive layer 1 to the free surface of the lower part is 0.8-1.8m, and the length of the particle stuffing 3 spaced between each layer of explosive is 1.2-1.8 m.
The number of explosive charges of the n-th layer of explosive is 2, the upper part of the n-th layer of explosive is firstly filled with 0.7-1.3m of particle stuffing, and then water columns with the diameter of 1.5-2.5m are continuously filled.
The initiating explosive of each layer of explosive is arranged into one explosive package at the bottommost part, namely, an initiating component is connected into the explosive package, and the initiating component is made by binding a folded detonating cord with the length of about 20cm by a double-detonating-tube detonator. The detonating tube detonator leg wire 1 is drawn out of the blast hole and needs to be fixed at the orifice to prevent slipping into the orifice. In the blast hole blasting section, a delay blasting process is adopted, namely, the delay time of the detonators in each layer of explosive is different, so that a delay blasting form from bottom to top in the hole is formed.
The concrete construction steps are as follows;
step one, blocking the bottom of a blast hole in the blasting section through a positioning block, wherein the distance between the blocking position and the hole bottom is 0.5m, and then filling a particle filler to reach a designed resistance line value;
step two, loading the explosive at the bottommost layer, inserting and fixing an initiating component into an explosive package to serve as an initiating explosive package, putting the initiating explosive package on a particle stuffing inside a blast hole in cooperation with the lowering speed of a mooring rope and the detonating pin line of the initiating component, finishing the lowering process of the initiating explosive package by matching two persons, wherein one person puts the explosive slowly through the mooring rope, the other person puts the detonating pin line in cooperation, and after the mooring rope is completely put and recovered, drawing and fixing the detonating pin line at an orifice;
step three, after the initiating explosive package in the step two is placed, continuously stacking non-initiating explosive packages into the blast hole to reach the designed explosive height of the bottom layer explosive;
fourthly, filling 1.2-1.8m of particle filling materials on the bottom explosive to reach the initial height of the 2 nd layer of explosive;
step five, repeating the step two to the step four, completing the explosive filling construction from the layer 2 of explosives to the topmost layer, and paying attention to ensure that the explosive height of the topmost layer of explosives is smaller than that of other layers of explosives;
step six, firstly filling a particle filling material with the length of 0.7-1.3m on the top explosive, and then continuously filling a water column with the length of 1.5-2.5 m;
and step seven, connecting the detonating tube pin lines of all the detonating explosive packages fixed on the orifices together, and then carrying out the work of clearing the field and detonating. Specifically, delay detonation control of the detonator is a common blasting technology, and details are not described herein in this embodiment.
The blasting test is carried out for 5 times on 36 blast holes in the groove-drawing area of the large-diameter deep hole stope of the underground mine by adopting the charging structure.
The effect shows that the blasting process meets the design requirement, the number of the plugged holes is reduced to 1-4 from the original more than 50 percent after blasting, the plugging length is not more than 2m, and the normal construction of next blasting is not influenced. Compared with the traditional method, the method has the advantages that the workload of hole sweeping after blasting is reduced, the operation flow and the process are simplified, the additional economic cost caused by hole sweeping is greatly reduced, and the mining blasting operation period is shortened.
It should be understood that the above description is only exemplary of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the present invention, and all modifications, equivalents, improvements, etc. made within the technical solution and principle of the present invention are included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. The utility model provides a VCR mining method exempts from to sweep hole blasting loaded constitution which characterized in that: a plurality of layers of explosives are filled in the blasting section of the blast hole in a layered mode, each layer of explosive is separated by a particle filler at intervals, and the explosives are led out of the blast hole through an initiation assembly and are connected with an initiation network; a positioning block is fixed at the bottom of the blasting section of the blast hole, and the bottommost explosive is separated from the positioning block by a particle plug; the length of the explosive on the topmost layer is less than that of the rest layers of explosives, the length of the explosive on the topmost layer is 0.3-0.5 times of that of the explosive on the adjacent layer, a particle filling material is filled in a blast hole above the explosive on the topmost layer, and a water column is filled in a blast hole above the particle filling material above the explosive on the topmost layer; the length of the particle stuffing at the interval between every two layers of explosive is 1.0-2.5m, the length of the particle stuffing filled on the upper part of the top explosive is 0.7-1.3m, and the length of the water column continuously filled on the upper part is 1.2-3.0 m.
2. The clean hole blasting charge configuration of claim 1, wherein the locating block is a cylindrical cement block with a size matched with the inner diameter of the blasthole, and the cylindrical cement block is hoisted from the top of the blasthole by a rope and is located at the bottom of the blasthole.
3. The clean hole blast charge free structure of claim 1, wherein said water column is a sealed water column bag filled with liquid.
4. The clean hole blast charge free configuration of claim 1, wherein said initiation assembly is embedded in the lowermost explosive of the corresponding explosive layer.
5. The clean hole blast charge configuration of claim 4, wherein said initiation assembly comprises two detonating primer caps with detonating leg wires, said two detonating primer caps being bundled together and inserted into the explosive.
6. The clean hole blast charge free configuration of claim 5, said initiation assembly further comprising a detonating cord folded back and strapped to a detonator of a detonator.
7. A VCR mining clean hole blast charge configuration in accordance with claim 1, wherein all particulate packers within the blasthole are of particle size 0.2-2 mm.
8. A method of constructing a hole-sweeping free blasting charge configuration for VCR mining as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 7 comprising the steps of:
step one, blocking the bottom of a blast hole in the blasting section through a positioning block, and then filling a particle filler to reach a designed resistance line value;
inserting the detonating component into the explosive package and fixing the detonating component into the detonating explosive package, putting the detonating explosive package on the particle stuffing inside the blast hole through the rope and the descending speed of the detonating explosive package in cooperation with the detonating pin line of the detonating component, and fixing the detonating pin line at the orifice;
step three, after the initiating explosive package in the step two is placed, continuously stacking non-initiating explosive packages into the blast hole to reach the designed explosive height of the bottom layer explosive;
filling a particle filling material on the bottom explosive to reach the initial height of the 2 nd layer of explosive;
step five, repeating the step two to the step four, completing the explosive filling construction from the layer 2 of explosives to the topmost layer, and ensuring that the length of the topmost layer of explosives is smaller than that of other layers of explosives;
step six, firstly filling a particle filling material on the top explosive, and then continuously filling a water column;
and step seven, connecting the detonating tube pin lines of all the detonating explosive packages fixed on the orifices together, and then carrying out the work of clearing the field and detonating.
9. The method according to claim 8, wherein the blasting is delayed by using a bottom explosive to a top explosive in the same blast hole.
CN201910210429.6A 2019-03-20 2019-03-20 VCR mining method hole-sweeping-free blasting charge structure and construction method thereof Active CN109870084B (en)

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CN110207555B (en) * 2019-07-09 2021-08-13 中交路桥建设有限公司 Soft interlayer geological slope controlled blasting method

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CN102221315A (en) * 2011-04-29 2011-10-19 北京矿冶研究总院 Multilayer blasting method for bundle holes
CN103758524A (en) * 2013-12-30 2014-04-30 安徽水安建设集团股份有限公司 Stage blasting tunneling vertical shaft construction method
CN104048570A (en) * 2014-06-20 2014-09-17 深圳市中金岭南有色金属股份有限公司凡口铅锌矿 Deep hole blasting filling method
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