CN109861532B - DC/DC converter and whole vehicle control method based on same - Google Patents

DC/DC converter and whole vehicle control method based on same Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109861532B
CN109861532B CN201910155990.9A CN201910155990A CN109861532B CN 109861532 B CN109861532 B CN 109861532B CN 201910155990 A CN201910155990 A CN 201910155990A CN 109861532 B CN109861532 B CN 109861532B
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voltage
output
converter
switching tube
current
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CN109861532A (en
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胡越
刘健
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FAW Group Corp
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FAW Group Corp
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B70/00Technologies for an efficient end-user side electric power management and consumption
    • Y02B70/10Technologies improving the efficiency by using switched-mode power supplies [SMPS], i.e. efficient power electronics conversion e.g. power factor correction or reduction of losses in power supplies or efficient standby modes
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility

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  • Electric Propulsion And Braking For Vehicles (AREA)
  • Dc-Dc Converters (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a DC/DC converter, which is formed by connecting a single DC/DC conversion module or a plurality of DC/DC conversion modules in parallel; the DC/DC conversion module comprises a main circuit and a control circuit; the main circuit comprises a first switching tube, a second switching tube, a third switching tube, a fourth switching tube, a first capacitor, a second capacitor, a third capacitor and an inductor; the control circuit comprises a voltage detection unit, a current detection unit, a temperature detection unit, a main controller, a phase shift control unit, a PWM control unit and a driving unit. The DC/DC converter can realize bidirectional energy conversion between a high-voltage platform power battery and a conventional voltage platform, can improve the soft switching range, reduce the average effective current of an inductor, improve the conversion efficiency of a system and also has the functions of input undervoltage, input overvoltage, output undervoltage, output overcurrent and over-temperature protection by combining phase shift control with PWM duty ratio control.

Description

DC/DC converter and whole vehicle control method based on same
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of new energy automobiles, in particular to a DC/DC converter for voltage conversion among platforms with different voltage levels of a new energy automobile and a whole vehicle control method based on the DC/DC converter.
Background
As the popularity of new energy automobiles increases, the charging anxiety of users on electric automobiles increases gradually. An important aspect of the charging anxiety is that the charging speed of the electric automobile is low, and compared with the refueling time of a traditional fuel vehicle, the charging anxiety is extremely poor in experience. The only way to solve the charging rate of the power battery of the electric automobile is to increase the charging power, the charging voltage and the charging current. Increasing the charging voltage is of additional importance when the charging current increases to the technical bottleneck. The voltage platform of the electric automobile is required to be increased by high-voltage high-power charging, the voltage range of the existing electric passenger car is generally between 240V and 500V, the voltage after high-voltage is increased to 700V to 1000V, namely, the working voltage of the existing power battery and the working voltage of the high-voltage assembly component are not required to meet the requirements, brand new development and generation are required, long development and verification period of the whole car high-voltage component is brought, and meanwhile serious resource waste of the whole car high-voltage component which is mature at present and the performance still meets the use requirements is caused.
Based on the reasons, the invention provides a solving way, and the development cost and the development period of the whole vehicle high-voltage component are shortened by developing a DC/DC converter to realize functional matching of the high-voltage power battery and the high-voltage component of the low-voltage platform. And the high-voltage high-power charging is realized, and meanwhile, the waste of resources is avoided.
In the prior art, chinese patent CN201820201716.1 discloses a DC/DC power converter, which adopts an isolation transformer design, the primary side uses 4 switching tubes to form a phase-shifting full bridge, the secondary side uses 2 development tubes to form full-wave rectification, and 6 switching tubes of the DC/DC power converter are all controlled by a microcontroller, so that bidirectional DC/DC power conversion can be realized. For voltage conversion application of different voltage classes of electric automobiles, circuit structure is complex, isolation transformers and more development tube designs exist, and therefore high cost and large volume and weight are caused. The design of a plurality of controllable development pipes leads to complicated control difficulty, reduced reliability and adverse vehicle application.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a non-isolated DC/DC converter suitable for voltage conversion between different voltage platforms of a new energy automobile.
The invention solves the technical problems by adopting the following technical scheme:
a DC/DC converter is formed by connecting a single DC/DC conversion module or a plurality of DC/DC conversion modules in parallel; the DC/DC conversion module comprises a main circuit and a control circuit;
the main circuit comprises a first switching tube, a second switching tube, a third switching tube, a fourth switching tube, a first capacitor, a second capacitor, a third capacitor and an inductor;
The end A and the end B of the main circuit are respectively connected with the anode and the cathode of the power battery, and the end C and the end D are respectively connected with the anode and the cathode of the high-voltage component of the whole vehicle;
the first switching tube and the second switching tube are connected in series to form a front bridge arm, wherein the first switching tube is used as an upper arm of the front bridge to be connected with the end A, and the second switching tube is used as a lower arm of the front bridge to be connected with the end B; the third switching tube, the second capacitor and the fourth switching tube are sequentially connected in series to form a rear bridge arm, wherein the third switching tube is used as an upper arm of the rear bridge to be connected with the C end, the second capacitor and the fourth switching tube are connected in series to be used as a lower arm of the rear bridge, and the fourth switching tube is connected with the D end; the first capacitor is connected with the inductor in series, the first capacitor is connected with the midpoint of the front bridge arm, and the inductor is connected with the midpoint of the rear bridge arm; the third capacitor is an output capacitor, and two ends of the third capacitor are respectively connected with the C end and the D end;
the control circuit comprises a voltage detection unit, a current detection unit, a temperature detection unit, a main controller, a phase shift control unit, a PWM control unit and a driving unit;
the voltage detection unit comprises an input voltage sensor and an output voltage sensor; the input voltage sensor is used for detecting the voltage of the input direct-current bus and sending an input voltage signal to the main controller; the output voltage sensor is used for detecting the voltage of the alternating current output end and sending a rectified output voltage signal to the main controller;
The current detection unit comprises an input current sensor and an output current sensor; the input current sensor is used for detecting the input direct current bus current and sending an input current signal to the main controller; the output current sensor is used for detecting the current of the alternating current output end and sending a rectified output current signal to the main controller;
the temperature detection unit is used for detecting the temperature of a radiator installed on the power device and sending a temperature signal to the main controller;
The main controller compares the values of the input voltage, the output voltage, the input current, the output current and the temperature with a built-in protection threshold value for fault judgment; receiving a control instruction of the whole vehicle controller, feeding back a working state and reporting a fault; controlling the phase-shifting controller to work and stop through the enabling signal; taking the output voltage signal as a feedback signal to perform voltage closed-loop control;
The driving unit is used for converting the PWM control signal output by the PWM control unit into a driving signal capable of driving the switching tube;
The phase shift control unit is used for adjusting the phase shift angle of the PWM driving signal of the switching tube so as to control the flow direction and the magnitude of energy, thereby controlling the DC/DC converter to stably work.
The PWM control unit is used for adjusting the on duty ratio of the PWM driving signal of the switching tube.
Further, if V inP2<Vin<VinP and I in<IinP are met, the system operates normally, and the main controller does not perform fault processing; if V in>VinP is determined as the input overvoltage fault, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, stops enabling the phase-shifting controller, further stops PWM (pulse width modulation) output driving signals, and reports the input overvoltage fault to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus; if V in<VinP2 is determined as an input under-voltage fault, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, stops enabling the phase-shifting controller, further stops PWM (pulse width modulation) output driving signals, and reports the input under-voltage fault to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus; if I in>IinP is judged to be an input overcurrent fault, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, the phase-shifting controller is stopped to be enabled, the PWM output driving signal is further stopped, and meanwhile, the input overcurrent fault is reported to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus;
Wherein V in is the input voltage, I in is the input current, V inP is the input overvoltage protection threshold, and V inP2 is the input overcurrent protection threshold.
Further, if V Po<VoP or I Po<IoP, the system operates normally, and the main controller does not process; if V Po>VoP is judged to be an output overvoltage fault, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, the phase-shifting controller is stopped to be enabled, the PWM output driving signal is further stopped, and meanwhile, the output overvoltage fault is reported to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus; if I Po>IoP is judged to be an output overcurrent fault, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, the phase-shifting controller is stopped to be enabled, the PWM output driving signal is further stopped, and meanwhile, the output overcurrent fault is reported to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus;
Wherein V Po is an output voltage peak value, I Po is an output current peak value, V oP is an output overvoltage protection threshold value, and I oP is an output overcurrent protection threshold value.
Further, if T < T P, the system operates normally, and the main controller does not process; if T > T P, judging that the vehicle is over-temperature fault, enabling the phase-shifting controller to stop PWM (pulse width modulation) output driving signals when the main controller enters a fault protection mode, and reporting the over-temperature fault to the whole vehicle controller through a CAN (controller area network) bus;
wherein T is the temperature of the radiator, and T P is the temperature protection threshold.
Further, the transmission power of the DC/DC conversion module
When 0< phi <2 pi (1-D) D, the energy is transmitted in the forward direction, and is transmitted to the high-voltage component end of the whole vehicle from the power battery end; when the D of minus 2 pi (1-D) is smaller than phi <0, the energy is reversely transmitted and is transmitted to the power battery end from the high-voltage component end of the whole vehicle;
wherein, V AB is the voltage at the two ends of the end points A and B, V CD is the voltage at the two ends of the end points C and D, T is the temperature of the radiator, and phi is the conduction angle of the first switch tube and the second switch tube of the third switch tube and the fourth switch Guan Zhihou; d is the on duty ratio of the first switching tube and the third switching tube, and (1-D) is the on duty ratio of the second switching tube and the fourth switching tube.
The invention solves the technical problems by adopting the following technical scheme:
A vehicle control method based on a DC/DC converter comprises the following steps:
S10, the whole vehicle controller wakes up the DC/DC converter;
s20, detecting whether the DC/DC converter receives a forward working instruction of the whole vehicle controller sent by the whole vehicle controller; if yes, go to step S30; otherwise, jumping to step S80;
S30, starting a forward working mode by the DC/DC converter, and replying a work request permission instruction of the whole vehicle controller;
S40, powering up a whole vehicle high-voltage system;
S50, the whole vehicle controller sends an output voltage target value instruction;
s60, the DC/DC transformer operates in a voltage stabilizing mode according to the output voltage target value instruction;
S70, detecting whether the DC/DC converter meets the condition of stopping forward operation; if yes, jump to step S140; otherwise, jumping to step S60;
S80, detecting whether the DC/DC converter receives an alternating-current charging instruction of the whole vehicle controller sent by the whole vehicle controller; if yes, go to step S90; otherwise, jumping to step S20;
S90, starting a reverse alternating-current charging working mode by the DC/DC converter, and replying a charging request permission instruction of the whole vehicle controller;
S100, gradually increasing reverse charging current by the DC/DC converter;
S110, whether the reverse charging current of the DC/DC converter reaches a stop increasing condition or not; if yes, executing step S120; otherwise, jumping to step S100;
s120, controlling reverse charging current constant-current output by the DC/DC converter;
S130, detecting whether the DC/DC converter meets a charging stopping condition; if yes, go to step S140; otherwise, jumping to step S120;
s140, the DC/DC converter enters a standby mode.
Further, the DC/DC converter includes a forward constant voltage output mode of operation and a reverse alternating current charging mode of operation.
Further, in step S70, the condition for stopping the forward constant voltage output is: the vehicle user actively requires the whole vehicle to be powered down under high voltage or generates fault conditions which influence the work of the whole vehicle.
Further, in step S130, the condition for stopping the reverse ac charging is: charging is complete or a charging failure condition occurs.
Further, when the DC/DC converter works in a forward constant voltage output working mode, each DC/DC conversion module of the DC/DC converter works in a constant voltage output mode respectively; setting the phase shift angle of the initial driving signal of each DC/DC conversion module to be 2 pi/N, and staggering the switching tubes of each DC/DC conversion module;
Wherein N is the number of parallel DC/DC conversion modules.
Further, when the DC/DC converter operates in the reverse ac charging operation mode, each DC/DC conversion module of the DC/DC converter operates in the reverse constant current output mode, respectively.
The invention has the following beneficial effects: the DC/DC converter can realize bidirectional energy conversion between a high-voltage platform power battery and a conventional voltage platform, can improve the soft switching range, reduce the average effective current of an inductor, improve the conversion efficiency of a system and also has the functions of input undervoltage, input overvoltage, output undervoltage, output overcurrent and over-temperature protection by combining phase shift control with PWM duty ratio control.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of a DC/DC converter according to the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of a main circuit of a DC/DC conversion module of the DC/DC converter of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of a control circuit of a DC/DC conversion module of the DC/DC converter of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is a schematic waveform diagram of a DC/DC conversion module of the DC/DC converter of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is a schematic diagram of a topology structure of a high-voltage vehicle type based on the DC/DC converter of the present invention;
Fig. 6 is a control flow chart of the DC/DC converter according to the present invention.
Detailed Description
The technical scheme of the invention is further described below with reference to the embodiment and the attached drawings.
Example 1
The embodiment provides a non-isolated DC/DC converter suitable for voltage conversion between different voltage platforms of a new energy automobile, so as to solve the problem that a vehicle type power battery subjected to high-voltage treatment of a vehicle type power battery cannot be matched with an original high-voltage component, save development cost of the vehicle and fill up application blank.
Fig. 1 shows a schematic structure of a DC/DC converter according to the present invention, which is formed by connecting a single DC/DC conversion module or a plurality of DC/DC conversion modules in parallel.
In this embodiment, the power level of the power device is affected, so that the current power level of the single DC/DC conversion module is limited, and the power capacity of the single DC/DC conversion module cannot meet the power requirements of the power performance and comfort of the whole vehicle. For this reason, the present embodiment proposes a multi-module parallel solution, which allows the overall power capacity of the DC/DC converter system to be multiplied by the parallel connection of the plurality of modules.
The DC/DC conversion module comprises a main circuit and a control circuit.
Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of a main circuit of the DC/DC conversion module of the present invention. The main circuit comprises a first switching tube S1, a second switching tube S2, a third switching tube S3, a fourth switching tube S4, a first capacitor C1, a second capacitor C2, a third capacitor C3 and an inductor L1;
In the embodiment of the invention, the end A and the end B of the main circuit are respectively connected with the anode and the cathode of the power battery, and the end C and the end D are respectively connected with the anode and the cathode of the high-voltage component of the whole vehicle. The first switching tube S1 and the second switching tube S2 are connected in series to form a front bridge arm, wherein the first switching tube S1 is used as a front bridge upper arm to be connected with the end A, and the second switching tube S2 is used as a front bridge lower arm to be connected with the end B; the third switching tube S3, the second capacitor C2 and the fourth switching tube S4 are sequentially connected in series to form a rear bridge arm, wherein the third switching tube S3 is used as an upper arm of the rear bridge to be connected with the C end, the second capacitor C2 and the fourth switching tube S4 are connected in series to be used as a lower arm of the rear bridge, and the fourth switching tube S4 is connected with the D end. The first capacitor C1 and the inductor L1 are connected in series, the first capacitor C1 is connected with the midpoint e of the front bridge arm, and the inductor L1 is connected with the midpoint f of the rear bridge arm. The third capacitor C3 is an output capacitor, and two ends of the third capacitor C3 are respectively connected with the C end and the D end.
Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of a control circuit of the DC/DC conversion module according to the present invention. The control circuit comprises a current detection unit, a voltage detection unit, a temperature detection unit, a main controller, a phase shift control unit, a PWM control unit and a driving unit;
In the embodiment of the invention, the control circuit is used for CAN communication with a whole vehicle controller (HCU), so that the energy conversion control adjustment of the main circuit of the DC/DC conversion module and the functions of input under-voltage, input over-voltage, output under-voltage, output over-current and over-temperature protection are realized.
The voltage detection unit comprises an input voltage sensor VS1 and an output voltage sensor VS2; the input voltage sensor VS1 is used for detecting the input direct current bus voltage and sending information of the input voltage V in to the main controller; the output voltage sensor VS2 is configured to detect an ac output voltage, and send information of the rectified output voltage V o to the main controller.
The current detection unit comprises an input current sensor IS1 and an output current sensor IS2; the input current sensor IS1 IS used for detecting input direct current bus current and sending information of the input current I in to the main controller; the output current sensor IS2 IS used for detecting the current of the alternating current output end and sending the information of the rectified output current I o to the main controller.
The temperature detection unit is used for detecting the temperature of a radiator installed on the power device and sending information of the temperature T of the radiator to the main controller.
The main controller compares the values of the input voltage, the output voltage, the input current, the output current and the temperature with a built-in protection threshold value for fault judgment; the controller communicates with the whole vehicle controller through the CAN, receives a control instruction of the whole vehicle controller, feeds back a working state and reports faults; the phase-shifting controller is controlled to work and stop by an enable signal En; the signal of the output voltage V o is used as a feedback signal to carry out voltage closed-loop control, the switching-on pin of the switching tube driving signal is regulated by the control phase-shift control unit, after the duty ratio D regulation is carried out by the PWM control unit, the PWM control unit outputs a final PWM control signal to the driving unit, and the final PWM control signal is converted into a driving signal for directly driving the switching tubes S1, S2, S3 and S4 to be switched on and off by the driving unit, so that the stability of the output voltage of the vehicle-mounted inverter and the bidirectional energy flow are maintained.
The driving unit is used for converting PWM control signals output by the PWM controller into driving signals D S1、DS2、DS3 and D S4 capable of driving the switching tubes S1, S2, S3 and S4.
The phase shift control unit is used for adjusting the phase shift angle of the PWM driving signal of the switching tube so as to control the flow direction and the magnitude of energy, thereby controlling the DC/DC converter to stably work.
The PWM control unit is used for adjusting the on duty ratio D of a PWM driving signal of the switching tube, and further controlling the voltage at two ends of the inductor L1 to be kept at three levels, so that the peak current of the inductor L1 is reduced, the peak power capacity and the volume of the inductor are reduced, the inductance loss is reduced, the switching tube switching-off current is reduced, the switching-off loss is reduced, and the whole soft switching working range of the circuit is improved.
Specifically, the main controller compares the input voltage V in and the input current I in of the DC/DC converter with the built-in input overvoltage protection threshold V inP, the built-in undervoltage protection threshold V inP2 and the built-in input overcurrent protection threshold I inP, respectively, and determines whether an input overvoltage, an input undervoltage and an overcurrent fault exist. If V inP2<Vin<VinP and I in<IinP are met, the system operates normally, and the main controller does not perform fault processing; if V in>VinP is determined as the input overvoltage fault, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, stops enabling the phase-shifting controller, further stops PWM (pulse width modulation) output driving signals, and reports the input overvoltage fault to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus; if V in<VinP2 is determined to be an input under-voltage fault, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, stops enabling the phase-shifting controller, further stops PWM (pulse width modulation) output driving signals, and reports the input under-voltage fault to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus.
Similarly, if I in>IinP is determined to be an input overcurrent fault, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, stops enabling the phase-shifting controller, further stops PWM (pulse width modulation) output driving signals, and reports the input overcurrent fault to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus.
The main controller calculates peak values of the output voltage V o and the output current I o of the DC/DC converter in real time respectively, generates an output voltage peak value V Po and output current peak values I Po.VPo and I Po, compares the output voltage peak value V Po and the output current peak value I5734 with a built-in output overvoltage protection threshold value V oP and an output overcurrent protection threshold value I oP respectively, and judges whether output overvoltage and output overcurrent faults exist or not. If V Po<VoP or I Po<IoP, the system operates normally, and the main controller does not process; if V Po>VoP is judged to be an output overvoltage fault, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, the phase-shifting controller is stopped to be enabled, the PWM output driving signal is further stopped, and meanwhile, the output overvoltage fault is reported to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus. Similarly, if the output overcurrent fault is judged as I Po>IoP, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, stops enabling the phase-shifting controller, further stops PWM (pulse width modulation) output driving signals, and reports the output overcurrent fault to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus.
And the main controller compares the temperature T of the radiator with a built-in temperature protection threshold T P and judges whether the system has an over-temperature fault or not. If T is less than T P, the system operates normally, and the main controller does not process; if T > T P, judging the vehicle is over-temperature fault, enabling the phase-shifting controller to stop when the main controller enters a fault protection mode, further stopping PWM (pulse width modulation) output driving signals, and reporting the over-temperature fault to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus.
Fig. 4 is a schematic waveform diagram of the DC/DC conversion module according to the present invention. The DC/DC conversion module adopts a control method combining phase shift control with PWM duty cycle adjustment, wherein driving signals D S1 and D S2 of a first switching tube S1 and a second switching tube S2 are complementary signals, the on duty cycle of the first switching tube S1 is D, and the on duty cycle of the second switching tube S2 is 1-D; the driving signals D S3 and D S4 of the third switching tube S3 and the fourth switching tube S4 are complementary signals, the on duty ratio of the third switching tube S3 is D, and the on duty ratio of the fourth switching tube S4 is 1-D; defining the conduction angle of the third switching tube S3 and the fourth switching tube S4 lagging the first switching tube S1 and the second switching tube S2 as phi.
In fig. 3, when the terminals c and d are shorted, the circuit between the terminals a, B and the terminals c, d forms a bidirectional Buck/Boost circuit. When the circuit reaches a steady state, the voltage across the first capacitor C1 is V AB D. When the first switching tube S1 is conducted, the voltage V ab=VAB (1-D) at the two ends of a and b; when the first switching tube S1 is turned off, the voltage V ab=-VAB D across a, b.
Similarly, when the terminals a and b are shorted, the circuit between the terminals C and D and the terminals a and b forms a bidirectional Buck/Boost circuit. When the circuit reaches steady state, the voltage across the second capacitor C2 is V CD D/(1-D). When the third switching tube S3 is conducted, the voltage V cd=VCD at the two ends of c and d is obtained; when the third switching tube S3 is turned off, the voltage V cd=-VCD D (1-D) across c, D is applied.
Voltage V L1=VAB-VCD across inductor L1, whenWhen, as shown in fig. 4, V L1 is changed in three levels, V L1=VAB is formed when the first switching tube S1 and the fourth switching tube S4 are turned on simultaneously; when the first switching tube S1 and the third switching tube S3 are turned on simultaneously, V L1 =0; v L1=-VAB when the second switching tube S2 and the third switching tube S3 are simultaneously conducted; when the second switching tube S2 and the fourth switching tube S4 are simultaneously turned on, V L1 =0. As shown in fig. 4, the corresponding inductor current I L1 varies in a trapezoidal wave.
When (when)When V L1 changes at four levels, the corresponding inductor current I L1 changes at approximately triangular wave, and the inductor current with approximately triangular wave shape generates higher peak inductor current than the trapezoid inductor current under the conditions of corresponding same input voltage, output voltage and transmission power, the higher peak inductor current leads to higher effective current value and higher turn-on loss, and the higher peak inductor current leads to higher turn-off loss of the switch tube. The approximately triangular wave-shaped inductor current leads to the fact that the switching tube on one side is difficult to realize Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) under light load due to the fact that the inductor current is small.
Therefore, the required duty ratio is calculated according to the current input voltage value and the target output voltage valueThereby reducing peak inductance current, reducing loss and realizing ZVS. At the moment, the voltage V AB>VCD at the two ends of the DC/DC conversion module is V AB(1-D)=VCD, the working property of the DC/DC conversion module is forward voltage reduction DC/DC and reverse voltage reduction DC/DC, so that the application conditions of the DC/DC of the high-voltage electric automobile are met, and the energy interaction between the high-voltage flat-platform power battery and the low-voltage platform assembly is realized. During forward operation, converting the high-voltage of the power battery into low voltage for the low-voltage platform assembly; and when the vehicle-mounted charger works reversely, the vehicle-mounted charger of the low-voltage platform charges the power battery of the high-voltage platform and feeds back the energy of the power battery by the low-voltage platform.
Transmission powerWhen 0< phi <2 pi (1-D) D, namely the first switching tube S1 and the second switching tube S2 lead the third switching tube S3 and the fourth switching tube S4, the energy is transmitted in the forward direction, and is transmitted to the C and D ends from the A and B ends. When-2pi (1-D) D < phi <0, the energy is transmitted in reverse. In the invention, the quantity and the direction of energy transmission can be changed by controlling the magnitude and the direction of the conducting angle phi value, thereby realizing power regulation and bidirectional energy transmission.
Example 2
The embodiment provides a control method of a DC/DC converter.
Fig. 5 is a schematic diagram of a vehicle topology of a high-voltage vehicle type, which includes a power battery, a DC/DC converter and a high-voltage component; the DC/DC converter is connected to the positive electrode and the negative electrode of the power battery; the positive electrode and the negative electrode of the high-voltage component are connected with the DC/DC converter. In this embodiment, the high-voltage components may include an ac vehicle-mounted charger, a 12V output DC/DC, a power motor system, and the like, and specifically, the high-voltage components are connected in parallel therebetween.
Fig. 6 is a control flow chart of the DC/DC converter according to the present invention, and the control method of the DC/DC converter includes the following steps:
S10, the whole vehicle controller wakes up the DC/DC converter;
s20, detecting whether the DC/DC converter receives a forward working instruction of the whole vehicle controller sent by the whole vehicle controller; if yes, go to step S30; otherwise, jumping to step S80;
S30, starting a forward working mode by the DC/DC converter, and replying a work request permission instruction of the whole vehicle controller;
S40, powering up a whole vehicle high-voltage system;
S50, the whole vehicle controller sends an output voltage target value instruction;
s60, the DC/DC transformer operates in a voltage stabilizing mode according to the output voltage target value instruction;
S70, detecting whether the DC/DC converter meets the condition of stopping forward operation; if yes, jump to step S140; otherwise, jumping to step S60;
S80, detecting whether the DC/DC converter receives an alternating-current charging instruction of the whole vehicle controller sent by the whole vehicle controller; if yes, go to step S90; otherwise, jumping to step S20;
S90, starting a reverse alternating-current charging working mode by the DC/DC converter, and replying a charging request permission instruction of the whole vehicle controller;
S100, gradually increasing reverse charging current by the DC/DC converter;
S110, whether the reverse charging current of the DC/DC converter reaches a stop increasing condition or not; if yes, executing step S120; otherwise, jumping to step S100;
s120, controlling reverse charging current constant-current output by the DC/DC converter;
S130, detecting whether the DC/DC converter meets a charging stopping condition; if yes, go to step S140; otherwise, jumping to step S120;
s140, the DC/DC converter enters a standby mode.
In the embodiment of the invention, the DC/DC converter communicates with the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus, receives the instruction sent by the whole vehicle controller and reports the working state of the DC/DC converter.
Specifically, when the DC/DC converter receives a forward working request instruction of the DC/DC converter sent by the whole vehicle controller, the DC/DC converter enters a forward constant voltage output working mode. The DC/DC converter operates in a maximum energy output state such that the DC/DC converter output bus voltage reaches the system set output voltage target value fastest from the present voltage. When the voltage of the two ends of the output bus capacitor of the DC/DC converter is different from the target value of the output voltage set by the DC/DC converter system by 20V, the main controller reports that the high-voltage system of the whole vehicle controller is powered on, the whole vehicle controller enables other high-voltage components of the whole vehicle, and the 12V output DC/DC enters a working mode to provide a 12V power supply for the whole vehicle. After the high-voltage system is powered on, the DC/DC converter dynamically adjusts forward output voltage in real time by receiving an output voltage target value instruction of the whole vehicle controller. Meanwhile, the DC/DC converter reports input voltage, current, output voltage, current detection value, temperature detection value and fault state to the whole vehicle controller.
The DC/DC converter works in a forward constant voltage output working mode, and the whole vehicle controller sends a forward working stopping instruction to the DC/DC converter until a vehicle user actively requests the high voltage of the whole vehicle or a fault condition affecting the whole vehicle working occurs, and the DC/DC converter enters a standby mode.
On the other hand, when the DC/DC converter works in a forward constant voltage output working mode, each DC/DC conversion module of the DC/DC converter works in a constant voltage output mode respectively; setting phase shift angles of initial driving signals of the DC/DC conversion modules to be 2 pi/N, wherein N is the number of the DC/DC conversion modules connected in parallel; the switching tubes of the DC/DC conversion modules are staggered, so that forward output voltage ripple is reduced.
Specifically, when the DC/DC converter receives an alternating current charging instruction sent by the whole vehicle controller, the DC/DC converter enters a reverse alternating current charging working mode. At the moment, the whole vehicle controller controls the AC vehicle-mounted charger to work in a constant voltage output mode within a full power output range, a Battery Management System (BMS) sends a request of maximum allowable charging voltage and maximum allowable charging current to a DC/DC converter through a CAN bus, and the DC/DC converter controls and regulates reverse output current of the DC/DC converter to work in a constant current mode according to the current output current value of the AC vehicle-mounted charger and the maximum allowable charging current value of the battery management system. The specific operation is as follows:
The DC/DC converter controls the reverse output current to continuously increase from 0 ampere, meanwhile, the whole vehicle controller monitors whether the current under the constant voltage output corresponding voltage in the full power output range of the vehicle-mounted charger reaches the maximum value, when the current under the constant voltage output corresponding voltage in the full power output range of the vehicle-mounted charger reaches the maximum value, the reverse output current of the DC/DC converter is smaller than the maximum allowable charging current of the battery management system and the reverse output voltage is smaller than the maximum allowable charging voltage of the battery management system, the DC/DC converter stops the reverse output current to continuously increase, the DC/DC converter enters a constant current output mode, the DC/DC converter dynamically adjusts and controls the reverse output current value, and the current maximum value under the constant voltage output corresponding voltage in the full power output range of the vehicle-mounted charger is kept, so that the reverse output power of the DC/DC converter is kept to be maximum.
When the reverse output current of the DC/DC converter is equal to the maximum allowable charging current of the battery management system and the reverse output voltage is smaller than the maximum allowable charging voltage of the BMS, the DC/DC converter dynamically adjusts and controls the reverse output current value to be equal to the current maximum allowable charging current of the BMS, so that the maximum reverse output power of the DC/DC converter is maintained.
When the reverse output voltage of the DC/DC converter is equal to the maximum allowable charging voltage of the battery management system, the DC/DC converter dynamically adjusts and controls the reverse output current value, and keeps the reverse output voltage of the DC/DC converter equal to the maximum allowable charging voltage of the battery management system so as to keep the reverse output power of the DC/DC converter to be maximum.
The DC/DC converter works in a reverse alternating current charging mode, and when charging is completed or a charging fault condition occurs, the whole vehicle controller sends a charging stopping working instruction to the DC/DC converter, and the DC/DC converter enters a standby mode.
On the other hand, when the DC/DC converter works in the reverse alternating-current charging working mode, the power capacity of the single DC/DC conversion module is larger than that of the alternating-current vehicle-mounted charger, and when the DC/DC converter works in the reverse constant-current output mode of the single DC/DC conversion module in the reverse alternating-current charging mode, the power loss is reduced, and the multi-module parallel current sharing control is not needed, so that the control complexity is reduced.
The sequence of the above embodiments is only for convenience of description, and does not represent the advantages and disadvantages of the embodiments.
Finally, it should be noted that: the above embodiments are only for illustrating the technical solution of the present invention, and are not limiting; although the invention has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that: the technical scheme described in the foregoing embodiments can be modified or some technical features thereof can be replaced by equivalents; such modifications and substitutions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the technical solutions of the embodiments of the present invention.

Claims (11)

1. The DC/DC converter is characterized by being formed by a single DC/DC conversion module or a plurality of DC/DC conversion modules which are connected in parallel;
the DC/DC conversion module comprises a main circuit and a control circuit;
the main circuit comprises a first switching tube, a second switching tube, a third switching tube, a fourth switching tube, a first capacitor, a second capacitor, a third capacitor and an inductor;
The end A and the end B of the main circuit are respectively connected with the anode and the cathode of the power battery, and the end C and the end D are respectively connected with the anode and the cathode of the high-voltage component of the whole vehicle;
The first switching tube and the second switching tube are connected in series to form a front bridge arm, wherein the first switching tube is used as an upper arm of the front bridge to be connected with the end A, and the second switching tube is used as a lower arm of the front bridge to be connected with the end B; the third switching tube, the second capacitor and the fourth switching tube are sequentially connected in series to form a rear bridge arm, wherein the third switching tube is used as an upper arm of the rear bridge to be connected with the C end, the second capacitor and the fourth switching tube are connected in series to be used as a lower arm of the rear bridge, and the fourth switching tube is connected with the D end; the first capacitor is connected with the inductor in series, the first capacitor is connected with the midpoint of the front bridge arm, the inductor is connected with the F point of the rear bridge arm, and F is the intersection point of the third switching tube and the second capacitor; the third capacitor is an output capacitor, and two ends of the third capacitor are respectively connected with the C end and the D end;
the control circuit comprises a voltage detection unit, a current detection unit, a temperature detection unit, a main controller, a phase shift control unit, a PWM control unit and a driving unit;
the voltage detection unit comprises an input voltage sensor and an output voltage sensor; the input voltage sensor is used for detecting the voltage of the input direct-current bus and sending an input voltage signal to the main controller; the output voltage sensor is used for detecting the voltage of the alternating current output end and sending a rectified output voltage signal to the main controller;
The current detection unit comprises an input current sensor and an output current sensor; the input current sensor is used for detecting the input direct current bus current and sending an input current signal to the main controller; the output current sensor is used for detecting the current of the alternating current output end and sending a rectified output current signal to the main controller;
the temperature detection unit is used for detecting the temperature of a radiator installed on the power device and sending a temperature signal to the main controller;
the main controller compares the input signal with a built-in protection threshold value for fault judgment; receiving a control instruction of the whole vehicle controller, feeding back a working state and reporting a fault; the phase-shifting control unit is controlled to work and stop by an enabling signal; taking the output voltage signal as a feedback signal to perform voltage closed-loop control;
The driving unit is used for converting the PWM control signal output by the PWM control unit into a driving signal capable of driving the switching tube;
the phase-shifting control unit is used for adjusting the phase-shifting angle of the PWM driving signal of the switching tube so as to control the flowing direction and the energy, thereby controlling the DC/DC converter to stably work;
the PWM control unit is used for adjusting the on duty ratio of the PWM driving signal of the switching tube.
2. The DC/DC converter of claim 1, wherein in the DC/DC conversion module, if V inP2<Vin<VinP and I in<IinP, the system is operating normally, and the main controller does not perform fault handling; if V in>VinP is determined to be an input overvoltage fault, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, stops enabling the phase-shifting control unit, further stops outputting PWM driving signals, and reports the input overvoltage fault to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus; if V in<VinP2 is determined as an input under-voltage fault, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, stops enabling the phase-shifting control unit, further stops outputting PWM driving signals, and reports the input under-voltage fault to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus; if I in>IinP is judged to be an input overcurrent fault, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, the phase-shifting control unit is stopped to be enabled, the PWM driving signal is stopped to be output, and meanwhile the input overcurrent fault is reported to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus;
Wherein V in is input voltage, I in is input current, V inP is input overvoltage protection threshold, V inP2 is undervoltage protection threshold, and I inP is input overcurrent protection threshold.
3. The DC/DC converter of claim 1, wherein in the DC/DC conversion module, if V Po<VoP or I Po<IoP, the system is operating normally and the main controller does not process; if V Po>VoP is judged to be an output overvoltage fault, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, the phase-shifting control unit is stopped to be enabled, the PWM driving signal is stopped to be output, and meanwhile, the output overvoltage fault is reported to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus; if I Po>IoP is judged to be an output overcurrent fault, the main controller enters a fault protection mode, the phase-shifting control unit is stopped to be enabled, the PWM driving signal is stopped to be output, and meanwhile, the output overcurrent fault is reported to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus;
Wherein V Po is an output voltage peak value, I Po is an output current peak value, V oP is an output overvoltage protection threshold value, and I oP is an output overcurrent protection threshold value.
4. The DC/DC converter of claim 1 wherein in the DC/DC conversion module, if T < T P, the system is operating normally and the main controller does not process; if T > T P, judging that the vehicle is over-temperature fault, enabling the phase-shifting control unit to stop to output PWM driving signals when the main controller enters a fault protection mode, and reporting the over-temperature fault to the whole vehicle controller through the CAN bus;
wherein T is the temperature of the radiator, and T P is the temperature protection threshold.
5. The DC/DC converter of claim 1, wherein the transmission power of the DC/DC conversion module
When 0< phi <2 pi (1-D) D, the energy is transmitted in the forward direction, and is transmitted to the high-voltage component end of the whole vehicle from the power battery end; when the D of minus 2 pi (1-D) is smaller than phi <0, the energy is reversely transmitted and is transmitted to the power battery end from the high-voltage component end of the whole vehicle;
Wherein, V AB is the voltage at the two ends of the end points A and B, V CD is the voltage at the two ends of the end points C and D, T is the temperature of the radiator, and phi is the conduction angle of the first switch tube and the second switch tube of the third switch tube and the fourth switch Guan Zhihou; d is the conduction duty ratio of the first switching tube and the third switching tube, L1 is the inductance, and (1-D) is the conduction duty ratio of the second switching tube and the fourth switching tube.
6. A vehicle control method comprising the DC/DC converter according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized by comprising the steps of:
S10, the whole vehicle controller wakes up the DC/DC converter;
s20, detecting whether the DC/DC converter receives a forward working instruction of the whole vehicle controller sent by the whole vehicle controller; if yes, go to step S30; otherwise, jumping to step S80;
S30, starting a forward working mode by the DC/DC converter, and replying a work request permission instruction of the whole vehicle controller;
S40, powering up a whole vehicle high-voltage system;
S50, the whole vehicle controller sends an output voltage target value instruction;
s60, the DC/DC transformer operates in a voltage stabilizing mode according to the output voltage target value instruction;
S70, detecting whether the DC/DC converter meets the condition of stopping forward operation; if yes, jump to step S140; otherwise, jumping to step S60;
S80, detecting whether the DC/DC converter receives an alternating-current charging instruction of the whole vehicle controller sent by the whole vehicle controller; if yes, go to step S90; otherwise, jumping to step S20;
S90, starting a reverse alternating-current charging working mode by the DC/DC converter, and replying a charging request permission instruction of the whole vehicle controller;
S100, gradually increasing reverse charging current by the DC/DC converter;
S110, whether the reverse charging current of the DC/DC converter reaches a stop increasing condition or not; if yes, executing step S120; otherwise, jumping to step S100;
s120, controlling reverse charging current constant-current output by the DC/DC converter;
S130, detecting whether the DC/DC converter meets a charging stopping condition; if yes, go to step S140; otherwise, jumping to step S120;
s140, the DC/DC converter enters a standby mode.
7. The vehicle control method according to claim 6, characterized in that the DC/DC converter includes a forward constant voltage output operation mode and a reverse alternating current charging operation mode.
8. The vehicle control method according to claim 6, characterized in that in step S70, the condition for stopping the forward constant voltage output is: the vehicle user actively requires the whole vehicle to be powered down under high voltage or generates fault conditions which influence the work of the whole vehicle.
9. The vehicle control method according to claim 6, characterized in that in step S130, the condition for stopping reverse ac charging is: charging is complete or a charging failure condition occurs.
10. The vehicle control method according to claim 6, wherein when the DC/DC converter operates in the forward constant voltage output operation mode, each DC/DC conversion module of the DC/DC converter operates in the constant voltage output mode, respectively; setting the phase shift angle of the initial driving signal of each DC/DC conversion module to be 2 pi/N, and staggering the switching tubes of each DC/DC conversion module;
Wherein N is the number of parallel DC/DC conversion modules.
11. The vehicle control method according to claim 6, wherein when the DC/DC converter operates in the reverse ac charging operation mode, each DC/DC conversion module of the DC/DC converter operates in the reverse constant current output mode, respectively.
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