CN109830974B - Dynamic battery grouping system and operation control method thereof - Google Patents

Dynamic battery grouping system and operation control method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109830974B
CN109830974B CN201910035088.3A CN201910035088A CN109830974B CN 109830974 B CN109830974 B CN 109830974B CN 201910035088 A CN201910035088 A CN 201910035088A CN 109830974 B CN109830974 B CN 109830974B
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battery
energy storage
charge
dynamic
discharge
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CN109830974A (en
Inventor
于芃
孙树敏
张用
刘兴华
程艳
左新斌
王玥娇
滕玮
王士柏
李华东
孔刚
李笋
赵鹏
李广磊
晋飞
曲玉瑶
张兴友
魏大钧
王楠
赵帅
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State Grid Corp of China SGCC
Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Shandong Electric Power Co Ltd
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State Grid Corp of China SGCC
Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Shandong Electric Power Co Ltd
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

Abstract

The invention relates to a battery dynamic grouping system based on a modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller, which comprises a plurality of modular bidirectional charge-discharge controllers, a series access switch, a parallel access switch, a bypass switch, a plurality of battery energy storage units and a dynamic battery pack operation management system, wherein each battery energy storage unit is accessed to the low-voltage side of the corresponding modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller, and the high-voltage sides of the modular bidirectional charge-discharge controllers are dynamically connected in series-parallel connection through the series-parallel access switch and then are accessed to a direct current bus of the battery dynamic grouping system. The invention realizes the dynamic online series-parallel connection grouping of the battery energy storage units, accurately manages the charge and discharge process of each battery energy storage unit, and can effectively improve the operation reliability and stability of a large-scale battery grouping system.

Description

Dynamic battery grouping system and operation control method thereof
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of energy storage, and relates to a battery dynamic grouping system based on a modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller and an operation control method thereof.
Background
Among a plurality of energy storage modes, the battery energy storage technology is developed most rapidly and is relatively mature, and the storage battery is widely applied as an energy storage unit due to higher energy storage density and cost performance. However, since the voltage and capacity provided by a single battery are limited, and the requirement of practical application cannot be met in most cases, a plurality of batteries are required to be connected in series or in parallel to form a battery pack to meet the requirement of system use. Due to the difference of internal characteristics such as internal resistance of each single battery, the operation state of each single battery in the battery pack cannot be kept consistent. When the single batteries in the battery pack are overcharged, overdischarged or failed, the performance of the whole series-parallel battery pack is reduced or even the whole series-parallel battery pack is scrapped, and the operation reliability and the service life of a large-scale battery grouping system are severely limited.
In order to solve the problems, the current mature solution is to perform real-time online detection on the operation state of each series-parallel battery inside the battery pack by using a Battery Management System (BMS), and control each series-parallel battery monomer in the battery pack to be in the same operation condition by using the active equalization function of the Battery Management System (BMS), so that overcharge or overdischarge of individual battery monomers is avoided, the fault occurrence rate of the battery monomers is reduced, and the operation reliability and the operation life of a large-scale battery grouping system are remarkably improved.
A Battery Management System (BMS) is required to have basic functions of improving a battery utilization rate, monitoring a battery state, and extending a battery life. Generally, BMS will perform the following functions:
1. accurate estimation of state of charge of battery pack
The remaining capacity (State of Charge, SOC) of the battery pack, also referred to as the State of Charge, is accurately estimated. The residual electric quantity of the battery pack is ensured to be in a reasonable range, damage to the battery pack caused by overcharging and overdischarging is avoided, and the residual electric quantity or the charging state is correctly reported.
2. Real-time monitoring battery pack working state
In the working process of the battery, real-time data such as total voltage of the battery pack, terminal voltage of a single battery, working current, battery temperature and the like are collected, overcharge or over-discharge accidents are prevented, normal operation and reliable use of the battery pack are ensured, and meanwhile, the service condition of a single battery is recorded, so that reliable data are provided for fault diagnosis. And establishing a use history file of each battery, providing data for further optimization and development, and providing a basis for offline analysis of system faults.
3. Equalization of individual cells
And in the using process, all the batteries of the battery pack are in a consistent working state, so that the single battery is prevented from being damaged in advance. The equalization technology is a key technology of a battery energy management system which is being researched and developed in the world at present.
For a Battery Management System (BMS), the problem of voltage and current balance faced by direct series-parallel connection of single batteries needs to be solved fundamentally, automatic balance of the charge and discharge processes of the single batteries is realized, the influence of single battery failure on the whole energy storage system is avoided, and the whole energy efficiency of the battery energy storage system is fully exerted. However, since the conventional Battery Management System (BMS) cannot really and precisely manage the charging and discharging processes of each battery cell, the design and strategy of the active balancing circuit thereof face a great challenge, and the reliability in the actual engineering operation process is very limited. Meanwhile, the problem that the large-scale battery grouping system stops due to the fact that a single battery fails can not be solved by using a Battery Management System (BMS), and the large-scale battery grouping system can be recovered to operate again only by manually replacing a failed battery. However, the internal characteristics of the new replaced battery cell are different from those of the original battery cells in the large-scale battery grouping system, which significantly increases the difficulty in controlling the operation of the Battery Management System (BMS) after the replacement of the battery cell. With the continuous replacement of new single batteries, the operation reliability of the battery grouping system is remarkably reduced.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems, the invention aims to design a dynamic battery serial-parallel connection grouping system based on a modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller and an operation control method thereof, which can realize dynamic online serial-parallel connection grouping of battery energy storage units, accurately manage the charge-discharge process of each battery energy storage unit, avoid the dependence of a large-scale battery grouping system on a Battery Management System (BMS), effectively improve the operation reliability and stability of the large-scale battery grouping system, and provide solid technical support for the application and stable operation of the battery energy storage system in numerous fields such as large-scale new energy power generation, power grid auxiliary service, micro-grid, comprehensive energy service and the like.
The battery dynamic grouping system based on the modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller comprises the modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller, a series access switch, a parallel access switch, a bypass switch, a battery energy storage unit and a dynamic battery pack operation management system.
The battery dynamic grouping system comprises a plurality of battery energy storage units and a plurality of modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controllers, wherein each battery energy storage unit is connected to the low-voltage side of the corresponding modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller, the high-voltage side of each modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller is dynamically connected in series and parallel through a series and parallel connection access switch, and then a direct current bus of the battery dynamic grouping system is connected.
The direct current bus of the battery dynamic grouping system is connected to the direct current side of an energy storage converter outside the battery dynamic grouping system, and the alternating current side of the energy storage converter is connected into an external alternating current system.
The dynamic battery pack operation management system is connected to each battery energy storage unit, each modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller and each series-parallel connection access switch, is used for carrying out real-time monitoring and instruction issuing on the operation states of the modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controllers and the series-parallel connection access switches, and carries out online detection on the operation states of each single battery.
The series-parallel connection grouping of the battery energy storage units after passing through the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller is realized through the series access switch, the parallel access switch and the bypass switch. The output positive and negative electrodes of each modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller are respectively connected in series to the series access switch, and then are sequentially connected in a positive and negative mode to realize series access; meanwhile, the output positive electrode and the output negative electrode of each modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller are respectively connected in parallel to the direct current bus through the parallel access switch, so that the modular parallel access is realized; and a bypass switch is connected between the anode and the cathode of each modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller for isolating the fault energy storage unit at any time. Through the series access switch, the parallel access switch and the bypass switch, the random and dynamic series-parallel connection grouping of the energy storage units after accurate charge and discharge management is realized, and the fault units are isolated in real time.
The series access switch, the parallel access switch and the bypass switch are formed by an anti-series connection structure of power electronic switch tubes.
The modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller adopts an isolated bidirectional chopper or a non-isolated BUCK-BOOST bidirectional chopper. The low-voltage side of the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller is connected to the battery energy storage unit, and the high-voltage side of the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller is connected to the direct-current bus of the battery grouping system through the series-parallel connection access switch. The modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller can be used for accurately controlling the charge-discharge current and the low-voltage side voltage of the battery energy storage unit connected to the low-voltage side of the modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller, so that the charge-discharge power and the charge-discharge process of each connected battery energy storage unit can be accurately managed.
The BUCK-BOOST bidirectional chopper consists of an energy storage inductor, a high-voltage side filter capacitor, two power switch tubes (a first power switch tube and a second power switch tube) and two freewheeling diodes (a first freewheeling diode and a second freewheeling diode). The positive electrode of the battery energy storage unit is connected to the drain electrode of a first power switch tube through an energy storage inductor, the source electrode of the first power switch tube is connected to the negative electrode of the battery energy storage unit, the drain electrode of a second power switch tube is connected to the positive electrode of a high-voltage side filter capacitor, and two freewheeling diodes are connected between the drain electrodes and the source electrodes of the two power switch tubes in an anti-parallel mode. Through on-off control of the two power switch tubes, rapid and accurate bidirectional flexible adjustment of energy between a low-voltage side and a high-voltage side can be achieved, and therefore accurate charging and discharging management of the battery energy storage unit is achieved.
Because bidirectional power/energy exchange exists between the energy storage system and an external system, the serial access switch, the parallel access switch and the bypass switch in the battery dynamic grouping system based on the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller all adopt a bidirectional switch structure. The bidirectional switch structure comprises two power switch tubes (a third power switch tube and a fourth power switch tube) and two freewheeling diodes (a third freewheeling diode and a fourth freewheeling diode). The drain electrode of the third power switch tube is connected with the source electrode of the fourth power switch tube, and the two freewheeling diodes are respectively connected between the drain electrodes and the source electrodes of the two power switch tubes in an anti-parallel mode. When the two power switch tubes are turned off simultaneously, both the forward current and the reverse current can not pass through the switch, and the bidirectional switch is closed; when the two power switch tubes are conducted simultaneously, both the forward current and the reverse current can pass through the switch, and the bidirectional switch is conducted.
The battery energy storage unit can select different types of batteries such as a lithium iron phosphate battery, a lead-acid battery, a lead-carbon battery, a lithium titanate battery, a ternary lithium battery and a super capacitor, and different types of grouping scales such as a single battery, a battery pack and a battery cluster. By means of accurate management of the modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller, hybrid grouping can be performed by means of different types of batteries and different types of battery grouping scales.
The dynamic battery pack operation management system is used for monitoring the operation information of the battery energy storage unit, the modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller, the energy storage converter and the series-parallel connection access switch in real time, and combines actual operation working conditions and application requirements to give operation control instructions to the modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller, the energy storage converter and the series-parallel connection access switch, so that functions of online dynamic grouping of the battery energy storage unit, accurate scheduling of battery charge and discharge power, participation of a battery grouping system in external system operation control and the like are realized.
The DC side of the energy storage converter is connected to the DC bus of the battery pack system, and the AC side of the energy storage converter is connected to the external AC system. According to different application fields and operation conditions of the energy storage system, the energy storage converter can selectively operate in a P/Q mode and a V/F mode. In the P/Q mode, the energy storage converter accurately controls the charging and discharging power of the energy storage system, so that the energy storage converter actively participates in new energy peak regulation, power grid auxiliary services (peak regulation, frequency modulation and voltage regulation), micro-grid power regulation and the like. Under the V/F mode, the energy storage converter outputs three-phase voltage with stable frequency and amplitude at the alternating current side, so that the micro-grid system with independent power supply is constructed, and the load stable power supply requirement in the independent power supply system is met.
The invention also relates to an operation control method of the battery dynamic grouping system based on the modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller, which comprises the following steps:
(1) the method comprises the steps that a battery dynamic grouping system based on the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controllers is constructed, each battery energy storage unit is connected to the low-voltage side of the corresponding modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller, the high-voltage sides of the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controllers are connected in series-parallel dynamic connection through series-parallel connection access switches, and then direct-current buses of the battery dynamic grouping system are connected; connecting the dynamic battery pack operation management system to each modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller and a measurement and control loop of each series-parallel access switch;
(2) the dynamic battery pack operation management system monitors the operation information of the battery energy storage unit, the modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller, the energy storage converter and the serial and parallel access switch in real time, and sends operation control instructions to the modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller, the energy storage converter and the serial and parallel access switch in combination with actual operation conditions and application requirements, so that online dynamic grouping of the battery energy storage unit, accurate scheduling of battery charge and discharge power and participation of a battery grouping system in external system operation control are realized;
the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller accurately controls the charge-discharge current and the low-voltage side voltage of the battery energy storage unit accessed to the low-voltage side of the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller, so that the charge-discharge power and the charge-discharge process of each accessed battery energy storage unit are accurately managed.
Further, the DC side of the energy storage converter is connected to the DC bus of the battery pack system, and the AC side of the energy storage converter is connected to the external AC system.
When the battery dynamic grouping system is connected to an external power grid to operate, the energy storage converter operates in a P/Q mode, and accurately controls the charging and discharging power of the energy storage system, so that the energy storage converter actively participates in new energy peak regulation, power grid auxiliary services (peak regulation, frequency modulation and voltage regulation), micro-grid power regulation and the like.
When an external power grid accessed by the battery dynamic grouping system breaks down, the energy storage converter operates in a V/F mode, and the energy storage converter outputs three-phase voltage with stable frequency and amplitude at an alternating current side, so that an independent power supply micro-grid system is constructed, and the load stable power supply requirement in the independent power supply system is met.
As can be seen from the above description of the technical solution, the present invention has the following beneficial effects:
(1) the dynamic online random series-parallel connection grouping of the battery energy storage units can be realized, the grouping requirements of the battery grouping system in various different operation fields and operation conditions can be met, the grouping process does not need human intervention and does not influence the normal operation of the battery grouping system, and the plug-and-play and dynamic grouping of the battery energy storage units are really realized;
(2) the accurate management of charging and discharging of the battery energy storage units in the battery grouping system can be realized, the dependence on the balance control of the traditional BMS system is avoided, the fault battery energy storage units can be isolated on line in real time, and the operation reliability and the service life of the battery grouping system can be effectively improved;
(3) due to the accurate management of the modular battery charging and discharging controller, a user does not need to consider the internal characteristics and the interface voltage of the battery energy storage unit, different types of batteries and even the combination grouping between the batteries and the super capacitor can be realized, and the adaptability and the compatibility of a battery grouping system are greatly improved.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present application, the drawings needed to be used in the description of the embodiments are briefly introduced below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present application, and it is obvious for those skilled in the art to obtain other drawings based on these drawings without inventive labor.
Fig. 1 is a battery dynamic series-parallel connection grouping structure based on a modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller.
Fig. 2 is a circuit structure of the modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller.
Fig. 3 is a bidirectional switch structure (this structure is adopted for the series access switch, the parallel access switch, and the bypass switch).
Wherein the reference numerals have the following meanings:
1-dynamic battery grouping operation management system; 2-a battery energy storage unit; 3-a modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller; 4-a series access switch; 5-a parallel access switch; 6-a bypass switch; 7-a direct current bus;
l is a filter inductor, C is a high-voltage side filter capacitor, G1 and G2 are power switching tubes, and D1 and D2 are freewheeling diodes;
g3 and G4 are power switching tubes, and D3 and D4 are freewheeling diodes.
Detailed Description
Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to fig. 1, 2 and 3, and the embodiments described herein are only for illustrating and explaining the present invention and are not limited to the present invention.
It should be noted that the following detailed description is exemplary and is intended to provide further explanation of the disclosure. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this application belongs. The following description and the drawings sufficiently illustrate specific embodiments of the invention to enable those skilled in the art to practice them. The scope of embodiments of the invention encompasses the full ambit of the claims, as well as all available equivalents of the claims. Embodiments of the invention may be referred to herein, individually or collectively, by the term "invention" merely for convenience and without intending to voluntarily limit the scope of this application to any single invention or inventive concept if more than one is in fact disclosed.
As shown in fig. 1, the battery dynamic grouping system based on the modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller is composed of a dynamic battery pack operation management system 1, a battery energy storage unit 2, a modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller 3, a series access switch 4, a parallel access switch 5, a bypass switch 6 and a direct current bus 7.
The battery dynamic grouping system comprises a plurality of battery energy storage units 2 and a plurality of modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controllers 3, each battery energy storage unit 2 is independently managed by the corresponding modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller 3, the charge and discharge power of each battery energy storage unit can be independently controlled, and the voltage of the high-voltage side of each modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller can be accurately controlled.
The battery energy storage unit 2 can select different types of batteries such as lithium iron phosphate batteries, lead-acid batteries, lead-carbon batteries, lithium titanate batteries, ternary lithium batteries, super capacitors and the like, and different types of grouping scales such as single batteries, battery packs, battery clusters and the like. By means of accurate management of the modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller, hybrid grouping can be performed by means of different types of batteries and different types of battery grouping scales.
Each battery energy storage unit 2 is connected to the low-voltage side of the corresponding modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller 3, and the high-voltage side of each modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller 3 is dynamically connected in series and parallel through a series and parallel connection switch and then connected to a direct current bus 7 of the battery dynamic grouping system.
After each battery energy storage unit 2 is output by the modularized charge-discharge controller 3, the high-voltage side of the modularized charge-discharge controller 3 is randomly combined in series and parallel by the series access switch 4, the parallel access switch 5 and the bypass switch 6.
The output positive and negative electrodes of each modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller are sequentially connected in series to the series access switch, and then are sequentially connected in a positive and negative mode to realize series access; meanwhile, the output positive electrode and the output negative electrode of each modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller are connected in parallel to the direct current bus through the parallel access switch, so that the modular parallel access is realized; and a bypass switch is connected between the anode and the cathode of each modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller for isolating the fault energy storage unit at any time. Through the series access switch, the parallel access switch and the bypass switch, the random and dynamic series-parallel connection grouping of the energy storage units after accurate charge and discharge management is realized, and the fault units are isolated in real time.
When the series access switches 4 are closed and the parallel access switches 5 and the bypass switch 6 are opened, the series combination of the battery energy storage units can be realized, and at the moment, the battery energy storage units 2 are controlled by the modularized charge-discharge controller 3 to form a series group and a series access direct current bus 7.
When the series access switches 4 and the bypass switch 6 are opened and the parallel access switch 5 is closed, the parallel combination of the battery energy storage units 2 can be realized, and at the moment, the battery energy storage units 2 are independently connected in parallel to the direct current bus 7 through the modularized charge and discharge controller 3.
When a certain battery energy storage unit 2 or the modularized charge and discharge controller 3 of the battery energy storage unit has a fault, the bypass switch 6 is immediately closed, and the parallel access switch 5 and the serial access switch 4 connected with the anode of the battery energy storage unit are opened, so that real-time isolation of a fault single body can be realized.
When the system constructs a series-connection group string, a bypass switch 6 and a parallel access switch 5 corresponding to the high-voltage side of a certain modular charge-discharge controller are closed, and a series-connection switch 4 connected with the positive electrode of the modular charge-discharge controller is opened, so that a certain battery energy storage unit 2 can be independently connected in parallel to a direct-current bus 7, and the battery energy storage unit 2 can be connected in series-parallel to the direct-current bus 7 randomly in the system.
Through the mode, any series-parallel combination of the battery energy storage units 2 can be realized, the fault units can be isolated online in real time, and the requirements of different operation scenes are met.
The direct current bus 7 of the battery dynamic grouping system is connected to the direct current side of an energy storage converter outside the battery dynamic grouping system, and the alternating current side of the energy storage converter is connected to an external alternating current system.
The dynamic battery pack operation management system 1 is connected to each modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller 3 and the measurement and control loop of each series-parallel connection access switch, and is used for carrying out real-time monitoring and instruction issuing on the operation states of the modular bidirectional charge-discharge controllers and the series-parallel connection access switches.
The modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller 3, the series access switch 4, the parallel access switch 5 and the bypass switch 6 are uniformly regulated and controlled by the dynamic battery pack operation management system 1. The working content of the dynamic battery pack operation management system is as follows: the dynamic battery pack operation management system 1 samples the operation states, such as the charge state, the port voltage and the like, of the battery energy storage units 2 in real time, reasonably distributes the charge and discharge power born by the battery energy storage units 2 and the series-parallel connection grouping mode according to the external charge and discharge power requirements of the energy storage system, and then issues operation control instructions to the modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller 3, the series access switch 4, the parallel access switch 5 and the bypass switch 6.
The modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller adopts an isolated bidirectional chopper or a non-isolated BUCK-BOOST bidirectional chopper. The low-voltage side of the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller is connected to the battery energy storage unit, and the high-voltage side of the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller is connected to the direct-current bus of the battery grouping system through the series-parallel connection access switch. The modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller can be used for accurately controlling the charge-discharge current and the low-voltage side voltage of the battery energy storage unit connected to the low-voltage side of the modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller, so that the charge-discharge power and the charge-discharge process of each connected battery energy storage unit can be accurately managed.
The modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller 3 employs a BUCK-BOOST type bidirectional DC/DC chopper topology, as shown in fig. 2.
The modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller 3 is composed of an energy storage inductor L, a high-voltage side filter capacitor C, power switch tubes G1 and G2, and freewheeling diodes D1 and D2. The anode of the battery energy storage unit 2 is connected to the drain of the power switch tube G1 through the energy storage inductor L, the source of the power switch tube G1 is connected to the cathode of the battery energy storage unit 2, the drain of the power switch tube G2 is connected to the anode of the high-voltage side filter capacitor C, and the freewheeling diodes D1 and D2 are connected between the drain-source of the power switch tubes G1 and G2 in an anti-parallel mode. Through on-off control of the power switch tubes G1 and G2, rapid and accurate bidirectional flexible adjustment of energy between a low-voltage side and a high-voltage side can be achieved, and therefore accurate charging and discharging management of the battery energy storage unit is achieved.
Because bidirectional power/energy exchange exists between the energy storage system and the external system, the serial access switch 4, the parallel access switch 5 and the bypass switch 6 in the battery dynamic serial-parallel grouped system based on the modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller all adopt a bidirectional switch structure, as shown in fig. 3.
The drain of the power switch tube G3 is connected with the source of the power switch tube G4, and the freewheeling diodes D3 and D4 are connected in anti-parallel between the drain-source of the two power switch tubes respectively. When G3 and G4 are turned off simultaneously, neither forward current nor reverse current can pass through the switch, and the bidirectional switch is closed; when G3 and G4 are turned on simultaneously, both forward and reverse currents can pass through the switch, and the bidirectional switch is turned on.
The operation control method of the battery dynamic grouping system comprises the following steps:
(1) the method comprises the steps that a battery dynamic grouping system based on the modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controllers is constructed, each battery energy storage unit 2 is connected to the low-voltage side of the corresponding modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller 3, the high-voltage sides of the modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controllers 3 are connected in series-parallel dynamic connection through series-parallel connection access switches, and then the high-voltage sides of the modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controllers are connected to a direct current bus 7 of the battery dynamic grouping system; connecting the dynamic battery pack operation management system 1 to each modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller 3 and a measurement and control loop of each series-parallel connection access switch;
(2) the dynamic battery pack operation management system 1 monitors the operation information of the battery energy storage unit 2, the modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller 3, the energy storage converter and the serial-parallel connection access switch in real time, and sends an operation control instruction to the modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller 3, the energy storage converter and the serial-parallel connection access switch in combination with actual operation conditions and application requirements, so that online dynamic grouping of the battery energy storage unit 2, accurate scheduling of battery charge and discharge power and participation of a battery grouping system in external system operation control are realized;
the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller 3 accurately controls the charge-discharge current and the low-voltage side voltage of the battery energy storage unit 2 connected to the low-voltage side of the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller, so that the charge-discharge power and the charge-discharge process of each connected battery energy storage unit 2 are accurately managed.
Further, the dc side of the energy storage converter is connected to the dc bus 7 of the battery pack system, and the ac side is connected to the external ac system.
When the battery dynamic grouping system is connected to an external power grid to operate, the energy storage converter operates in a P/Q mode, and accurately controls the charging and discharging power of the energy storage system, so that the energy storage converter actively participates in new energy peak regulation, power grid auxiliary services (peak regulation, frequency modulation and voltage regulation), micro-grid power regulation and the like.
When an external power grid accessed by the battery dynamic grouping system breaks down, the energy storage converter operates in a V/F mode, and the energy storage converter outputs three-phase voltage with stable frequency and amplitude at an alternating current side, so that an independent power supply micro-grid system is constructed, and the load stable power supply requirement in the independent power supply system is met.
The invention aims to organically combine a modularized chopping control technology with a battery grouping technology, and solves the problems of low reliability, inaccurate management of a single battery charging and discharging process, online isolation of a fault battery and the like caused by a Battery Management System (BMS) applied to a traditional battery grouping system, and specifically comprises the following steps:
(1) the novel battery grouping system based on the modularized charge and discharge controller is provided, the single batteries are connected in series and parallel in a grouping way through the modularized charge and discharge controller, the charge and discharge management of the single batteries in the battery grouping system is really realized, the problem of over-charge or over-discharge of the individual single batteries in the battery grouping system is thoroughly avoided, the operation reliability of the battery grouping system is obviously improved, and the service life of the battery grouping system is obviously prolonged;
(2) by utilizing the novel battery grouping system based on the modularized charge-discharge controller, the random series-parallel dynamic online grouping of the single batteries in the battery grouping system can be realized, and the requirements of the battery grouping system in different fields and operating conditions are met; and realize the online isolation trouble battery, show the operational reliability who promotes battery system of uniting.
It is further noted that, herein, relational terms such as first and second, and the like may be used solely to distinguish one entity or action from another entity or action without necessarily requiring or implying any actual such relationship or order between such entities or actions. Also, the terms "comprises," "comprising," or any other variation thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion, such that a process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises a list of elements does not include only those elements but may include other elements not expressly listed or inherent to such process, method, article, or apparatus. Without further limitation, an element defined by the phrase "comprising … …" does not exclude the presence of other identical elements in a process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises the element.
While the best mode for carrying out the invention has been described in detail and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, it is to be understood that the same is by way of illustration and example only and is not to be taken by way of limitation, the scope of the invention should be determined by the appended claims and any changes or modifications which fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention should be construed as broadly described herein.

Claims (15)

1. A battery dynamic grouping system based on a modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller is characterized by comprising a plurality of modular bidirectional charge-discharge controllers, a series access switch, a parallel access switch, a bypass switch, a plurality of battery energy storage units and a dynamic battery pack operation management system, wherein each battery energy storage unit is accessed to the low-voltage side of the corresponding modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller, and the high-voltage side of each modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller is dynamically connected in series-parallel through the series access switch, the parallel access switch and the bypass switch and then is accessed to a direct current bus of the battery dynamic grouping system;
the dynamic battery pack operation management system is connected to each modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller and a measurement and control loop of each series-parallel access switch;
the dynamic battery pack operation management system monitors the operation information of the battery energy storage unit, the modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller, the energy storage converter and the series-parallel connection access switch in real time, and issues operation control instructions to the modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller, the energy storage converter outside the battery dynamic grouping system and the series-parallel connection access switch in combination with actual operation conditions and application requirements, so that online dynamic grouping of the battery energy storage unit, accurate scheduling of battery charge and discharge power and participation of the battery grouping system in external system operation control are realized;
the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller accurately controls the charge-discharge current and the low-voltage side voltage of the battery energy storage unit accessed to the low-voltage side of the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller, so that the charge-discharge power and the charge-discharge process of each accessed battery energy storage unit are accurately managed.
2. The battery dynamic grouping system of claim 1, wherein the dc bus is connected to a dc side of the energy storage converter external to the battery dynamic grouping system, the ac side of the energy storage converter being connected to an external ac system.
3. The battery dynamic grouping system of claim 1, wherein the dynamic battery pack operation management system is connected to each battery energy storage unit, each modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller, and each series-parallel access switch, and is configured to perform real-time monitoring and instruction issuing on the operation states of the modular bidirectional charge and discharge controllers and the series-parallel access switches, and perform online detection on the operation states of the battery energy storage units.
4. The battery dynamic grouping system of claim 1, wherein the output positive and negative poles of the modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller are respectively connected in series to the series access switches, and the negative and positive poles are connected in sequence to realize the series access.
5. The battery dynamic grouping system of claim 1, wherein the positive and negative output poles of the modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller are connected in parallel to the dc bus via parallel access switches, respectively, to implement the modular parallel access.
6. The battery dynamic grouping system of claim 1, wherein the modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller employs an isolated bidirectional chopper or a non-isolated BUCK-BOOST bidirectional chopper.
7. The battery dynamic grouping system of claim 6, wherein the BUCK-BOOST bidirectional chopper is composed of an energy storage inductor, a high-side filter capacitor, a first power switch tube, a second power switch tube, a first freewheeling diode, and a second freewheeling diode, an anode of the battery energy storage unit is connected to a drain of the first power switch tube via the energy storage inductor, a source of the first power switch tube is connected to a cathode of the battery energy storage unit, a drain of the second power switch tube is connected to an anode of the high-side filter capacitor, and two freewheeling diodes are connected in anti-parallel between drain-source of the two power switch tubes.
8. The dynamic battery grouping system of claim 1, wherein the series access switch, the parallel access switch, and the bypass switch are all bi-directional switches.
9. The battery dynamic grouping system of claim 8, wherein the bidirectional switch structure comprises a third power switch tube, a fourth power switch tube, a third freewheeling diode and a fourth freewheeling diode, a drain of the third power switch tube is connected to a source of the fourth power switch tube, and the two freewheeling diodes are connected in anti-parallel between drain-source electrodes of the two power switch tubes, respectively.
10. The battery dynamic grouping system of claim 1, wherein the battery energy storage unit is any one or a combination of a lithium iron phosphate battery, a lead acid battery, a lead carbon battery, a lithium titanate battery, a ternary lithium battery, and a super capacitor.
11. The dynamic battery grouping system of claim 1, wherein the battery energy storage units are different types of grouping sizes of single batteries, battery packs or battery clusters.
12. An operation control method of a battery dynamic grouping system based on a modular bidirectional charge and discharge controller according to any one of claims 1 to 11, characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) the method comprises the steps that a battery dynamic grouping system based on the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controllers is constructed, each battery energy storage unit is connected to the low-voltage side of the corresponding modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller, the high-voltage sides of the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controllers are connected in series-parallel dynamic connection through series-parallel connection access switches, and then direct-current buses of the battery dynamic grouping system are connected; connecting the dynamic battery pack operation management system to each modular bidirectional charge-discharge controller and a measurement and control loop of each series-parallel access switch;
(2) the dynamic battery pack operation management system monitors the operation information of the battery energy storage unit, the modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller, the energy storage converter and the serial and parallel access switch in real time, and sends operation control instructions to the modularized bidirectional charge and discharge controller, the energy storage converter and the serial and parallel access switch in combination with actual operation conditions and application requirements, so that online dynamic grouping of the battery energy storage unit, accurate scheduling of battery charge and discharge power and participation of a battery grouping system in external system operation control are realized;
the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller accurately controls the charge-discharge current and the low-voltage side voltage of the battery energy storage unit accessed to the low-voltage side of the modularized bidirectional charge-discharge controller, so that the charge-discharge power and the charge-discharge process of each accessed battery energy storage unit are accurately managed.
13. The method of claim 12, wherein the dc side of the energy storage converter is connected to a dc bus of the battery grouping system, and the ac side of the energy storage converter is connected to an external ac system.
14. The operation control method of the dynamic battery grouping system as claimed in claim 12, wherein when the dynamic battery grouping system is connected to an external power grid for operation, the energy storage converter operates in a P/Q mode, and the energy storage converter accurately controls charging and discharging power of the energy storage system, so as to actively participate in new energy peak shaving, grid auxiliary service and micro-grid power regulation.
15. The operation control method of the battery dynamic grouping system according to claim 12, wherein when an external power grid connected to the battery dynamic grouping system fails, the energy storage converter operates in a V/F mode, and the energy storage converter outputs three-phase voltage with stable frequency and amplitude on an alternating current side, so that an independent power supply microgrid system is constructed, and the load stable power supply requirement in the independent power supply system is met.
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