CN109781773B - Detection method for realizing layered telescopic type frost heaving detection device - Google Patents

Detection method for realizing layered telescopic type frost heaving detection device Download PDF

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CN109781773B
CN109781773B CN201910240916.7A CN201910240916A CN109781773B CN 109781773 B CN109781773 B CN 109781773B CN 201910240916 A CN201910240916 A CN 201910240916A CN 109781773 B CN109781773 B CN 109781773B
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frost heaving
frozen soil
measuring
area
sleeve type
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CN109781773A (en
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凌贤长
杨英姿
徐定杰
凌瑜泽
凌润泽
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凌贤长
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Abstract

A detection method for realizing a layered telescopic type frost heaving detection device. In the engineering construction of cold regions, due to the complex geological conditions of a construction site, the frozen soil frost heaving deformation monitoring difficulty is high, and it is difficult to simultaneously obtain frost heaving data of different depths in one region. The multiple sleeve type single bodies in the frost heaving device are sequentially arranged on the base plate from bottom to top, the anchor plate is sleeved outside the pipe body, the displacement sensor is arranged on the inner wall of the pipe body, a boss is machined at the top end of the pipe body, a groove is machined at the bottom end of the pipe body, and the pipe body of one sleeve type single body is in sliding fit with two adjacent sleeve type single bodies through the boss and the groove respectively; the number of the measuring points in the test area and the distribution positions of the measuring points are determined according to the type of the frozen soil in the test area, the frost heaving amount data of the frost heaving layer where the measuring points are located at different time periods are obtained through the frost heaving device, and the frost heaving deformation condition of the frozen soil in the test area is obtained through summarizing according to the frost heaving amount data fed back by the measuring points. The invention is used for monitoring the frost heaving amount of the frozen soil in the vertical or horizontal direction.

Description

Detection method for realizing layered telescopic type frost heaving detection device
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of civil engineering, and particularly relates to a detection method for realizing a layered telescopic type soil frost heaving detection device.
Background
In the freezing process, the frost heaving amount caused by moisture migration is far greater than the volume expansion amount caused by in-situ freezing of pore water, and frost heaving and thaw settlement of a frozen soil area cause great damage to roads and buildings, such as cracks, settlement, structural fracture and the like. More and more traffic infrastructures in China, such as expressways, high-speed rails and the like, are built in frozen soil areas, and before each project is built, the frost heaving characteristic of the soil body in the region where the project is located must be evaluated so as to take corresponding measures to ensure the safety and reliability of the project structure.
In addition, the freezing method technology is a method of artificial refrigeration, which freezes water in soil around an underground space to be excavated into ice and bonds the ice with soil to form a frozen soil wall or a closed frozen soil body according to a designed contour, so as to resist soil pressure and isolate underground water. When the freezing method is adopted for construction, the expansion of the frozen stratum and the sinking deformation of the frozen stratum during thawing need to be researched, and a tunnel soil body is taken as an example and comprises the monitoring of surface subsidence; monitoring the settlement displacement of the tunnel; monitoring the convergence deformation of the tunnel in the horizontal and vertical directions; ground building settlement monitoring, and the like. Therefore, whether the development process of frost heaving and thawing sinking of the frozen soil is studied in a laboratory or the characteristic value of frost heaving deformation of the frozen soil in the horizontal or vertical direction is accurately obtained on a construction site, a reliable frost heaving device and method are needed.
The patent (201410068723.5 a device of frozen soil frost heaving displacement is measured to laser sensor) has proposed utilizing laser displacement sensor to measure the holistic frozen heaving displacement of frozen soil under the condition of contactless soil sample, easy operation, and is reliable, great improvement experimental efficiency of software testing and precision, but this method can only be applicable to laboratory soil sample at present, can not be used to the job site. In the same patent, "CN 108572189A a static and dynamic comprehensive test system considering soil expansion and contraction characteristics under temperature gradient", "CN 108519405A a set of test equipment for studying the relationship between force and deformation in soil frost heaving process", "CN 108445192A a multifunctional frost heaving and thawing test device", "CN 108333323A a soil frost heaving rate measuring device and measuring method", "CN 207557254U a temperature-controllable soil frost heaving test device", and the like, the sensor is placed outside the soil to monitor the frost heaving deformation of the whole soil, and the system is suitable for a test device or a test system for simulating field environmental conditions in a laboratory.
However, the frost heaving deformation of the on-site soil body has very different frost heaving values due to different freezing depths and geological conditions of various places, so that an actual value of the frost heaving deformation of an engineering construction area needs to be obtained. An important means for obtaining soil frost heaving is to observe the frost heaving amount of the seasonal frost heaving layer on site, such as embedding a plurality of frost-heaving nails, fixing the distance between the frost-heaving nails and periodically observing the elevation of the frost-heaving nails by a level gauge. And the frost heaving amount of each point is reflected by the variation of the elevation of each frost heaving nail. If the frost heaving amount changes slightly, the precision requirement is difficult to meet by monitoring the elevation change of the frost heaving nail; the invention discloses a method and a device for observing frost heaving of a soil layer of a high-speed railway in a seasonal frozen soil area on site by CN104929098A, which provides that holes are dug in the frozen soil layer, a lower anchor plate is embedded, a measuring rod displacement meter and an upper anchor plate are connected by an isometric joint, the upper anchor plate and the lower anchor plate are driven to move by the frost heaving deformation of the seasonal frozen soil layer, and the frost heaving amount of the seasonal frozen soil layer is observed by the measuring rod displacement meter. In order to prevent the upper anchor plate from being lifted after the soil body is frozen and deformed, the upper anchor plate, the plastic pipe and the filled low-temperature lubricating grease form a vacuum cavity to generate negative pressure to adsorb the upper anchor plate, a vent pipe is arranged on the upper anchor plate and extends out of the soil layer, and the vent hole is communicated with the outside to interfere the temperature of the soil body and limit the horizontal arrangement of the device. The patent "CN 103966993A soil body frost heaving device and method for detecting the amount of soil body frost heaving" excavates the inspection hole at the frost heaving layer, is fixed in not frost heaving layer with body and measuring staff through anchor assembly in, and the drill way department of inspection hole sets up the displacement caliber, is provided with a plurality of annular weakening areas on the body at intervals, and when the soil body frost heaving, the weakening area divides into a plurality of pipe sections that can the independent motion with the body, guarantees that the benchmark of soil body frost heaving measurement does not change. The measuring device has the disadvantages that the orifice of the detection hole is arranged on the earth surface, the displacement measurer needs to be arranged on the earth surface, frost heaving deformation of frozen soil layers with different depths in the same region can not be quickly obtained, the gap between the pipe body and the wall of the detection hole is filled with filler, a cement pouring layer is filled in a non-weakened area, and a loose sand layer is filled in a weakened area. The respective backfilling of the two fillers can cause the soil characteristics of the observation area to change, and directly influences the measurement result; therefore, the monitoring of frost heaving deformation in the soil body freezing and thawing circulation process and deformation in the horizontal or vertical direction in the freezing method construction process has important significance for the infrastructure construction of frozen soil areas, and a means for accurately, reliably and quickly acquiring the frost heaving deformation of the soil body on site is needed. In a word, due to the complex geological conditions of a construction site and the research requirements of the frost heaving and thawing process of local soil bodies in a laboratory, the frost heaving deformation monitoring difficulty of frozen soil is large, the accuracy is poor, and the construction quality of infrastructures in a frozen soil area is seriously influenced.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a detection method for realizing a layered telescopic type soil frost heaving detection device, which aims to solve the problem that the construction quality control of infrastructure in a frozen soil area is difficult to ensure due to large monitoring difficulty and poor accuracy of frost heaving deformation of a local frozen soil layer due to complex geological conditions of a construction site and the requirement of research on frost heaving and thawing processes of local soil bodies in a laboratory.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention for solving the technical problems is as follows:
the utility model provides a device that freezes bloated of telescopic detection soil of layering, includes chassis and flexible survey buret, and flexible survey buret includes a plurality of bushing type monomers, and a plurality of bushing type monomers are from supreme setting gradually on the chassis down, and the bushing type monomer includes body, anchor disc and displacement sensor, the anchor disc suit is outside the body, and displacement sensor sets up on the body inner wall, and the top processing of body has the boss, and the bottom processing of body is sloted, and the free body of a bushing type is respectively through boss and groove rather than two adjacent bushing type monomer sliding fit.
As a preferable scheme: the displacement sensor is a stay-supported linear displacement sensor, the displacement sensor comprises a measuring head, a stay wire and a fixing piece, the measuring head is connected with the fixing piece through the stay wire, the measuring head is arranged on the side wall of the boss corresponding to the measuring head, and the fixing piece is arranged in another boss in the groove at the bottom end of the pipe body.
As a preferable scheme: the top of the telescopic measuring pipe is provided with a sealing cover.
As a preferable scheme: the length of the tube body ranges from 20cm to 40 cm.
As a preferable scheme: the height of the boss is matched with the depth of the groove.
As a preferable scheme: the value range of the height of the boss is 3-6 cm.
As a preferable scheme: pull-wire type linear displacement sensor is replaced by pull-rod type linear displacement sensor or slide block type linear displacement sensor
According to a specific embodiment, the detection method implemented by using the layered telescopic frozen soil detection device comprises the steps of determining the number of the measurement points in the test area and the distribution positions of the measurement points according to the frozen soil type of the test area, correspondingly installing a frozen soil device at each measurement point, obtaining the frozen soil amount data of the frozen soil layer where the measurement points are located at different time periods through the frozen soil devices, and summarizing the frozen soil deformation condition in the test area according to the frozen soil amount data fed back by the measurement points.
As a preferable scheme: determining the number of measuring points in a test area and the distribution position of each measuring point according to the frozen soil type of the test area, correspondingly installing a frost heaving device at each measuring point, acquiring frost heaving data of a frost heaving layer where each measuring point is located at different time intervals through the frost heaving device, summarizing according to the frost heaving data fed back by each measuring point to obtain the frost heaving deformation condition of the frozen soil in the test area, dividing the test area according to a geological survey report, wherein the dividing principle is that the test area is divided according to the properties of frost heaving sensitivity and frost heaving insensitivity, determining and counting the number of the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area and the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area in the test area, determining the number of the measuring points in each frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area and determining the number of the measuring points in each frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area:
when the number of the frost heaving sensitive frost regions is n, the area A of one frost heaving sensitive frost region1Dividing a plurality of first cells on the ground surface of the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area, wherein the area of each first cell is S1The number N of the measuring points in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1=A1/S1Similarly, the number of the measuring points in other frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas is determined to be N one by one2、N3…Nn
When the number of the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil areas is m, one frost heaving insensitive frozen soil areaArea B of1Dividing a plurality of second cells on the ground surface of the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area, wherein the area of each second cell is S2The number M of the measuring points is arranged in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1=B1/S2Similarly, determining the number of the measuring points in other frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas as M one by one2、M3…Mm
N1、N2、N3…NnAnd M1、M2、M3…MmThe total of the test points is the total number of the test points in the test area, and then the frost heaving devices with the corresponding number are prepared.
As a preferable scheme: the detection process of the frost heaving device comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps: consulting geological data, excavating a vertical or horizontal hole according to detection requirements at a measuring point, selecting N sleeve type monomers according to the depth of the hole, manually tamping the bottom of the hole, installing the sleeve type monomers in the hole one by one, and measuring and recording the initial distance between two anchor disks in adjacent sleeve type monomers to be L respectively0、L1、L2…LNAnd the distance L between the topmost anchor plate and the chassis in the whole frost heaving deviceGeneral assemblyStarting a displacement sensor in each sleeve type monomer to enable the displacement sensor to be in a minimum measuring range state, backfilling original soil, and tamping in layers;
step two: in a sleeve type monomer, a displacement sensor is connected with a recording instrument, voltage signals output by the displacement sensor are collected, recorded and stored according to a preset channel, the sleeve type monomer moves upwards under the driving of frost heaving deformation of a frozen soil layer, and the displacement sensor in one sleeve type monomer monitors that the distance variation between an anchor plate of the sleeve type monomer and an anchor plate in another adjacent sleeve type monomer below the anchor plate is delta L1,ΔL1Namely the frost heaving deformation of the frozen soil layer where the sleeve type monomer is located;
the frost heaving rate of the frozen soil layer in which the sleeve type monomer is positioned is delta L1/L1And analogizing in turn, obtaining the frost heaving rate delta L of the frozen soil layer where other sleeve type monomers are located2/L2…ΔLN/LNThe frost heaving rate of a measuring point of the whole frost heaving device is (delta L)1+ΔL2+…ΔLN)/LGeneral assembly
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
1. the frost heaving device disclosed by the invention is simple in structure, flexible in application range, flexible in landfill depth and landfill direction, and not limited, and is used for measuring the frost heaving amount of a soil body in a short distance, and obtaining the frost heaving amount of the frozen soil is simple, direct and accurate. The monitoring difficulty is low, the disturbance to the field soil body is small, and frost heaving data of various depths can be quickly obtained in a short time.
2. The frost heaving device formed by the plurality of sleeve type monomers has adjustable length and adjustable detection depth, can be disassembled and assembled according to the specific requirements of a detection target, and is flexible to use.
3. The method has simple and convenient operation steps, reasonable steps and effective and reliable data acquisition after operation.
4. The method can be used for detecting the single measuring point in a local area and can also be used for detecting multiple measuring points in a large area, so that the frost heaving and thawing sinking of the soil body in a laboratory and on site can be comprehensively evaluated.
5. The detection target of the invention is frozen soil between adjacent anchor plates, the change of the distance between the two can reflect the frost heaving degree of the soil between the two, the change of the distance between the two adjacent displacement sensors is recorded in real time, indirectly and accurately, and the detection result is reliable.
6. The invention can be used in both laboratories and construction sites. The frost heaving deformation value of each frozen soil layer can be accurately measured, the integral frost heaving amount of the frozen soil can be calculated or monitored, and the application range is wide.
7. The invention has the advantages of simple structure, low manufacturing cost, simple operation steps, low difficulty, time saving and labor saving.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a front view structure of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a first operating state of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a second operating state of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a front view structural section of the sleeve type single body;
in the figure, 1-chassis; 2-sleeve type monomer; 2-1-pipe body; 2-2-anchor disk; 2-3-displacement sensor; 2-3-1-probe; 2-3-2-stay wire; 2-3-3-fasteners; 2-4-boss; 2-5-groove; 3-a stay wire; 4-sealing cover; 12-holes; 14-frost heaving layer.
Detailed Description
In order that the objects, aspects and advantages of the invention will become more apparent, the invention will be described by way of example only, and in connection with the accompanying drawings. It is to be understood that such description is merely illustrative and not intended to limit the scope of the present invention. Moreover, in the following description, descriptions of well-known structures and techniques are omitted so as to not unnecessarily obscure the concepts of the present invention.
It should be noted that, in order to avoid obscuring the present invention with unnecessary details, only the structures and/or processing steps closely related to the aspects of the present invention are shown in the drawings, and other details not closely related to the present invention are omitted.
The first embodiment is as follows: the embodiment is described with reference to fig. 1, fig. 2 and fig. 3, and includes a chassis 1 and a telescopic measuring tube, where the telescopic measuring tube includes a plurality of telescopic single bodies 2, the plurality of telescopic single bodies 2 are sequentially disposed on the chassis 1 from bottom to top, the telescopic single bodies 2 include a tube body 2-1, an anchor disc 2-2 and a displacement sensor 2-3, the anchor disc 2-2 is sleeved outside the tube body 2-1, the displacement sensor 2-3 is disposed on the inner wall of the tube body 2-1, a boss 2-4 is processed at the top end of the tube body 2-1, a groove 2-5 is processed at the bottom end of the tube body 2-1, and the tube body 2-1 of one telescopic single body 2 is slidably fitted with two adjacent telescopic single bodies 2 through the boss 2-4 and the groove 2-5, respectively.
Further, a pipe body 2-1 of one sleeve type single body 2 is in sliding fit with a groove 2-5 in another sleeve type single body 2 adjacent to the pipe body 2 through a boss 2-4 at the top end of the pipe body, the boss 2-4 is arranged in the groove 2-5, and the outer wall of the boss 2-4 is in sliding fit with the inner wall of the groove 2-5; the pipe body 2-1 of the sleeve type single body 2 is in sliding fit with a boss 2-4 in another adjacent sleeve type single body 2 below the pipe body through a groove 2-5 at the bottom end of the pipe body, the boss 2-4 is arranged in the groove 2-5, and the inner wall of the groove 2-5 is in sliding fit with the outer wall of the boss 2-4. The length of the sleeve type single body 2 and the length of the two sleeve type single bodies 2 adjacent to each other up and down can be adjusted by the bosses 2-4 and the grooves 2-5 arranged at the top end and the bottom end of the pipe body 2-1.
Furthermore, the displacement sensor 2-3 is a stay wire type linear displacement sensor, the displacement sensor 2-3 comprises a measuring head 2-3-1, a stay wire 2-3-2 and a fixing part 2-3-3, the measuring head 2-3-1 is connected with the fixing part 2-3-3 through the stay wire 2-3-2, and when the displacement sensor 2-3 is in a working state, the stay wire 2-3-2 is in a stretched straight state. The stay wire 2-3-2 is a non-elastic rope body. The measuring head 2-3-1 is arranged on the side wall of the boss 2-4 of the corresponding tube body 2-1, and the fixing part 2-3-3 is arranged in the other boss 2-4 in the groove 2-5 at the bottom end of the tube body 2-1. The mounting positions of the measuring head 2-3-1 and the fixing part 2-3-3 are required to be stable and not easy to loosen.
Furthermore, the fixing piece 2-3-3 is a circular ring body and is made of light high-strength metal materials. The displacement sensor 2-3 is detachably connected with the side wall of the boss 2-4 of the corresponding pipe body 2-1 through the measuring head 2-3-1. The ring body is positioned on the side wall of the boss 2-4 below the corresponding pipe body 2-1 through a screw or other connecting pieces. Other existing detachable fastening means may be substituted. The same is true of the positioning mode between the measuring head 2-3-1 and the corresponding boss 2-4.
Furthermore, a measuring head and a fixing part 2-3-3 of the displacement sensor 2-3 are respectively and fixedly connected to the two adjacent pipe bodies 2-1, the measuring head and the fixing part 2-3-3 of the displacement sensor 2-3 are connected through a stay wire 2-3-2, and the stay wire 2-3-2 is an inelastic rope body. The fixing part 2-3-3 is arranged at the top of one adjacent lower pipe body 2-1 and is vertically adjacent to the measuring head 2-3-1 of the displacement sensor 2-3 on the pipe body 2-1. A measuring head 2-3-1 of the stay wire type linear displacement sensor is fixed on the inner wall of a sleeve 2-1 by a screw, and the straight line of the stay wire 2-3-2 is necessarily perpendicular to the lower end face of the measuring head 2-3-1.
Furthermore, the top of the telescopic measuring pipe is provided with a sealing cover 4 which is made of high polymer materials, such as plastics or other light materials, and plays a role in sealing and dust prevention.
Further, the length of the pipe body 2-1 ranges from 20cm to 40cm, the inner diameter of the pipe body 2-1 ranges from 8cm to 10cm, the thickness of the pipe wall of the pipe body 2-1 and the thickness of the anchor disc 2-2 are 1 cm to 1.5cm, and the outer diameter of the anchor disc 2-2 is 15cm to 20 cm. The pipe body 2-1 is cylindrical, the selected material is a light high-strength high polymer material, and the length and the diameter of the pipe body 2-1 are correspondingly adjusted according to the depth of non-frozen layer soil in each region.
Further, the height of the boss 2-4 is matched with the depth of the groove 2-5. The height of the boss 2-4 is equal to the depth of the groove 2-5.
Furthermore, the height of the boss 2-4 is in a range of 3-6 cm.
Further, the top of the chassis 1 is provided with a protruding part, the structure, the size, the shape, the setting purpose and the working process of the protruding part are the same as those of the bosses 2-4, and the protruding part is used for being matched with the sleeve type single body 2 directly connected with the chassis 1 to carry out detection work.
The second embodiment is as follows: the first embodiment is further limited to the first embodiment, and the displacement sensors 2-3 are linear displacement sensors, which can be selected from various types, such as pull rod type linear displacement sensors or slider type linear displacement sensors. The displacement sensor 2-3 is an existing product, and the using process of the displacement sensor is the same as that of the existing product.
The third concrete implementation mode: the present embodiment will be described with reference to fig. 1, 2, 3, and 4, and includes the following:
according to the frozen soil layer depth of the geological survey report, the frozen soil layer depth of the test area is determined, the number of the sleeve type single bodies 2 in the frozen soil layer device is determined according to the frozen soil layer depth, the frozen soil layer device is installed in the test area, frozen soil amount data of the frozen soil layer in different periods are obtained through the frozen soil layer device, and frozen soil deformation conditions in the test area are obtained according to the frozen soil amount data fed back by the frozen soil layer device.
The fourth concrete implementation mode: this embodiment is a further limitation of the third embodiment, and includes the following:
the method comprises the steps of determining the number of measuring points in a test area and the distribution positions of the measuring points according to the type of frozen soil in the test area, correspondingly installing a frost heaving device at each measuring point, obtaining frost heaving amount data of a frost heaving layer where the measuring points are located at different time periods through the frost heaving devices, and summarizing according to the frost heaving amount data fed back by the measuring points to obtain the frost heaving deformation condition of the frozen soil in the test area.
Dividing a test area according to a geological survey report, wherein the division principle is that the test area is divided according to frost heaving sensitive and frost heaving insensitive properties, the division of frost heaving sensitive and frost heaving insensitive is based on data from the geological survey report, the division principle is the prior art, the number of frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas and frost heaving insensitive frozen soil areas is counted respectively after the test area is divided, the number of measuring points is determined in each frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area, and the number of measuring points is determined in each frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area, and the determination process is as follows:
when the number of the frost heaving sensitive frost regions is n, the area A of one frost heaving sensitive frost region1Dividing a plurality of first cells on the ground surface of the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area, wherein the area of each first cell is S1The number N of the measuring points in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1=A1/S1Similarly, the number of the measuring points in other frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas is determined to be N one by one2、N3…Nn;S1Has a value range of 0.25 to 1m2A frost heaving device is arranged in each first cell, namely the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1The size of the first small grid is 50-100 cm, and the shape of the first small grid is square for convenience of calculation; s1The determination basis is that dense point distribution is carried out on the premise that two adjacent frost heaving devices are not influenced mutually.
In the step, the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in the longitudinal or transverse direction in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area is determined1Then, the grid is drawn according to the space, and finally the number N of the measuring points is determined1=A1/S1
S1The value range is determined according to the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in the longitudinal or transverse frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1Calculating to obtain that the shape of the first cell is square for convenient calculation; the intersection point of two diagonal lines in each first cellNamely the position of one measuring point, the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points1Is the distance between the centers of circles of the two anchor disks 2-2 and the distance G1The value range is determined according to the outer diameter of the anchor disc 2-2 and the requirement of the non-interfering minimum distance between the anchor discs 2-2, the outer diameter of the anchor disc 2-2 is determined according to the matching requirement among the measuring range of the displacement sensor 4, the diameter of the pipe body 2-1 and the size of the anchor disc 2-2, namely G150-100 cm, and the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points1After the determination, the area of the first cell in which the measuring point is located can be obtained because the measuring point is located at the center of the first cell, and S in the step1Has a value range of 0.25 to 1m2And when the actual grid marking operation is carried out, the final determined position of the measuring point can be ensured to be more accurate through the grid marking mode.
When the number of the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil areas is m, the area B of one frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area1Dividing a plurality of second cells on the ground surface of the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area, wherein the area of each second cell is S2The number M of the measuring points is arranged in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1=B1/S2Similarly, determining the number of the measuring points in other frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas as M one by one2、M3…Mm;S2Has a value range of 4 to 16m2A frost heaving device is arranged in each second cell, namely the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in a frost heaving non-sensitive frost soil area2The second cell is 200-400 cm, and for convenience of calculation, the second cell is square; s2The determination basis is that the sparse points of the drawing pattern can be used for comprehensively evaluating the frost heaving performance.
In the step, the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in the longitudinal or transverse direction in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area is determined2Then, the grid is drawn according to the space, and finally the number M of the measuring points is determined1=B1/S2
S2The value range is determined according to the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points in the longitudinal or transverse direction in the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area2Calculating to obtain that the shape of the second cell is square for convenient calculation; each one of which isThe intersection point of two diagonal lines in the second small grid is a measuring point position, and the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points2Is the distance between the centers of circles of the two anchor disks 2-2 and the distance G2The value range is determined according to the outer diameter of the anchor disc 2-2 and the requirement of the non-interfering minimum distance between the anchor discs 2-2, the outer diameter of the anchor disc 2-2 is determined according to the matching requirement among the measuring range of the displacement sensor 4, the diameter of the pipe body 2-1 and the size of the anchor disc 2-2, namely G2200-400 cm, and the distance G between every two adjacent measuring points2After the determination, the area of the second cell in which the measuring point is located can be obtained because the measuring point is located at the center of the second cell in which the measuring point is located, and S in the step2Has a value range of 4 to 16m2And when the actual grid marking operation is carried out, the final determined position of the measuring point can be ensured to be more accurate through the grid marking mode.
N1、N2、N3…NnAnd M1、M2、M3…MmThe total of the test points is the total number of the test points in the test area, and the corresponding number of the frost heaving devices is prepared.
The frost heaving sensitive frost region is a measuring point concentrated region in the testing region, frost heaving devices are installed according to the distribution position conditions of measuring points in the frost heaving sensitive frost region, a frost heaving device is installed at each measuring point, frost heaving amount data of a frost heaving layer 14 where each measuring point is located in the region at different time periods are obtained through the frost heaving devices, and frost heaving deformation conditions of the frost heaving in the testing region are obtained through summarizing according to the frost heaving amount data fed back by each frost heaving sensitive frost region and each frost heaving non-sensitive frost region. The same principle is applied to the installation process of the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area.
The invention combines geological survey conditions with a prototype machine to carry out a plurality of tests, measuring points are arranged in the plane of the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area at the transverse and longitudinal intervals of 50-100 cm as the optimal setting range, and measuring points are arranged in the plane of the frost heaving non-sensitive area at the transverse and longitudinal intervals of 200-400 cm, in addition, the number of the measuring points is set in the engineering field with complicated geological conditions and special requirements according to unequal intervals.
The frost heaving property of the soil is divided into non-frost heaving, weak frost heaving, strong frost heaving and extra-strong frost heaving according to the frost heaving rate of 0-1%, 1-3.5%, 3.5-6%, 6-10% and more than 10%. Frost heaving, strong frost heaving and extra strong frost heaving belong to frost heaving sensitive frozen soil, while non-frost heaving and weak frost heaving belong to frost heaving non-sensitive frozen soil.
The fifth concrete implementation mode: the third or fourth embodiment is further limited by the third or fourth embodiment, the frost heaving of the frozen soil is divided into in-situ frost heaving and segregation frost heaving, the in-situ frost heaving is composed of elastic deformation of a soil framework and water-ice phase change incremental deformation, the segregation frost heaving depends on the change of a temperature field and the migration amount of unfrozen water, the selection of the measuring range of the sensor and the arrangement number of measuring points are determined by a frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area, a frost heaving non-sensitive frozen soil area and a monitoring area, the water content of soil bodies under important infrastructure projects, road beds and road surfaces is rich, the number of monitoring points needs to be increased when the local difference is large, for example, a seasonal frozen soil area along a river bank, as the water content of the soil body is generally higher, measuring points are arranged at intervals of 50-100 cm in the horizontal direction and the longitudinal direction in the plane, the measuring points are arranged at intervals of 200-400 cm away from the river, the geological conditions are complex, and the number of the measuring points is set in the engineering field with special requirements according to unequal intervals.
The sixth specific implementation mode: the third, fourth or fifth embodiment is further limited in that the detection process of the frost heaving apparatus includes the following two steps:
the number of the measuring points in the test area and the distribution positions of the measuring points are determined according to the type of frozen soil in the test area, the frost heaving device consisting of at least two sleeve type monomers is selected and installed according to the detection depth requirement of each measuring point, the frost heaving amount data of the frost heaving layer where the measuring points are located at different time periods are obtained through the sleeve type monomers, the analogy is repeated, the frost heaving amount data fed back by each measuring point are obtained, and the frost heaving deformation condition of the frozen soil in the test area is obtained by summarizing the frost heaving amount data of each measuring point.
The detection process of the frost heaving device comprises the following two steps:
the method comprises the following steps: looking up geological data, excavating a vertical or horizontal hole 12 at a measuring point according to the detection requirement, selecting N sleeve type single bodies 2 according to the depth of the hole 12, manually tamping the bottom of the hole 12, and installing the sleeve type single bodies 2 in the hole one by oneIn the hole 12, the initial distance between two anchor disks 2-2 in the adjacent sleeve type single bodies 2 is measured and recorded as L0、L1、L2…LNAnd the distance L between the topmost anchor plate 2-2 and the chassis 1 in the whole frost heaving apparatusGeneral assemblyStarting a displacement sensor 2-3 in each sleeve type monomer 2 to enable the displacement sensor 2-3 to be in a minimum measuring range state, backfilling original soil, and tamping in layers;
step two: in a sleeve type single body 2, a displacement sensor 2-3 is connected with a recording instrument, voltage signals output by the displacement sensor are collected, recorded and stored according to a preset channel, the sleeve type single body 2 moves upwards under the driving of frost heaving deformation of a frozen soil layer, the displacement sensor 2-3 in one sleeve type single body 2 monitors the change of the distance between an anchor disc 2-2 and an anchor disc 2-2 in another sleeve type single body 2 adjacent to the lower part, and the change quantity delta L of the distance between the anchor disc 2-2 and the anchor disc 2-2 is changed1,ΔL1Namely the frost heaving deformation of the frozen soil layer where the sleeve type monomer 2 is positioned;
the frost heaving ratio of the frozen soil layer in which the sleeve type monomer 2 is positioned is delta L1/L1And analogizing in turn, obtaining the frost heaving rate delta L of the frozen soil layer where the other sleeve type monomers 2 are positioned2/L2…ΔLN/LNThe frost heaving rate of a measuring point of the whole frost heaving device is (delta L)1+ΔL2+…ΔLN)/LGeneral assembly
The seventh embodiment: this embodiment is a further limitation of the third, fourth, fifth or sixth embodiment, and the mounting process of the frost heaving apparatus is as follows:
firstly, a chassis 1 is arranged in a hole 12, sleeve type monomers 2 are arranged on the chassis 1 one by one from bottom to top, a measuring head 2-3-1 of a displacement sensor 2-3 in each sleeve type monomer 2 is fixedly arranged on the inner wall of a boss 2-4 of a pipe body 2-1, a pull wire 2-3-2 of the displacement sensor 2-3 is fixedly arranged on the inner side wall of the boss 2-4 of the adjacent sleeve type monomer 2 below through a fixing piece 2-3-3, the sleeve type monomer 2 is directly matched with the chassis 1, the fixing piece 2-3-3 is arranged on the inner side wall of a bulge part of the chassis 1, and the measuring range of the displacement sensor 2-3 is adjusted to the minimum measuring range; sealing the sleeve type single body 2 at the topmost part in the plurality of sleeve type single bodies 2 by using a sealing cover 8, backfilling raw soil on the outer side of the telescopic measuring pipe in layers, and tamping in layers;
and finally, summarizing the frost heaving amount of the frost heaving layer 14 recorded by each measuring point in the test area through a frost heaving device, drawing a three-dimensional image of the plane position of each measuring point and the frost heaving deformation amount of the measuring point and the change trend of the frost heaving layer 14 along with time, when the frost heaving deformation of one local area in the test area is too large, indicating that the water content of the soil body of the local area is higher, subsequently adopting corresponding technical measures to reduce the influence of the frost heaving, and comprehensively evaluating the frost heaving condition of the frost heaving layer 14 in the test area through analysis of the maximum value, the minimum value and the average value of the frost heaving.
Furthermore, the diameter of the hole 11 in the above steps is 15-25 cm, the optimal value of the diameter is 20cm, and the diameter has universality.
The specific implementation mode is eight: the embodiment is further limited by the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth or seventh embodiment, the monitoring period of the invention is long and the monitoring data is accurate and comprehensive, the monitoring period is the whole winter, and the specific time is from the end of autumn when the average temperature of the first year is close to 0 ℃ to the beginning of spring when the average temperature of the second year rises to more than 0 ℃.
The following examples are described in conjunction with the beneficial effects of the present invention:
the first embodiment is as follows:
the method comprises the steps that a test area is a road shoulder in an X area in H city in northeast, a geological survey report is obtained to know that the depth of a soil unfrozen layer in the test area is 2100mm, the number n of frost heaving sensitive frost soil areas and the number of frost heaving non-sensitive frost soil areas in the test area are divided into m according to the size of the test area, the moisture at different positions of the test area and the difference of frost heaving depths, a plurality of measuring points are arranged in each frost heaving sensitive frost soil area and each frost heaving non-sensitive frost soil area, and a frost heaving device is correspondingly buried at each measuring point.
The specific operation process when the frost heaving device is used for detection is as follows:
the method comprises the following steps: looking up geological data, obtaining the depth of the frost heaving device in the test area to be buried, excavating the hole 12, manually tamping the bottom of the hole 12, and then, 11 months later25 days, installing a frost heaving device with two sleeve type single bodies 2 in the hole 12, and adjusting the measuring range of the displacement sensor 2-3 in each sleeve type single body 2 to the minimum measuring range; measuring and recording the initial distance L between the anchor disc 2-2 in each sleeve type single body 2 and the anchor disc 2-2 in another sleeve type single body 2 adjacent to the lower part by using the displacement sensor 2-30And L1Is 250 mm;
step two: two displacement sensors 2-3 are respectively connected with a recording instrument, when the test time of one time is 12 months, 25 days and 8 am, one sleeve type monomer 2 which is directly contacted with the chassis 1 is a first section sleeve type monomer, and the displacement sensor 2-3 on the first section sleeve type monomer monitors the variable quantity delta L of the distance between the anchor disk 2-2 and the chassis 10Is 0.25mm, namely the variation delta L of the distance between the anchor disc 2-2 of the first section sleeve type monomer and the chassis 10Is 0.25mm, the frost heaving amount of the frozen soil layer corresponding to the first section of the sleeve type monomer is delta L0The frost heaving rate of the frozen soil layer corresponding to the first section of sleeve type monomer is delta L0/L00.25/250-0.1%; another sleeve type monomer 2 which is positioned above the first sleeve type monomer and is in sliding fit with the first sleeve type monomer is a second sleeve type monomer, and the variation delta L of the distance between the anchor disc 2-2 and the anchor disc 2-2 of the first sleeve type monomer, which is monitored by the displacement sensor 2-3 on the second sleeve type monomer1Is 0.5mm, i.e. the variation DeltaL of the distance between the two anchor disks 2-21Is 0.5mm, and the frost heaving amount of the frozen soil layer corresponding to the second section of sleeve type monomer is delta L1The frost heaving rate of the frozen soil layer corresponding to the second section of sleeve type monomer is delta L1/L1=0.5/250=0.2%。
Along with the frost heaving of the soil body, the distance between the adjacent sleeve type single bodies 2 is continuously increased, so that the distance between the two anchor plates 2-2 monitored by the displacement sensor 2-3 is gradually increased, and when the distance between the chassis 1 and the displacement sensor 2-3 is measured by the first sleeve type single body at the same measuring point at the next 1 month, 25 days and 8 am in the next year0Is 1.5mm, so that the frost heaving rate of the soil body corresponding to the first section of the sleeve type monomer is delta L0/L00.6% for 1.5/250, obtained Δ L in the same way10.5mm, i.e. second sleeve type monomerChange amount Δ L of12.5mm, and the frost heaving ratio of the soil body where the second section sleeve type monomer is positioned is delta L1/L10.5/250-0.2%, the monitoring result shows that the frost heaving deformation laws of the upper and lower frozen soil layers at the front and rear time points are inconsistent, the environmental temperature of the frozen soil layer where the first section of the sleeve type monomer is located has obvious influence on the soil body frost heaving deformation corresponding to the measuring point, the permafrost layer where the second section of sleeve type monomer is located has no change from 12 months end to the next 1 month end, which shows that the environmental temperature of the permafrost layer where the second section of sleeve type monomer is located has little influence on the soil body frost heaving deformation corresponding to the measuring point, and so on, the other measuring points are tested, frost heaving information of other frost soil layers can be obtained according to the requirement, or data detected by the whole frost heaving device can be obtained, the plane positions of the measuring points and the frost heaving deformation thereof are summarized to draw a three-dimensional image, and labeling the change trend along with the time to quantitatively evaluate the degree of frost heaving deformation of the test area and give guidance. When the frost heaving deformation of one local area in the test area is too large, the water content of the soil body in the local area is indicated to be higher, corresponding technical measures can be subsequently adopted to reduce the influence of frost heaving, and the frost heaving condition of the frost heaving layer 14 in the test area can be comprehensively evaluated through analysis of the maximum value, the minimum value and the average value of the frost heaving amount and the change rule along with time.

Claims (3)

1. A detection method for realizing a layered telescopic type frozen soil swelling detection device is characterized by comprising the following steps: determining the number of test points in the test area and the distribution position of each test point according to the frozen soil type of the test area, and correspondingly installing a frost heaving device at each test point;
the frost heaving device comprises a chassis and a telescopic measuring tube, the telescopic measuring tube comprises a plurality of sleeve type monomers, the plurality of sleeve type monomers are sequentially arranged on the chassis from bottom to top, each sleeve type monomer comprises a tube body, an anchor disc and a displacement sensor, the anchor disc is sleeved outside the tube body, the displacement sensors are arranged on the inner wall of the tube body, a boss is processed at the top end of the tube body, a groove is processed at the bottom end of the tube body, and the tube body of one sleeve type monomer is in sliding fit with two adjacent sleeve type monomers through the boss and the groove respectively;
the displacement sensor is a stay wire type linear displacement sensor and comprises a measuring head, a stay wire and a fixing piece, the measuring head is connected with the fixing piece through the stay wire, the measuring head is arranged on the side wall of the boss corresponding to the measuring head, and the fixing piece is arranged in the other boss in the groove at the bottom end of the pipe body;
the top of the telescopic measuring pipe is provided with a sealing cover;
acquiring frost heaving amount data of frost heaving layers where the measuring points are located at different time periods through a frost heaving device, and summarizing according to the frost heaving amount data fed back by the measuring points to obtain the frost heaving deformation condition of the frozen soil in the test area;
the detection process of the frost heaving device comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps: consulting geological data, excavating a vertical or horizontal hole according to detection requirements at a measuring point, selecting N sleeve type monomers according to the depth of the hole, manually tamping the bottom of the hole, installing the sleeve type monomers in the hole one by one, and measuring and recording the initial distance between two anchor disks in adjacent sleeve type monomers to be L respectively0、L1、L2…LNAnd the distance L between the topmost anchor plate and the chassis in the whole frost heaving deviceGeneral assemblyStarting a displacement sensor in each sleeve type monomer to enable the displacement sensor to be in a minimum measuring range state, backfilling original soil, and tamping in layers;
step two: in a sleeve type monomer, a displacement sensor is connected with a recording instrument, voltage signals output by the displacement sensor are collected, recorded and stored according to a preset channel, the sleeve type monomer moves upwards under the driving of frost heaving deformation of a frozen soil layer, and the displacement sensor in one sleeve type monomer monitors that the distance variation between an anchor plate of the sleeve type monomer and an anchor plate in another adjacent sleeve type monomer below the anchor plate is delta L1,ΔL1Namely the frost heaving deformation of the frozen soil layer where the sleeve type monomer is located;
the frost heaving rate of the frozen soil layer in which the sleeve type monomer is positioned is delta L1/L1And analogizing in turn, obtaining the frost heaving rate delta L of the frozen soil layer where other sleeve type monomers are located2/L2…ΔLN/LNFrost heaving of measuring point of whole frost heaving deviceA ratio of (Δ L)1+ΔL2+…ΔLN)/LGeneral assembly
2. The detection method according to claim 1, characterized in that: determining the number of measuring points in a test area and the distribution position of each measuring point according to the frozen soil type of the test area, correspondingly installing a frost heaving device at each measuring point, acquiring frost heaving data of a frost heaving layer where each measuring point is located at different time intervals through the frost heaving device, summarizing according to the frost heaving data fed back by each measuring point to obtain the frost heaving deformation condition of the frozen soil in the test area, dividing the test area according to a geological survey report, wherein the dividing principle is that the test area is divided according to the properties of frost heaving sensitivity and frost heaving insensitivity, determining and counting the number of the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area and the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area in the test area, determining the number of the measuring points in each frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area and determining the number of the measuring points in each frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area:
when the number of the frost heaving sensitive frost regions is n, the area A of one frost heaving sensitive frost region1Dividing a plurality of first cells on the ground surface of the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area, wherein the area of each first cell is S1The number N of the measuring points in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1=A1/S1Similarly, the number of the measuring points in other frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas is determined to be N one by one2、N3…Nn
When the number of the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil areas is m, the area B of one frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area1Dividing a plurality of second cells on the ground surface of the frost heaving insensitive frozen soil area, wherein the area of each second cell is S2The number M of the measuring points is arranged in the frost heaving sensitive frozen soil area1=B1/S2Similarly, determining the number of the measuring points in other frost heaving sensitive frozen soil areas as M one by one2、M3…Mm
N1、N2、N3…NnAnd M1、M2、M3…MmThe sum of the test points is the total number of the test points in the test area, and then the corresponding test points are preparedNumber of frost heaving devices.
3. The detection method according to claim 1, characterized in that: the pull-wire type linear displacement sensor is replaced by a pull-rod type linear displacement sensor or a slide block type linear displacement sensor.
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