CN109769618A - A kind of east white pine method for culturing seedlings - Google Patents

A kind of east white pine method for culturing seedlings Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109769618A
CN109769618A CN201910243869.1A CN201910243869A CN109769618A CN 109769618 A CN109769618 A CN 109769618A CN 201910243869 A CN201910243869 A CN 201910243869A CN 109769618 A CN109769618 A CN 109769618A
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seed
white pine
temperature
seedling
east
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CN109769618B (en
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刘颖
陈少鹏
庄倩倩
刘玉波
吕伟伟
刘刚
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Jilin Forestry Research Institute (jilin Forestry Technology Extension Station)
Jilin Agricultural Science and Technology College
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Jilin Forestry Research Institute (jilin Forestry Technology Extension Station)
Jilin Agricultural Science and Technology College
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of east white pine method for culturing seedlings, carry out east white pine nursery using greenhouse in winter, extend east white pine growth period, avoid Seedling Stage low temperature freezing-disaster, improve seedling quality;River sand is replaced using quartz sand when earthing of seeds, helps to improve working efficiency when program request;When sowing using degradable nonwoven fabrics nutritive cube replace seedlings nursing plate, plastic nutrition bowl perhaps outdoor sowing can effectively reduce change bed or transplanting number, and do not have seedling-slowing stage;Other decomposed manures are replaced using decomposed sheep dung in cultivation matrix, soil pH can be improved, increase soil fertility;Garden mould, the content of organic matter in the matrix effectively improved are replaced with turfy soil, and maintains the stabilization of soil pH;After the completion of program request, the sawdust of one layer of 0.3-0.6cm is covered on it, can prevent seed when watering from floating.The present invention improves seedling-wood breeding quality and quantity, save the cost.

Description

A kind of east white pine method for culturing seedlings
Technical field
The present invention relates to east white pine field of planting, and in particular to a kind of east white pine method for culturing seedlings.
Background technique
East white pine (Pinus strobus) it is to grow more rapid tree species in Canadian northern forest, it is main to apply In furniture, building trade.Meanwhile east white pine light is cold-resistant, tree-like grace, and a kind of excellent green tree species, takes adding Greatly, U.S.'s cultivation is more, is one of the trees of Eastern North America most worthy.Jilin forestry scientific research institute is in 1981 Nian Congmei State and Liaoning Xiong Yue introduce east white pine seed, carry out Domestication in the Jilin Province central and east, and growth and development is good at present, It can normally blossom and bear fruit, the speed of growth is very fast, is to grow most fast tree species in current Jilin Province five-leaved pine.Therefore, east is white Pine is a kind of with higher economy, the emerging afforestation of ecological benefits and green tree species.Forefathers' research focuses mostly on reveals in east white pine Ground seeding and seedling raising technology, seed collection technology of preparing and overwintering cold-proof technology etc., " east white pine sowing is educated as disclosed in Chai Xiaodong Seedling and greening big seedling cultivation technology ", " east white pine seeding and seedling raising technology is introduced a fine variety in Liaoning " disclosed in Bai Liyun, disclosed in Sun Yanhui " east white pine 1 year raw overwintering Winterization Test of nursery stock Small plastic shed " etc..This two conventional methods about east white pine nursery, exist Spring sowing, seedling, less than 7 months, influence east white pine dry matter accumulation and increment, later in First Year open country growth period Need to carry out in Liaoning Area it is overwintering cold-proof, Jilin Area need continuous 3 years carry out it is overwintering cold-proof, although these operation can Guarantee that seedling is normal, robust growth, but east white pine Seedling Stage cold resistance is poor, and seedling growth is slow, spring open country is broadcast Because growth period is short, plant is immature after kind, it is difficult to resist Jilin Province's winter low temperature, and the Small plastic shed of winter setting for years is cold-proof, It is more time-consuming and laborious.Meanwhile east white pine Seedling Stage root volume is big, often causes because root system is impaired during transplanting Nursery stock is dead.Therefore, disclosed technology nursery is reported using this two, limitation is very big, and later period open field soil works Heavy complicated, transplanted plantlet loss height.
Summary of the invention
To solve the above problems, the present invention provides a kind of east white pine method for culturing seedlings, using Winter Solar Greenhouse container It nursery 150 days or more, is colonized to spring band alms bowl garden, autumn seedling branch occurs and with Seedling height, shortens east white pine Growing-seedling period strengthens east white pine growth of seedling, shortens the winter cold-proof time limit, reduces transplant step, is conducive to empty using winter Seedling breeding is carried out between idle, improves seedling-wood breeding quality and quantity.
To achieve the above object, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows:
A kind of east white pine method for culturing seedlings, comprising the following steps:
S1, seed preparation
1. collecting seed
It collects seed in annual mid or late August, when east white pine cone color becomes purple or brown, and cone not yet cracks When be best plucking seed time, after cone harvesting, be placed at aeration-drying 15~20 days dry, separated in cone after cone cracking Seed removes seed wing after rubbing, and clean seed is set and is saved in a cool and dry place;
2. the lamination of seed
In mid or late October, the seed for preservation of drying in the shade is taken out, seed and stone are impregnated using 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate respectively Sand 30min rinses seed and quartz sand 3 times or more respectively with clear water later, and the seed that cleaning is finished impregnates 36 with clear water Hour or more, it is primary per the replacement of hour for 24 hours clear water;It is by volume 1: 3 ratio by seed and quartz sand after immersion It is uniformly mixed, is placed in closed plastic box, is no less than 60 days in Stratificated treatment in 4 DEG C of refrigerator;
S2, greenhouse are built
Build can ensure nocturnal temperature at 8~10 DEG C or more, greenhouse of the temperature at 20~25 DEG C under daytime fair weather;
S3, vernalization
After lamination 60 days, seed is taken out, is impregnated 2 hours with 1.0% carbendazim or Bravo solution, after clear water cleans 2 times, It is placed in plastic casing, it is ensured that the volume of seed sand mixture is not more than the half of box, and bottom exists without ponding, temperature control in box 25 DEG C or so, vernalization 7 days or so, having 50% or more to show money or valuables one carries unintentionally to seed can sow;
S4, sowing
1. preparing seedling medium
The ratio for being 3:1:0.5:0.1 according to volume ratio by turfy soil, perlite, decay sheep excrement, carbendazim (50% effective content) Example is mixed, and the ratio for then adding imidacloprid (2% effective content) 2.0g according to every liter adds imidacloprid, is uniformly mixed, is obtained Seedling medium;
2. the pretreatment of container for plant growth
Container for plant growth selects diameter for the degradable white non-woven fabric Seedling bag of 4.0cm × 7.0cm, and 1~2 day by institute prior to seeding It states seedling medium to fill to container for plant growth, is 54cm × 28cm by the specification that is placed into of filled container for plant growth neat compact Seedlings nursing plate in, watered into container for plant growth using spray pattern later, be subject to and all irrigate;
3. sowing
The east white pine seed that bud has been urged in step S3 is sowed using a broadcast mode, each Seedling bag broadcasts a kind Son, 1.5~2.0cm of depth of planting cover the sawdust of 0.3~0.6cm thickness above, are finally sprinkled profoundly water by the way of sprinkling;
S5, winter greenhouse management
1. rat plague control
Rodent poison bait is sowed around seedlings nursing plate, or carries out killing mouse for full canopy in advance, prevents mouse from gnawing seed;
2. watering
East white pine is after planting emerged in 7~10 days, after emergence except the cloudy day, snow or when intensity of illumination deficiency, all answer daily Nebulizing spray is carried out when temperature is higher at noon, to reduce warm room temperature, improves humidity;
3. the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
The east white pine insect pest that carries out nursing young plants in hothouses in winter is less, predominantly disease.Wherein in nursery early and middle portion, humidity is big Disease is easy to happen in the case that temperature is low, mainly based on samping off, stem rot.Since emergence, 0.5%(1 is sprayed weekly Rise water add 5g hymexazol) hymexazol (70% effective content) prevented and treated;
4. weeding
Container nursery weeds are not easy to grow, if there is weed growth, manually pull out;
5. Temperature and Humidity Control
At sowing initial stage, outdoor temperature is extremely low can be aerated ventilation according to temperature of shed situation, in March~April because of outdoor temp Degree gos up, and temperature should be prevented excessively high in daily noon ventilation 2h or so;
S6, it is out of the garden
It can be out of the garden in late April~the first tenday period of a month in May.
Further, the partial size of the quartz sand is 0.5mm~1.0mm.
Further, in the Bravo solution, the mass fraction of effective component is 50%.
Further, after sowing, should not be covered using plastic film, at noon when to easily cause substrate temperature excessively high Powder kind is caused, after planting, pays attention to water spray, it is ensured that do not do on surface.
Further, the loading of the seedling medium is about the 2/3 of Seedling bag volume.
Compared with prior art, the beneficial effects of the present invention are:
1) cold district in winter of the invention utilizes the insulation effect of heliogreenhouse, and the east that should be sowed in spring is white Pine is sowed for 5 months or so in greenhouse in advance, can substantially extend east white pine seedling raise period, improves seedling quality.
2) present invention carries out program request using degradable nonwoven fabrics nutritive cube at seeding time.It can omit and to change alms bowl, change bed, And the convenient transportation in seedling transportation, can go up a hill afforestation with alms bowl, effectively prevent scattered stick together.
3) present invention is dressed seed in seed treatment with quartz sand.Quartz sand is with distinct contrast with seed color, facilitates Improve working efficiency when program request.Quartz sand miscellaneous bacteria is few simultaneously, is conducive to the contamination control of lamination and vernalization period.
4) present invention uses turfy soil and decomposed sheep dung in east white pine cultivation matrix.It is well known that east white pine is liked Acid soil environment, and turfy soil itself is just acid soil, and the content of organic matter is higher.Decomposed sheep dung is acid organic Fertilizer can extend the effective fertility of cultivation matrix by the slow releasing function in matrix.
5) present invention is in the sawdust for after planting covering one layer of 0.3-0.6cm in matrix, the ratio of east white pine maturation cone It focuses between 0.92-0.97, covering sawdust can prevent seed when watering from floating on stromal surface.
Specific embodiment
The present invention is described in detail combined with specific embodiments below.Following embodiment will be helpful to the technology of this field Personnel further understand the present invention, but the invention is not limited in any way.It should be pointed out that the ordinary skill of this field For personnel, without departing from the inventive concept of the premise, various modifications and improvements can be made.These belong to the present invention Protection scope.
Embodiment 1
Test unit: Jilin Province, Jilin, Jilin agricultural science and technology institute, Jilin forestry scientific research institute.Jilin temperate zone directly under the jurisdiction of a municipal government is big Land property monsoon climate, makes a clear distinction between the four seasons.Summer warm is rainy, and winter cold is dry.It is gradually dropped from south to north by influence of topography temperature It is low.3.9 DEG C of average temperature of the whole year, a monthly mean temperature is minimum, generally at -18 DEG C~-20 DEG C;July temperature on average highest, generally At 21 DEG C~23 DEG C.650~750ml of annual average precipitation, annual sunshine time is generally at 2300~2500 hours.
Test method:
1) seed preparation
1. collecting seed
In in mid or late August, 2017, carried out when east white pine cone color becomes purple or brown, and cone not yet cracks Cone after the completion of harvesting, is placed in drying 15~20 days at aeration-drying, separated in cone after cone cracking by the harvesting of bulb Seed, remove seed wing after rubbing, the clean seed of gained set and is saved in a cool and dry place.
2. the lamination of seed
In in mid or late October, 2017, the seed for preservation of drying in the shade is taken out, kind is impregnated using 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate respectively Son and quartz sand (partial size 0.5mm~1.0mm) 30min, later with clear water flushing 3 times or more, the seed that cleaning is finished is used clear Water impregnates 36 hours, changes water daily, and after immersion, the ratio that seed and quartz sand are 1: 3 by volume is uniformly mixed, It is placed in closed plastic box, in Stratificated treatment 60 days in 4 DEG C of refrigerator;
2) greenhouse selects
Jilin agricultural science and technology agricultural college, institute, greenhouse, gardens 1 is selected in greenhouse, and greenhouse is to have heating glass temperature with rear gable Room.Winter nocturnal temperature is at 8~10 DEG C or more, and temperature is at 20~25 DEG C under daytime fair weather.
3) vernalization
In in late December, 2017, the seed after lamination 60 days is taken out in refrigerator, (is had with 1.0% carbendazim or Bravo Imitate ingredient 50%) solution immersion 2 hours, it is then cleaned 2 times, is placed in plastic casing with clear water, it is ensured that seed sand volume of mixture is little In the half of box, and in box, bottom is controlled without ponding, temperature at 25 DEG C, vernalization 5~7 days, has 50% or more to show money or valuables one carries unintentionally i.e. to seed It can sow;
4) container is sowed
1. preparing seedling medium
The ratio for being 3:1:0.5:0.1 according to volume ratio by turfy soil, perlite, decay sheep excrement, carbendazim (50% effective content) It is mixed, the ratio for then adding imidacloprid (2% effective content) 2.0g according to every liter adds imidacloprid, is uniformly mixed, must educate Seedling matrix;
2. the pretreatment of container for plant growth
Container for plant growth selects diameter for the degradable white non-woven fabric Seedling bag of 4.0cm × 7.0cm, and 1~2 day by institute prior to seeding It states seedling medium to fill to container for plant growth, loading is about the 2/3 of container for plant growth volume, and filled container for plant growth is neat Compact is placed into the seedlings nursing plate that specification is 54cm × 28cm, is watered later using spray pattern into container for plant growth, with complete Subject to portion irrigates;
3. sowing
The east white pine seed for having urged bud is sowed, sowing is carried out using point broadcast mode, and each Seedling bag broadcasts a kind Son, 1.5~2.0cm of depth of planting cover the sawdust of 0.3~0.6cm above, are finally sprinkled profoundly water by the way of sprinkling.
4. covering
After sowing, sprayed water according to surface dry and wet degree, it is ensured that do not do on surface.
5) winter greenhouse management
1. rat plague control
In in early December, 2017 into the plague of rats prevention and control in full greenhouse, rodent poison bait is sowed in greenhouse.
2. watering
The east white pine after planting emergence in 7~10 days (at the beginning of 1 month 2018), after emergence except the cloudy day, snow or intensity of illumination not When sufficient, all nebulizing spray should be carried out when temperature is higher at noon daily, to reduce warm room temperature, improve humidity.
3. the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
The east white pine insect pest that carries out nursing young plants in hothouses in winter is less, predominantly disease.Wherein in nursery early and middle portion, humidity is big Disease is easy to happen in the case that temperature is low, mainly based on samping off, stem rot.Since emergence, 0.5% is sprayed weekly Hymexazol (70% effective content) is prevented and treated.
4. weeding
Container nursery weeds are not easy to grow, if there is weed growth, manually pull out.
5. Temperature and Humidity Control
At in January, 2018~2 the end of month, outdoor temperature is extremely low, can be aerated and change according to intensity of illumination and temperature of shed situation Gas, night put down greenhouse heat-insulating cotton-wadded quilt.But in March, 2018~April because outdoor temperature is gone up, noon ventilation 2h when fine day Left and right, prevents temperature excessively high.
6) it is out of the garden
Jilin forestry scientific research institute four, which is transferred to, in late April, 2018 closes test nursery.
Test result:
In 1000 sowing tests, average germination percentage is 92 .7%;East white pine growth of seedling is healthy and strong, grows fine, root system Prosperity, the second internode of east white pine has begun growth when 4 the end of month went out canopy within 2018, removes a small amount of handling loss after transfer transport, All survivals.
Specific embodiments of the present invention are described above.It is to be appreciated that the invention is not limited to above-mentioned Particular implementation, those skilled in the art can make a variety of changes or modify within the scope of the claims, this not shadow Ring substantive content of the invention.In the absence of conflict, the feature in embodiments herein and embodiment can any phase Mutually combination.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of east white pine method for culturing seedlings, it is characterised in that: the following steps are included:
S1, seed preparation
1. collecting seed
It collects seed in annual mid or late August, when east white pine cone color becomes purple or brown, and cone not yet cracks When be best plucking seed time, after cone harvesting, be placed at aeration-drying 15~20 days dry, separated in cone after cone cracking Seed removes seed wing after rubbing, and clean seed is set and is saved in a cool and dry place;
2. the lamination of seed
In mid or late October, the seed for preservation of drying in the shade is taken out, seed and stone are impregnated using 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate respectively Sand 30min rinses seed and quartz sand 3 times or more respectively with clear water later, and the seed that cleaning is finished impregnates 36 with clear water Hour or more, it is primary per the replacement of hour for 24 hours clear water;It is by volume 1: 3 ratio by seed and quartz sand after immersion It is uniformly mixed, is placed in closed plastic box, is no less than 60 days in Stratificated treatment in 4 DEG C of refrigerator;
S2, greenhouse are built
Build can ensure nocturnal temperature at 8~10 DEG C or more, greenhouse of the temperature at 20~25 DEG C under daytime fair weather;
S3, vernalization
After lamination 60 days, seed is taken out, is impregnated 2 hours with 1.0% carbendazim or Bravo solution, after clear water cleans 2 times, It is placed in plastic casing, it is ensured that the volume of seed sand mixture is not more than the half of box, and bottom exists without ponding, temperature control in box 25 DEG C or so, vernalization 7 days or so, having 50% or more to show money or valuables one carries unintentionally to seed can sow;
S4, sowing
1. preparing seedling medium
The ratio for being 3:1:0.5:0.1 according to volume ratio by turfy soil, perlite, decay sheep excrement, carbendazim (50% effective content) Example is mixed, and the ratio for then adding imidacloprid (2% effective content) 2.0g according to every liter adds imidacloprid, is uniformly mixed, is obtained Seedling medium;
2. the pretreatment of container for plant growth
Container for plant growth selects diameter for the degradable white non-woven fabric Seedling bag of 4.0cm × 7.0cm, and 1~2 day by institute prior to seeding It states seedling medium to fill to container for plant growth, is 54cm × 28cm by the specification that is placed into of filled container for plant growth neat compact Seedlings nursing plate in, watered into container for plant growth using spray pattern later, be subject to and all irrigate;
3. sowing
The east white pine seed that bud has been urged in step S3 is sowed using a broadcast mode, each Seedling bag broadcasts a kind Son, 1.5~2.0cm of depth of planting cover the sawdust of 0.3~0.6cm thickness above, are finally sprinkled profoundly water by the way of sprinkling;
S5, winter greenhouse management
1. rat plague control
Rodent poison bait is sowed around seedlings nursing plate, or carries out killing mouse for full canopy in advance, prevents mouse from gnawing seed;
2. watering
East white pine is after planting emerged in 7~10 days, after emergence except the cloudy day, snow or when intensity of illumination deficiency, all answer daily Nebulizing spray is carried out when temperature is higher at noon, to reduce warm room temperature, improves humidity;
3. the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
Since emergence, the hymexazol for spraying 0.5% weekly is prevented and treated;
4. weeding
Container nursery weeds are not easy to grow, if there is weed growth, manually pull out;
5. Temperature and Humidity Control
At sowing initial stage, outdoor temperature is extremely low can be aerated ventilation according to temperature of shed situation, should be daily in March~April Noon ventilation 2h, prevents temperature excessively high;
S6, it is out of the garden
It can be out of the garden in late April~the first tenday period of a month in May.
2. a kind of east white pine method for culturing seedlings as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: the partial size of the quartz sand is 0.5mm~1.0mm.
3. a kind of east white pine method for culturing seedlings as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: in the Bravo solution, effectively The mass fraction of ingredient is 50%.
4. a kind of east white pine method for culturing seedlings as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:, should not be using modeling after sowing Expect film covering, at noon when easily cause that substrate temperature is excessively high to cause powder kind, after planting, pays attention to spraying water, it is ensured that do not do on surface.
5. a kind of east white pine method for culturing seedlings as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: the loading of the seedling medium is The 2/3 of Seedling bag volume.
CN201910243869.1A 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 Dong white pine seedling culture method Active CN109769618B (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111165115A (en) * 2020-03-06 2020-05-19 四川巴噜帮科技有限公司 Small berry seedling growing method

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