CN109765015A - A kind of radial dynamic stiffness test method and device of main shaft - Google Patents

A kind of radial dynamic stiffness test method and device of main shaft Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109765015A
CN109765015A CN201811556862.7A CN201811556862A CN109765015A CN 109765015 A CN109765015 A CN 109765015A CN 201811556862 A CN201811556862 A CN 201811556862A CN 109765015 A CN109765015 A CN 109765015A
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China
Prior art keywords
oil
main shaft
radial
loading plate
displacement
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CN201811556862.7A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
郑良钢
熊万里
叶颖
卜霞
赵倩妮
汤秀清
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Guangzhou Haozhi Electromechanical Co Ltd
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Guangzhou Haozhi Electromechanical Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201811556862.7A priority Critical patent/CN109765015A/en
Publication of CN109765015A publication Critical patent/CN109765015A/en
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of radial dynamic stiffness test methods of main shaft, comprising the following steps: fills loading plate in main shaft fixed sleeves;Hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers gap is set in outside loading plate, wherein there are two oil pockets for setting on hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers;Make two oil pockets along the arranged radially of main shaft, and is radially being in be oppositely arranged;Primary clearance size of the end face respectively between loading plate is identical where making the accent of two oil pockets;The radial displacement of loading plate is tested using displacement sensor, and the radial displacement x of main shaft is determined according to the radial displacement of loading plate;Calculate the effective bearing area S of the oil pocket of hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers;The oil liquid that goes out for calculating the oil pocket of hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers hinders R0;Calculate the radial dynamic stiffness k applied to main shaft.The present invention can reduce vibration, and be avoided that safety accident caused by touching mill.The invention also discloses a kind of radial device for testing dynamic stiffness of main shaft.

Description

A kind of radial dynamic stiffness test method and device of main shaft
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of spindle technology field more particularly to the radial dynamic stiffness test methods and dress of a kind of main shaft It sets.
Background technique
Currently, high-speed machine tool main shaft is the core functional components of modern machine, effect is band cutter (grinding wheel) or work Part rotation, realizes high-speed & precise progressive die.With the continuous improvement that modern industry requires machine finish and processing efficiency, machine Requirement of the bed to main shaft performance is also higher and higher.Rigidity is to measure one of the important indicator of high-speed machine tool main shaft performance.Main shaft is rigid Degree includes the Static stiffness under stationary state and dynamic stiffness when running at high speed.Rigidity that is feasible in engineering at present and being widely adopted Test method is Static stiffness test method.But Static stiffness can not really reflect that main shaft bears chip-load item when running at high speed The ability of resistance to deformation under part, only dynamic stiffness could the scientific dynamic bearer properties for reflecting main shaft.
At present there is dynamic stiffness test method in engineering: rolling bearing type loads measurement method, i.e., is directly made with the axis of rolling For load bearings, load bearings outer circle is contacted with the outer circle of main shaft projecting end, and realizes the load to main shaft;But this kind of side Formula has the following deficiencies:
(1) load bearings cause noise big with main shaft high speed rotation, and vibration is big;
(2) load bearings are that smooth normal direction contacts with main shaft outer circle, and load bearings is caused to be easy to damage because touching mill fever.
Summary of the invention
For overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, one of the objects of the present invention is to provide a kind of surveys of the radial dynamic stiffness of main shaft Method for testing, the second object of the present invention be to provide a kind of radial device for testing dynamic stiffness of main shaft, uses gap setting Hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers realize load, and can reduce vibration there are gap between hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers and loading plate, and be avoided that and touch Safety accident caused by grinding.
An object of the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that realization:
A kind of radial dynamic stiffness test method of main shaft, comprising the following steps:
Preparation process: loading plate is filled in main shaft fixed sleeves;Hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers gap is set in outside the loading plate, Wherein, there are two oil pockets for setting on the hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers;Make two oil pockets along the arranged radially of the main shaft, and The radial direction is in be oppositely arranged;The primary clearance between the loading plate respectively of end face where making the accent of two oil pockets Size is identical;
Apply load steps: driving spindle rotation;It is respectively corresponded using two constant displacement pumps toward two oil pocket input oil, and made Oil sprays to the loading plate by the oil pocket;Meanwhile by the revolving speed V of one of them constant displacement pump1It is adjusted to n0+nx, and will The revolving speed V of another constant displacement pump2It is adjusted to n0-nx
Radial displacement obtaining step: in the application load steps, using the radial direction of displacement sensor test loading plate It is displaced, and determines the radial displacement x of main shaft according to the radial displacement of the loading plate;
Calculate step:
Calculation formula calculates the effective bearing area S of the oil pocket according to area;
Calculate the oil pocket goes out oil liquid resistance R0
The main shaft radial direction dynamic stiffness k is calculated according to formula (1);
Wherein, in above-mentioned formula (1):
X is the radial displacement of the main shaft;S is the effective bearing area;n0For the rated speed of the constant displacement pump;nx For revolving speed V1Or revolving speed V2Variable quantity relative to the rated speed;q0Often rotating a circle for the constant displacement pump, it is specified to pump out Oil mass;R0For the oil liquid resistance out;h0For the primary clearance size.
Further, in the radial displacement obtaining step, the carrying is tested using two institute's displacement sensors The radial displacement of plate, and the average value for the numerical value for taking two displacement sensors to test is the radial displacement x of the main shaft.
Further, in the application load steps, it is supplied to the electric current of the constant displacement pump big using Frequency Converter Control It is small, to adjust the revolving speed of the constant displacement pump.
Further, using flange as the loading plate.
The second object of the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that realization:
A kind of radial device for testing dynamic stiffness of main shaft, including loading plate, bearing block, oil vessel, displacement sensor, liquid Body hydrostatic bearing, two constant displacement pumps and two frequency converters;The bearing block is formed with inner cavity;The loading plate is movably arranged on institute State it is interior intracavitary, and for fixation be set in outside main shaft;The fluid pressure shaft clearance is set in outside the loading plate, is located at described It is interior intracavitary and be mounted on the bearing block;There are two oil pockets for the hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers tool;Two oil pockets are in the master The radial direction of axis is in be oppositely arranged;Two constant displacement pumps are arranged in a one-to-one correspondence with two oil pockets, and the constant displacement pump is used for Oil in the oil vessel is delivered in the corresponding oil pocket;Two frequency converters and two constant displacement pumps one are a pair of It should be arranged;The input terminal of the output end of the frequency converter and the corresponding constant displacement pump is electrically connected, the input terminal of the frequency converter with External power supply connection;Institute's displacement sensors are mounted on the bearing block, and the radial displacement for testing the loading plate.
Further, the quantity of institute's displacement sensors is two, and two institute's displacement sensors are along the loading plate Radial direction is arranged successively.
Further, the hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers are also provided with oil-recovery tank and drainback passage;The notch court of the oil-recovery tank To the loading plate;The oil-recovery tank is connected to the oil-recovery tank and the inner cavity;The drainback passage connection oil return pipe, described time Oil pipe protrudes into the oil vessel far from one end of the drainback passage.
Further, the bearing block offers the external oil return opening with the inner cavity of connection.
Compared with prior art, the beneficial effects of the present invention are:
Of the invention is arranged loading plate by using fixed in central spindle, and hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers gap is set in loading plate Outside, and using revolving speed it is adjusted to n respectively0+nxAnd n0-nxTwo constant displacement pumps respectively correspond as the oil of two hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers Chamber input oil, oil sprays to loading plate by the oil pockets of hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers and realizes load to loading plate, and makes loading plate Drive main axis;Displacement sensor is cooperated to can get the radial displacement of main shaft again, in this way, the dynamic stiffness of main shaft can be tested;On Whole process is stated, hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers and loading plate are avoided that safety accident caused by touching mill there are gap;Furthermore loading plate It is contactless with hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers working condition, and the oil film itself formed in hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers has shock-absorbing properties, in turn It realizes vibration damping, there is excellent damping property.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of the radial dynamic stiffness test method of main shaft of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the structural schematic diagram of the radial device for testing dynamic stiffness of main shaft of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is that the structural schematic diagram of the radial device for testing dynamic stiffness of main shaft of the present invention (removes oil vessel and frequency conversion Device).
In figure: 10, main shaft;20, loading plate;30, bearing block;31, inner cavity;40, oil vessel;50, displacement sensor; 60, hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers;61, oil pocket;70, constant displacement pump;80, frequency converter;90, oil-recovery tank;100, drainback passage;110, oil return Mouthful.
Specific embodiment
In the following, being described further in conjunction with attached drawing and specific embodiment to the present invention, it should be noted that not Under the premise of conflicting, new implementation can be formed between various embodiments described below or between each technical characteristic in any combination Example.
A kind of radial dynamic stiffness test method of main shaft as shown in Figure 1, comprising the following steps:
Preparation process: loading plate 20 is filled in 10 fixed sleeves of main shaft;60 gap of hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers is set in loading plate Outside 20, wherein there are two oil pockets 61 for setting on hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60;Make two oil pockets 61 along the arranged radially of main shaft 10, and It is radially being in be oppositely arranged, to ensure that two hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60 are identical to the loading position of 20 power of loading plate;Make two oil Primary clearance size of the end face respectively between loading plate 20 is identical where the accent of chamber 61, i.e., the accent of one of oil pocket 61 Between place end face and loading plate 20 end face where the accent of gap size and another oil pocket 61 and between loading plate 20 between Gap size is identical;
Apply load steps: driving spindle 10 rotates;It is respectively corresponded using two constant displacement pumps 70 toward two oil pockets 61 and is inputted Oil, at this point, constant displacement pump 70 will be in the oil pocket 61 of external oil input hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60;Later by from hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60 Oil pocket 61 sprays to the loading plate 20, realizes the load to loading plate 20, and since loading plate 20 is fixed on main shaft 10, and realizes Load to main shaft 10;Meanwhile by the revolving speed V of one of constant displacement pump 701It is adjusted to n0+nx, and by another constant displacement pump 70 Revolving speed V2It is adjusted to n0-nx, since the revolving speed of both sides constant displacement pump 70 has differences, i.e., the charge oil pressure of two constant displacement pumps 70 is different, So that the loading force that oil sprays to loading plate 20 is different, and then it can realize that loading plate 20 drives central spindle radially to move;
Radial displacement obtaining step: in applying load steps, the radial direction of loading plate 20 is tested using displacement sensor 50 Displacement, since loading plate 20 is fixedly connected with central spindle, in this way, determining the radial position of main shaft 10 according to the radial displacement of loading plate 20 Move x;
Calculate step:
Calculation formula calculates the effective bearing area S of oil outlet chamber 61 according to area;It should be noted that those skilled in the art Member according to common knowledge, can by measuring the diameter of the oil pocket 61 of hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60, later by areal calculation formula come The area of the oil pocket 61 of hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60 is calculated, is no longer repeated herein;
The oil liquid that goes out for calculating oil outlet chamber 61 hinders R0
The radial dynamic stiffness k of main shaft 10 is calculated according to formula (1);
Wherein, in above-mentioned formula (1):
X is the radial displacement of the main shaft 10;S is the effective bearing area of the oil pocket 61;n0For the specified of the constant displacement pump 70 Revolving speed;nxFor revolving speed V1Or revolving speed V2Variable quantity relative to rated speed (variable quantity is absolute value);q0It is every for constant displacement pump 70 Rotate a circle the nominal oil level pumped out;R0Go out oil liquid resistance for the oil pocket 61;h0For the primary clearance size;
In above-mentioned steps, due to the cooperation using hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60 and constant displacement pump 70, the load to main shaft 10 is realized, And there are gap between hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60 and loading plate 20, it is avoided that safety accident caused by touching mill;Furthermore loading plate 20 It is contactless with 60 working condition of hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers, and the oil film itself formed in hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60 has shock-absorbing properties, And then realize vibration damping, there is excellent damping property.
It should be noted that above-mentioned effective bearing area S and out oil liquid hinder R0Calculation formula be common knowledge, this field Technical staff according to common knowledge you can learn that, no longer repeated herein.
Preferably, in radial displacement obtaining step, the radial position of loading plate 20 is tested using two displacement sensors 50 It moves, and the average value for the numerical value for taking two displacement sensors 50 to test is the radial displacement x of main shaft 10;It is located at sensing by two The average value of device obtains 10 radial displacement of main shaft, and accuracy can be improved.
Further, in applying load steps, the size of current for being supplied to constant displacement pump 70 is controlled using frequency converter 80, with The revolving speed of adjustment quantitative pump 70.
Specifically, using flange as loading plate 20.
The present embodiment also discloses a kind of radial device for testing dynamic stiffness of main shaft as Figure 2-3, including loading plate 20, bearing block 30, oil vessel 40, displacement sensor 50,60, two constant displacement pumps 70 of hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers and two frequency converters 80;Bearing block 30 is formed with inner cavity 31;Loading plate 20 is movably arranged in inner cavity 31;Fluid pressure shaft clearance is set in loading plate Outside 20, in inner cavity 31 and it is mounted on bearing block 30;There are two oil pockets 61 for the tool of hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60;Two oil pockets 61 exist The radial direction of main shaft 10 is in be oppositely arranged;Two constant displacement pumps 70 are arranged in a one-to-one correspondence with two oil pockets 61, and constant displacement pump 70 is used to incite somebody to action Oil in oil vessel 40 is delivered in corresponding oil pocket 61;Two frequency converters 80 are arranged in a one-to-one correspondence with two constant displacement pumps 70;Become The output end of frequency device 80 is electrically connected with the input terminal of corresponding constant displacement pump 70, and the input terminal of frequency converter 80 is connected to external power supply;Position Displacement sensor 50 is mounted on bearing block 30, and the radial displacement for testing loading plate 20.
On the basis of above structure, using this main shaft radial device for testing dynamic stiffness when, main shaft 10 is penetrated into inner cavity 31 and fixation be threaded through in loading plate 20;Mobile loading plate 20, so that two oil pockets of loading plate 20 and hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60 Gap size between 61 accents is consistent;Live spindle 10 controls the power supply electricity of constant displacement pump 70 using frequency converter 80 Pressure, by the rotational speed regulation of one of constant displacement pump 70 to n0+nx, and by the revolving speed V of another constant displacement pump 702It is adjusted to n0-nx, this When, the charge oil pressure of two constant displacement pumps 70 does not have to, and the oil in oil vessel 40 is delivered to hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers by simultaneous quantitative pump 70 In 60 oil pocket 61, and oil sprays to loading plate 20 in the oil pocket 61 of hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60 after accumulation of energy, realizes to loading plate 20 Load, since loading plate 20 is fixedly connected with main shaft 10 and realize the load to main shaft 10;Furthermore since loading plate 20 is opposite The loading force of two sides is different and moves radially and main shaft 10 is driven to move radially;At this point, the test carrying of displacement sensor 50 The radial displacement of plate 20 obtains the radial displacement of main shaft 10;Cooperate the diameter that main shaft 10 can be calculated according to formula (1) later To dynamic stiffness k;
Wherein, in above-mentioned formula (1):
X is the radial displacement of the main shaft 10;S is the effective bearing area;n0For the rated speed of constant displacement pump 70;nxTo turn Fast V1Or revolving speed V2Variable quantity relative to rated speed (variable quantity is absolute value);q0It often rotates a circle pump for constant displacement pump 70 Nominal oil level out;R0Go out oil liquid resistance for this;h0For the primary clearance size.
It should be noted that above-mentioned oil vessel 40 can be fuel reserve tank, oil storage barrel, oil storage basin etc.;Above-mentioned frequency conversion Device 80 is existing component, and those skilled in the art would know that it is realized from the prior art and control 70 supply voltage of constant displacement pump Method, no longer repeated herein.
In the above process, due to the cooperation using hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60 and constant displacement pump 70, the load to main shaft 10 is realized, And there are gap between hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60 and loading plate 20, it is avoided that safety accident caused by touching mill;Furthermore loading plate 20 It is contactless with 60 working condition of hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers, and the oil film itself formed in hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60 has shock-absorbing properties, And then realize vibration damping, there is excellent damping property.
Further, the quantity of displacement sensor 50 is two, two displacement sensors 50 along loading plate 20 it is radial according to Secondary arrangement, the average value for the numerical value for taking two displacement sensors 50 to test later are the radial displacement of main shaft 10, and it is accurate to can be improved Property.
Specifically, hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60 are also provided with oil-recovery tank 90 and drainback passage 100;The notch direction of oil-recovery tank 90 Loading plate 20;Oil-recovery tank 90 is connected to oil-recovery tank 90 and inner cavity 31;Drainback passage 100 connects oil return pipe, and oil return pipe is logical far from oil return The one end in road 100 is protruded into oil vessel 40;In this way, passing through oil return from the oil that the oil pocket 61 of hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers 60 sprays It when the position of slot 90, into oil-recovery tank 90, flows in oil vessel 40, realizes from drainback passage 100 and oil return pipe later The collection and recycling of part oil avoid oily splashing, and save cost.
More specifically, bearing block 30 offers the external oil return opening 110 with inner cavity 31 of connection, in this way, from fluid pressure axis The oil for holding 60 ejection of oil pocket 61 can flow to storage from oil return opening 110 when entering inner cavity 31 and flowing to the cavity wall of inner cavity 31 In oil vessel 40, the collection and recycling of oil are further realized.
The above embodiment is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention, and the scope of protection of the present invention is not limited thereto, The variation and replacement for any unsubstantiality that those skilled in the art is done on the basis of the present invention belong to institute of the present invention Claimed range.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of radial dynamic stiffness test method of main shaft, it is characterised in that the following steps are included:
Preparation process: loading plate is filled in main shaft fixed sleeves;Hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers gap is set in outside the loading plate, In, there are two oil pockets for setting on the hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers;Make two oil pockets along the arranged radially of the main shaft, and in institute Stating radial is in be oppositely arranged;Primary clearance of the end face respectively between the loading plate is big where making the accent of two oil pockets It is small identical;
Apply load steps: driving spindle rotation;It is respectively corresponded using two constant displacement pumps toward two oil pocket input oil, and makes oily warp It crosses the oil pocket and sprays to the loading plate;Meanwhile by the revolving speed V of one of them constant displacement pump1It is adjusted to n0+nx, and will be another The revolving speed V of a constant displacement pump2It is adjusted to n0-nx
Radial displacement obtaining step: in the application load steps, the radial displacement of loading plate is tested using displacement sensor, And the radial displacement x of main shaft is determined according to the radial displacement of the loading plate;
Calculate step:
Calculation formula calculates the effective bearing area S of the oil pocket according to area;
Calculate the oil pocket goes out oil liquid resistance R0
The radial dynamic stiffness k of the main shaft is calculated according to formula (1);
Wherein, in above-mentioned formula (1):
X is the radial displacement of the main shaft;S is the effective bearing area of the oil pocket;n0For the rated speed of the constant displacement pump; nxFor revolving speed V1Or revolving speed V2Variable quantity relative to the rated speed;q0It often rotates a circle the volume pumped out for the constant displacement pump Stand oil amount;R0Go out oil liquid resistance for the oil pocket;h0For the primary clearance size.
2. the radial dynamic stiffness test method of main shaft as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: obtained in the radial displacement In step, the radial displacement of the loading plate is tested using two institute's displacement sensors, and two displacement sensors is taken to survey The average value of the numerical value tried is the radial displacement x of the main shaft.
3. the radial dynamic stiffness test method of main shaft as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: in the application load steps In, it is supplied to the variable-frequency motor frequency size of the constant displacement pump, using Frequency Converter Control to adjust the revolving speed of the constant displacement pump.
4. the radial dynamic stiffness test method of main shaft as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that: using flange be used as described in hold Support plate.
5. a kind of radial device for testing dynamic stiffness of main shaft, it is characterised in that: including loading plate, bearing block, oil vessel, displacement Sensor, hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers, two constant displacement pumps and two frequency converters;The bearing block is formed with inner cavity;The loading plate is living Dynamic setting is set in outside main shaft described interior intracavitary for fixation;The fluid pressure shaft clearance is set in the loading plate Outside, positioned at described interior intracavitary and be mounted on the bearing block;There are two oil pockets for the hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers tool;Two oil Chamber is in be oppositely arranged in the radial direction of the main shaft;Two constant displacement pumps are arranged in a one-to-one correspondence with two oil pockets, and described Constant displacement pump is used to be delivered to the oil in the oil vessel in the corresponding oil pocket;Two frequency converters and two it is described fixed Amount pump is arranged in a one-to-one correspondence;The output end of the frequency converter is electrically connected with the input terminal of the corresponding constant displacement pump, the frequency converter Input terminal be connected to external power supply;Institute's displacement sensors are mounted on the bearing block, and for testing the loading plate Radial displacement.
6. the radial device for testing dynamic stiffness of main shaft as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that: the number of institute's displacement sensors Amount is two, and two institute's displacement sensors are arranged successively along the radial direction of the loading plate.
7. the radial device for testing dynamic stiffness of main shaft as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that: the hydrodynamic journal liquid polymers are also Offer oil-recovery tank and drainback passage;The notch of the oil-recovery tank is towards the loading plate;The oil-recovery tank is connected to the oil return Slot and the inner cavity;The drainback passage connects oil return pipe, and the oil return pipe protrudes into described far from one end of the drainback passage In oil vessel.
8. the radial device for testing dynamic stiffness of main shaft as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that: the bearing block offers company The logical external and inner cavity oil return opening.
CN201811556862.7A 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 A kind of radial dynamic stiffness test method and device of main shaft Pending CN109765015A (en)

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