CN109737451B - Gaseous fuel is low discharge combustion chamber of swirl injection in advance - Google Patents

Gaseous fuel is low discharge combustion chamber of swirl injection in advance Download PDF

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CN109737451B
CN109737451B CN201910063539.4A CN201910063539A CN109737451B CN 109737451 B CN109737451 B CN 109737451B CN 201910063539 A CN201910063539 A CN 201910063539A CN 109737451 B CN109737451 B CN 109737451B
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wall
combustion chamber
swirler
fuel nozzle
gaseous fuel
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CN109737451A (en
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王波
甘晓华
莫唯书
刘一鸣
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Southwest University of Science and Technology
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Southwest University of Science and Technology
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Abstract

The invention discloses a low-emission combustion chamber for gaseous fuel pre-swirl injection, and relates to the technical field of aviation gas turbines. The low-emission combustion chamber comprises a combustion chamber head, the combustion chamber head is connected with a fuel nozzle, the combustion chamber head comprises an inner swirler, an outer swirler and an outer wall which are sequentially arranged from inside to outside, the front end of the outer wall is coated outside the outer swirler, and a Venturi tube is formed at the rear end of the outer wall; the fuel nozzle is arranged in the inner swirler, the opening of the fuel nozzle faces the Venturi tube, and the tail end of the fuel nozzle is provided with a rotational flow structure; the gaseous fuel is pre-swirled and then injected through the swirling structure, and is premixed with the airflow which is rotated by the inner swirler and the outer swirler in the venturi tube. The fuel nozzle enables gaseous fuel in the fuel nozzle to generate pre-swirl injection and be mixed with swirl air generated by the inner swirler and the outer swirler arranged on the outer side of the fuel nozzle, so that the gaseous fuel is uniformly premixed and combusted after entering the combustion chamber, and the pollution emission of the whole LTO cycle of an aeroengine is reduced.

Description

Gaseous fuel is low discharge combustion chamber of swirl injection in advance
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of aviation gas turbines, in particular to a low-emission combustion chamber for gaseous fuel pre-swirl injection.
Background
The basic performance and structural distribution of modern aeroengine combustors have reached a fairly high level, but for modern aeroengine combustors, there are still a great number of difficulties and challenges, and the development and application of new materials, new processes, new structures and new concepts is the source for ensuring the continuous progress thereof. The main development trend of modern civil aircraft engine combustion chambers is low pollution combustion. Civil aircraft engine combustion chambers must meet increasingly stringent aircraft engine pollutant emission standards. The currently adopted CAEP6(Committee on Environment Environmental Protection) standard has been very strict in the regulation of pollutant emissions, in particular NOx pollutant emission requirements; the latest CAEP8 standard proposes that the emission of NOx is reduced by 15% of the emission standard of CAEP6, and with the rapid development of aviation industry and the continuous improvement of environmental awareness, the pollution emission of a gas turbine combustor will be required to be higher in the future.
Two well-known companies GE and PW of american aeroengines have been engaged in research on low-pollution combustors, GE first developed dual-ring low-pollution combustion DACs (for GE90 and CFM56), and PW company adopted RQL (Rich burn-Quench-Lean burn, RQL for short) low-pollution combustor talen II (for PW4000 and 6000 series). In the next generation of low pollution combustors, GE company adopts LDM (Lean Direct Mixing Combustion) technology to develop taps (twin Annular Premixing combustor) low pollution combustors for their GEnx engines. In the bench full-circle test verification of the combustion chamber, the NOx pollution emission is reduced by 50% compared with the CAEP2 emission standard. GE corporation applied for a number of U.S. patents: applications numbers 6363726, 6389815, 6354072, 6418726, 0178732, 6381964 and 6389815, all of which are combustion organizations where the pre-combustion stage employs diffusion combustion and the main combustion stage employs premixed combustion, in order to reduce NOx emissions under large conditions with the greatest pollution index. The PW company continues to adopt an RQL mode to provide a low-pollution combustor for reducing NOx pollution emission to be TALON X, the adopted head form is an air atomizing nozzle developed by the PW company, the combustor is a single-ring cavity, and the test result on a V2500 engine fan-shaped test section is reduced by 50% compared with the CAEP2 standard. The low pollution combustor developed by the company Rolls-Royce using LDM technology is ANTLE, which is a single ring chamber staged combustor with 50% lower NOx emissions than the CAEP2 standard for its new generation of engine turbulence up to 1000.
The patents mentioned above are directed to reducing pollutant emissions under large operating conditions, and this parameter is expressed in terms of LTO Emission according to the Emission index at a standard cycle specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). LTO Emission is related to NOx Emission under four conditions, namely, the large condition NOx Emission and the small condition NOx Emission. The operating modes, thrust and run times for each operating mode in the standard LTO cycle are shown in the table below.
TABLE 1 ICAO modes of operation and times in LTO cycle
NOx emissions for CFM56-5B/3 engine with normal or active thrust at 140KN are given in the following table, data from ICAO Emission data bank.
TABLE 2 CFM56-5B/3 NOx emission levels
The combustion chamber adopts staged combustion, the precombustion stage is a diffusion combustion mode, the main combustion stage is a premixed combustion mode, the NOx emission under large working conditions is reduced, and the achievable NOx emission is shown in the following table:
TABLE 3 NOx emission levels achievable with premixed combustion in the main combustion stage
Parameter(s) Unit of Slow vehicle Approach field Climbing device Taking off
NOx Emission Index (EI) g/(kgf) 4.45 9.28 4 4.1
Flow rate of fuel kg/s 0.112 0.448 1.086 1.325
Run time g 1560 240 132 42
Discharge capacity g/kN 777.5 997.8 594 228
In small working conditions (slow ground vehicle and approach), although the NOx emission index is low, the operating time in small working conditions is far higher than that in other large working conditions according to table 1, and according to table 3, when the main combustion stage adopts a premixed combustion mode, the NOx emission index in large working conditions can be greatly reduced, and at the moment, the proportion of the total NOx emission amount of the pre-combustion stage in the pollutant emission of the whole LTO cycle is the largest, so that the reduction of the NOx emission of the pre-combustion stage needs to be considered in order to further reduce the NOx emission of the whole LTO cycle.
Regardless of the advanced low-pollution combustion chamber, the key technology is the combustion technology for reducing NOx (nitrogen oxide), CO (carbon monoxide), UHC (unburned hydrocarbon) and smoke, the core problem is to reduce the temperature of a combustion zone and make the temperature field of the combustion zone uniform, namely overall and local equivalence ratio control, and the uniformity of the equivalence ratio of a main combustion zone is mainly determined by the uniformity of fuel atomization and oil-gas mixing.
According to the mechanism of NOx and CO generation and test results, the following results are known: the equivalent ratio of the main combustion zone of the combustion chamber is in the range of 0.6-0.8, and little NOx and CO (emission laws of UHC and CO are similar) are generated. Based on the principle, the emission of NOx, CO and UHC is considered to be in a low value range, and two factors are considered: one is the average equivalence ratio of the main combustion zone and the other is the uniformity of the average equivalence ratio of the main combustion zone. And should be the case in all aero engine operating conditions, and the uniformity of the equivalence ratio in the main combustion zone is primarily dependent on the uniformity of the fuel and air blending. In terms of combustion mode, uniform premixed combustion is adopted, and the requirement of uniformity of equivalence ratio in a main combustion zone is met to reduce pollution emission.
The current conventional combustion mode cannot reduce NOx, CO and UHC because of the current design method of the combustor. For a conventional combustor, in a large state, due to the adoption of the diffusion combustion mode, the local equivalence ratio of a combustion area is always about 1, which is far beyond the requirement of the equivalence ratio range required by the low-pollution combustion, and the emission of NOx reaches the maximum although the emission of CO and UHC is low. At low regime, the combustion zone equivalence ratio is low, well below the equivalence ratio range required for low pollutant combustion described above, where NOx emissions are low, but CO and UHC emissions are high. In addition, because the conventional combustion chamber generally adopts a diffusion combustion mode and has uneven local equivalence ratio, the conventional combustion chamber cannot meet the low pollution requirement in the whole engine working range.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a low-emission combustion chamber for gaseous fuel pre-swirl injection, so as to reduce pollution emission of the whole LTO cycle of an aeroengine.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a low-emission combustion chamber for pre-swirl injection of gaseous fuel comprises a combustion chamber head, a fuel nozzle is connected with the combustion chamber head,
the combustion chamber head comprises an inner swirler, an outer swirler and an outer wall which are sequentially arranged from inside to outside, the front end of the outer wall is coated outside the outer swirler, and the rear end of the outer wall forms a Venturi tube;
the fuel nozzle is arranged in the inner swirler, the opening of the fuel nozzle faces the Venturi tube, and the tail end of the fuel nozzle is provided with a swirling structure;
and the gaseous fuel generates pre-swirl injection through the swirl structure and is premixed with the airflow rotated by the inner swirler and the outer swirler in the venturi tube.
Preferably, a central column is arranged in the tail end of the fuel nozzle, and the swirling structure is arranged between the central column and the inner wall of the fuel nozzle.
Preferably, the outer wall of the tail end of the fuel nozzle is provided with a stepped structure, one surface of the stepped structure abuts against the inner wall of the inner swirler, the other surface of the stepped structure abuts against the front side of the inner swirler, the stepped structure is provided with a positioning groove, the front side of the inner swirler is provided with a positioning pin, and the positioning pin is inserted into the positioning groove.
Preferably, the fuel nozzle further comprises a cavity formed by an outer casing and an inner casing, the cavity is provided with a diffuser facing the head of the combustion chamber, and the fuel nozzle is inserted into the cavity.
Preferably, a flame tube outer wall and a flame tube inner wall are arranged in the cavity, the flame tube outer wall and the flame tube inner wall form a flame tube for combustion, and the outer wall is connected with the flame tube outer wall and the flame tube inner wall through head end walls respectively.
Preferably, the end wall of the head is welded with a splash ring for shielding high-temperature gas in the flame tube.
Preferably, the combustion chamber heads are uniformly arranged along the circumferential direction of the flame tube, the number of the combustion chamber heads is 10-60, and the air quantity passing through the combustion chamber heads accounts for 40-80% of the total air quantity of the combustion chamber.
Preferably, the cooling mode of the outer wall of the flame tube and the inner wall of the flame tube is air film cooling, divergent cooling or composite cooling.
Preferably, the number of stages n of the rotational flow structure is more than or equal to 1 and less than or equal to 5; the structure of each stage of cyclone is axial cyclone, radial cyclone or tangential cyclone.
Preferably, the inner swirler and the outer swirler are both axial swirlers, radial swirlers or tangential swirlers, and the number n of the stages of the inner swirler and the outer swirler is equal to or greater than 2 and equal to or less than 5.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
the fuel nozzle enables gaseous fuel in the fuel nozzle to generate pre-swirl injection and to be mixed with swirl air generated by the inner swirler and the outer swirler arranged on the outer side of the fuel nozzle.
Drawings
Embodiments of the present invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which
FIG. 1 is a schematic engine configuration;
FIG. 2 is a structural cross-sectional view of the combustion chamber of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the combustor head and fuel nozzle arrangement of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is an axial cross-sectional view of the combustion head of FIG. 2;
FIG. 5 is an isometric cross-sectional view of the fuel nozzle of FIG. 3.
In the figure:
1. a low pressure compressor; 2. a high pressure compressor; 3. a combustion chamber; 4. a high pressure turbine; 5. a low pressure turbine; 6. an outer case; 7. an inner case; 8. the outer wall of the flame tube; 9. the inner wall of the flame tube; 10. a diffuser; 11. cooling holes in the outer wall of the flame tube; 12. cooling holes in the inner wall of the flame tube; 13. a combustion chamber head; 14. a head end wall; 15. a splash ring; 16. a fuel nozzle; 17. an outer wall; 18. an outer swirler; 19. an inner swirler; 20. a central column; 21. a rotational flow structure; 22. a venturi tube; 23. a contraction section; 24. an expansion section; 25. externally swirling air; 26. air is swirled inwards; 27. a gaseous fuel; 28. positioning pins; 29. and (6) positioning a groove.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be obtained by a person skilled in the art without inventive effort based on the embodiments of the present invention, are within the scope of the present invention.
In the description of the present invention, it is to be understood that the terms "longitudinal", "lateral", "upper", "lower", "front", "rear", "left", "right", "vertical", "horizontal", "top", "bottom", "inner", "outer", and the like, indicate orientations or positional relationships based on those shown in the drawings, and are used merely for convenience of description and for simplicity of description, and do not indicate or imply that the referenced devices or elements must have a particular orientation, be constructed in a particular orientation, and be operated, and thus, are not to be construed as limiting the present invention.
As shown in fig. 1, which is a schematic diagram of an engine structure, particularly an aerospace engine, the engine includes a low-pressure compressor 1, a high-pressure compressor 2, a combustion chamber 3, a high-pressure turbine 4, and a low-pressure turbine 5. When the engine works, air is compressed by the low-pressure compressor 1 and then enters the high-pressure compressor 2, the high-pressure air enters the combustion chamber 3 to be combusted with fuel, high-temperature and high-pressure gas formed after combustion enters the high-pressure turbine 4 and the low-pressure turbine 5, and the high-pressure compressor 2 and the low-pressure compressor 1 are respectively driven by the turbine to do work.
As shown in fig. 2, it is a structural sectional view of the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber 3 adopts a single-ring cavity structure, the outer casing 6 and the inner casing 7 form the outer contour of the combustion chamber 3, namely, the outer casing and the inner casing form a cavity, the fuel nozzle 16 is inserted in the cavity, and the cavity is connected with the front high-pressure compressor 2 and the rear high-pressure turbine 4. The incoming flow air of the high-pressure compressor 2 enters the combustion chamber 3 from the diffuser 10 after speed reduction and diffusion, and is combusted with fuel in a space (namely the flame tube) surrounded by the outer wall 8 of the flame tube, the inner wall 9 of the flame tube and the head 13 of the combustion chamber. The cooling modes of the outer wall 8 and the inner wall 9 of the flame tube are air film cooling, divergent cooling or composite cooling so as to control the wall surface temperature and prolong the service life of the flame tube. The area in front of the cooling holes 11 on the outer wall of the flame tube and the cooling holes 12 on the inner wall of the flame tube is a combustion area, and air enters the flame tube from the two areas and is mixed with high-temperature fuel gas in the combustion area to enable the outlet temperature to meet the design requirement. The combustion chamber head 13 comprises an inner swirler 19, an outer swirler 18 and an outer wall 17 which are sequentially arranged from inside to outside, the front end of the outer wall 17 is coated outside the outer swirler 18, the rear end of the outer wall 17 forms a Venturi tube 22, and the outer wall 17 is welded and fixed with the flame tube outer wall 8 and the flame tube inner wall 9 through a head end wall 14. The fuel nozzle 16 is arranged inside the inner swirler 19 and opens towards a venturi 22, and the fuel nozzle 16 is provided with a swirl structure 21 at its end. Splash ring 15 is welded to head end wall 14 to separate it from the hot gases in the liner to protect structural integrity. The fuel nozzle 16 of the invention enables the gaseous fuel 17 in the fuel nozzle to generate pre-swirl injection and mix with swirl air generated by the inner swirler 19 and the outer swirler 18 which are arranged at the outer side of the fuel nozzle, because the gaseous fuel 17 has pre-swirl speed, the mixing effect with the air is greatly enhanced, the gaseous fuel 17 generates uniform pre-mixing combustion after entering the combustion chamber 3, the average flame temperature of the combustion is reduced, and the pollution emission of the whole LTO cycle of the aeroengine is reduced.
As shown in fig. 3, it is a structural sectional view of the joint of the combustion chamber head 13 and the fuel nozzle 16. The outer swirler 18, the inner swirler 19 and the swirling structure 21 are arranged concentrically, the venturi tube 22 comprises a converging section 23 and a diverging section 24, and the gaseous fuel 17 and the two streams of air (i.e. the outer swirling air 25 generated by the outer swirler 18 and the inner swirling air 26 generated by the inner swirler 19) are uniformly blended by the venturi tube 22 forming a converging-diverging passage. The combustion chamber head 13 is uniformly arranged along the circumferential direction of the flame tube, the number of the combustion chamber head 13 is 10-60, and the air quantity passing through the combustion chamber head 13 accounts for 40-80% of the total air quantity of the combustion chamber 3.
As shown in fig. 3 to 5, a center post 20 is provided in the end of the fuel nozzle 16, and a swirling structure 21 is provided between the center post 20 and the inner wall of the fuel nozzle 16. The presence of the center post 20 also enables the exit cross-sectional area of the fuel nozzle 16 to be reduced, resulting in an increased velocity of the gaseous fuel 17 exiting; the gaseous fuel 17 is rotated by the swirling structure 21, so that the gaseous fuel 17 has a certain swirling speed, and the mixing effect of the gaseous fuel 17 and air is greatly increased.
Furthermore, the outer wall of the tail end of the fuel nozzle 16 is provided with a stepped structure, one surface of the stepped structure abuts against the inner wall of the inner swirler 19, the other surface of the stepped structure abuts against the front side of the inner swirler 19, the stepped structure is provided with a positioning groove 29, the front side of the inner swirler 19 is provided with a positioning pin 28, and the positioning pin 28 is inserted into the positioning groove 29, so that the fuel nozzle 16 is firmly inserted into the inner swirler 19.
Furthermore, the number n of the stages of the rotational flow structure 21 is more than or equal to 1 and less than or equal to 5; the structure of each stage of cyclone is axial cyclone, radial cyclone or tangential cyclone. The inner swirler 19 and the outer swirler 18 are both axial swirlers, radial swirlers or tangential swirlers, and the number n of the stages of the inner swirler and the outer swirler is more than or equal to 2 and less than or equal to 5. The present embodiment does not limit the specific number of stages of the swirling structure 21, the inner swirler 19, and the outer swirler 18.
It should be understood that the above-described embodiments of the present invention are merely examples for clearly illustrating the present invention, and are not intended to limit the embodiments of the present invention. Other variations and modifications will be apparent to persons skilled in the art in light of the above description. And are neither required nor exhaustive of all embodiments. Any modification, equivalent replacement, and improvement made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the protection scope of the claims of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. A low emission combustion chamber for pre-swirl injection of gaseous fuel, comprising a combustion chamber head (13), to which a fuel nozzle (16) is connected (13), characterized in that,
the combustion chamber head (13) comprises an inner swirler (19), an outer swirler (18) and an outer wall (17) which are sequentially arranged from inside to outside, the front end of the outer wall (17) is coated outside the outer swirler (18), and the rear end of the outer wall forms a Venturi tube (22);
the fuel nozzle (16) is arranged inside the inner swirler (19) and the opening of the fuel nozzle faces the Venturi tube (22), a central column (20) and a swirling structure (21) are arranged at the tail end of the fuel nozzle (16), and the swirling structure (21) is arranged between the central column (20) and the inner wall of the fuel nozzle (16);
-a pre-swirl injection of gaseous fuel by means of said swirl structure (21) and a premixing of the gas flow rotated by said inner swirler (19) and said outer swirler (18) in said venturi tube (22);
the fuel nozzle is characterized in that a stepped structure is arranged on the outer wall of the tail end of the fuel nozzle (16), one surface of the stepped structure abuts against the inner wall of the inner swirler (19), the other surface of the stepped structure abuts against the front side of the inner swirler (19), a positioning groove (29) is formed in the stepped structure, a positioning pin (28) is arranged on the front side of the inner swirler (19), and the positioning pin (28) is inserted into the positioning groove (29).
2. The low emission combustion chamber with pre-swirl injection of gaseous fuel according to claim 1, further comprising a cavity formed by an outer casing (6) and an inner casing (7), said cavity being provided with a diffuser (10) facing the head (13) of the combustion chamber, said fuel nozzle (16) being plugged into said cavity.
3. The low emission combustion chamber of pre-swirl injection of gaseous fuel according to claim 2, characterized in that a flame tube outer wall (8) and a flame tube inner wall (9) are provided in the cavity, the flame tube outer wall (8) and the flame tube inner wall (9) forming a flame tube for combustion, the outer wall (17) being connected to the flame tube outer wall (8) and the flame tube inner wall (9) by a head end wall (14), respectively.
4. The low emission combustion chamber with pre-swirl injection of gaseous fuel according to claim 3, characterized in that a splash ring (15) is welded to the head end wall (14) for shielding the high temperature combustion gases inside the liner.
5. The low-emission combustor for pre-swirl injection of gaseous fuel as claimed in claim 3, wherein the number of the combustor heads (13) is 10-60 and the amount of air passing through the combustor heads (13) is 40-80% of the total amount of air in the combustor.
6. The low emission combustion chamber with pre-swirl injection of gaseous fuel as claimed in claim 3, characterized in that the cooling of the outer wall (8) and the inner wall (9) of the flame tube is film cooling, divergent cooling or compound cooling.
7. The low emission combustion chamber of pre-swirl injection of gaseous fuel according to claim 1, characterized in that the number of stages n of the swirl structure (21) is 1. ltoreq. n.ltoreq.5; the structure of each stage of cyclone is axial cyclone, radial cyclone or tangential cyclone.
8. The low emission combustion chamber with pre-swirl injection of gaseous fuel as claimed in any of claims 1-7, characterized in that the inner swirler (19) and the outer swirler (18) are both axial swirlers, radial swirlers or tangential swirlers and both have a number n of stages 2. ltoreq. n.ltoreq.5.
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CN110131065A (en) * 2019-05-15 2019-08-16 燕山大学 A kind of novel tangential combined internal combustion engine cylinder based on eddy flow secondary injection
CN110440294A (en) * 2019-07-26 2019-11-12 中国航发沈阳发动机研究所 A kind of flame tube head can reduce carbon distribution
CN112460632A (en) * 2020-10-27 2021-03-09 中国船舶重工集团公司第七0三研究所 Radial grading partial premixing type gas fuel nozzle

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