CN109731808B - Detection and sorting method for echelon utilization of lithium battery - Google Patents

Detection and sorting method for echelon utilization of lithium battery Download PDF

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CN109731808B
CN109731808B CN201811453061.8A CN201811453061A CN109731808B CN 109731808 B CN109731808 B CN 109731808B CN 201811453061 A CN201811453061 A CN 201811453061A CN 109731808 B CN109731808 B CN 109731808B
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lithium battery
sorting
lithium
tested
echelon utilization
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CN109731808A (en
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盛赟
戴忠梁
卞铁铮
张臻
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TRINA ENERGY STORAGE SOLUTIONS (JIANGSU) Co.,Ltd.
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Trina Solar Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a detection and sorting method for echelon utilization of a lithium battery, which comprises the following steps of: discharging the lithium battery to be tested to a preset voltage value; presetting n charge quantities, wherein n is an integer more than or equal to 1; charging the lithium battery to be tested according to a preset charging amount; after the charging is finished, testing the open-circuit voltage, the frequency spectrum impedance and the discharge capacity of the lithium battery to be tested; analyzing the measured values, extracting charge-discharge efficiency values and resistance and capacitance values in the battery equivalent model, and calculating deviation rates of the values and sorting gear setting parameters; repeating the steps until the test of all the preset charging amounts is completed; and sorting the lithium batteries suitable for gradient utilization according to the obtained deviation rate. The method has the advantages of accuracy, high efficiency and energy conservation, the health state of the sorted lithium batteries is fully represented, and the method shows better consistency in the actual dynamic operation process of a possible application scene, and is suitable for evaluation before the echelon utilization of large-batch lithium batteries.

Description

Detection and sorting method for echelon utilization of lithium battery
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of electric energy, and particularly relates to a detection and sorting method for echelon utilization of a lithium battery.
Background
The electric automobile is gradually industrialized and commercialized, and the yield of the electric automobile in China is rapidly increased. 79.4 million electric vehicles are produced in total in 2017 all the year round, 77.2 million electric vehicles are sold, and the production and sales volume of the electric vehicles reaches 200 million by 2020. The electric automobile industry chain drives the explosive growth of the lithium battery industry, and the reserve of power lithium batteries for automobiles is also sharply increased. When the residual capacity of the conventional automobile power lithium battery is reduced to 70-80% of the initial capacity, the requirements of the electric automobile on power performance, endurance mileage and safe operation cannot be met, and the electric automobile power lithium battery needs to be replaced. The replaced lithium battery still has higher residual capacity, and can be used for the neighborhood with relatively good operation working conditions and lower requirements on battery performance, such as low-speed electric vehicles, standby power supplies, power energy storage and the like through testing, screening, recombination and the like to form so-called 'echelon utilization'. The echelon utilization of the lithium battery is a key link for forming a closed loop in an electric automobile and power lithium battery industrial chain, and has important values in the aspects of environmental protection, resource recovery, improvement of the full life cycle value of the lithium battery and the like.
Before the lithium battery is used in a gradient mode, detection and sorting must be carried out. In the use process of the electric automobile, due to factors such as driving conditions, driving habits of an automobile owner, charging and maintaining modes, temperature and the like, the properties of the retired lithium battery have great difference, and the problem of inconsistency in the aspects of capacity, internal resistance, voltage and the like is presented. These problems are closely related to the health state and performance degradation mechanism of the lithium battery, such as lithium ion transport, SEI film transport, structural stability of positive and negative active materials, and the like. And the battery state and performance degradation level will change continuously during the actual echelon utilization process thereafter. Therefore, the lithium battery echelon utilization needs to be effectively detected and sorted, and the lithium battery with qualified performance and good consistency can be recombined and applied to the echelon utilization neighborhood, so that the safe and long-term reliable operation is ensured.
The existing common method is to use a test method of a new battery for reference, and sort the new battery into groups according to appearance, capacity, internal resistance, self-discharge, charge-discharge characteristic curves and the like, as described in patent documents with publication number CN 103439665B, CN 105665309B, CN 103337671A, CN 108155426a and the like, but these main parameters can only reflect the current state of the lithium battery, cannot reflect the internal mechanism of performance attenuation of the lithium battery, and cannot accurately evaluate the health state of the lithium battery and the state change of the lithium battery in the echelon utilization process. In the prior art, some testing methods have been used to analyze the micro-morphology and structure of the interior of the lithium battery by using CT image, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction spectrum, etc., as described in patent publication No. CN 1024375385B, CN 107330474 a. The methods are suitable for visually analyzing the intrinsic mechanisms of attenuation and failure of a single lithium battery, but are expensive, long in time consumption and incapable of being applied to detection of echelon utilization of large-batch lithium batteries. It can be seen that no accurate and efficient detection and sorting method for the echelon utilization of the lithium battery exists at present.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems, the invention provides a detection and sorting method for the echelon utilization of a lithium battery, which is used for accurately and efficiently detecting and sorting the echelon utilization of the lithium battery.
The technical scheme of the invention is as follows: a detection and sorting method for echelon utilization of lithium batteries comprises the following steps:
(1) discharging the lithium battery to be tested to a preset voltage value;
(2) presetting n charge quantities, wherein n is an integer more than or equal to 1;
(3) charging the lithium battery to be tested according to a preset charging amount;
(4) after the charging is finished, testing the open-circuit voltage, the frequency spectrum impedance and the discharge capacity of the lithium battery to be tested;
(5) analyzing the values measured in the step (4), extracting the charge-discharge efficiency value and the resistance and capacitance value in the battery equivalent model, and calculating the deviation rate of each value and the sorting gear setting parameter;
(6) repeating the steps (3) to (5) until the test of all the preset charging amounts in the step (2) is completed;
(7) and sorting the lithium batteries suitable for gradient utilization according to the obtained deviation rate.
Preferably, when the lithium battery to be tested is a lithium iron phosphate lithium battery, the preset voltage value of the lithium battery to be tested is 2.6-2.8V; when the lithium battery to be tested is a ternary lithium battery, the preset voltage value of the lithium battery to be tested is 2.8-3.0V.
Preferably, n is larger than or equal to 3 in the step (2), and the numerical value of each preset charging amount is different.
Preferably, the preset charging amount in the step (2) is an electric quantity less than or equal to 80% of rated energy of the lithium battery.
Preferably, the preset charging amount in step (2) is uniformly distributed in an electric quantity range from zero to 80% of the rated energy of the lithium battery.
Preferably, the lithium battery to be tested is kept stand for 0.5 to 4 hours after the charging in the step (4) is finished, and then the open-circuit voltage, the frequency spectrum impedance and the discharge capacity of the lithium battery to be tested are tested.
Preferably, the discharge amount test is performed after the open-circuit voltage and spectrum impedance test, and when the discharge amount is discharged to the preset voltage value in the step (1), the discharge power is the same as the charging power in the step (3).
Preferably, the resistance in the battery equivalent model comprises polarization resistance and ohmic resistance; the capacitor in the battery equivalent model comprises polarization capacitor.
Preferably, the lithium battery is subjected to appearance inspection, and if at least one of deformation, swelling, damage, liquid leakage and severe corrosion occurs, the lithium battery is discharged and cannot be used as the lithium battery to be tested.
Preferably, in the step (4), when the open-circuit voltage, the spectrum impedance and the discharge capacity are tested after the charging is completed, the temperature of the test environment is 20-30 ℃.
Preferably, the lithium battery which cannot be charged with 50% of rated energy capacity until the cutoff upper limit voltage is reached during the detection process is excluded, and is considered to be unsuitable for the echelon utilization, and no further detection is performed.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
(1) the method detects the main characteristics of the lithium battery, including voltage, charge and discharge capacity and frequency spectrum impedance, by detecting the lithium battery in different charge states; further correspondingly analyzing parameters related to the internal state and mechanism of the battery from the test data; through the multi-parameter deviation analysis under different charge states, the health state and consistency of the lithium battery and the possible dynamic change of the echelon utilization process can be comprehensively, accurately and detailedly known.
(2) The invention has the advantages of accuracy, high efficiency and energy saving, the health state of the selected lithium battery is fully represented, better consistency is displayed in the actual dynamic operation process of a possible application scene, the invention can be suitable for the evaluation before the echelon utilization of a large batch of lithium batteries, and the safe and long-term reliable operation is ensured.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic flow chart of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of an equivalent circuit model of a lithium battery in embodiment 1 of the present invention.
Detailed Description
Example 1
A detection and sorting method for echelon utilization of lithium batteries comprises the following steps:
(1) and collecting a batch of lithium iron phosphate square batteries with the original rated capacity of 100Ah and the rated capacity of 320 Wh.
(2) And (4) carrying out appearance inspection on the collected batch of lithium batteries, and eliminating the batteries with any one of deformation, swelling, damage, liquid leakage or serious corrosion, wherein the batteries are considered to be unsuitable for echelon utilization and are not detected.
(3) And discharging the lithium battery qualified by the appearance inspection to 2.8V.
(4) Presetting 4 charge quantities Q1=64Wh、Q2=128Wh、Q3192Wh and Q4Test experiments were performed 4 times at 256 Wh.
(5) Charging the lithium battery to 64Wh in a constant power charging mode, wherein the charging power is 80W, and the temperature of a test environment is controlled within the range of 20-30 ℃;
(6) after standing for 1 hour, testing the open-circuit voltage value V1(ii) a Then, carrying out a frequency spectrum impedance test, wherein the test frequency is 0.01 Hz-100 kHz; finally, discharging according to the power of 80W to obtain the discharge quantity Q1’。
(7) Obtaining charge-discharge efficiency eta by calculating charge quantity and discharge quantity1=Q1’/Q1(ii) a Calculating to obtain polarization resistance R from the frequency spectrum impedance curve according to the equivalent circuit model (shown in FIG. 2) of the lithium batterya1、Rc1Ohmic resistance Rs1And a polarization capacitor Ca1、Cc1
(8) And calculating the deviation rate of each test and calculation parameter and the corresponding sorting gear parameter.
(9) Repeating the steps (4) to (8) of the embodiment to complete the charge Q2=128Wh、Q3192Wh and Q4The deviation ratio of each test and calculation parameter from the corresponding sort gear parameter is obtained for the 256Wh test.
(10) And (3) sorting the lithium batteries suitable for gradient utilization according to the deviation rate, wherein the judgment standard is as follows: the deviation rate is equal to or less than plus or minus 5 percent of the deviation rate of the open-circuit voltage, equal to or less than plus or minus 1 percent of the deviation rate of the charge-discharge efficiency, and equal to or less than plus or minus 20 percent of the deviation rate of the polarization resistance, the ohm resistance and the polarization capacitance.
In addition, in the detection process, the lithium battery which cannot be charged with 50% of rated energy and electricity quantity is eliminated before the cut-off upper limit voltage is reached, and the lithium battery is considered to be not suitable for gradient utilization and is not further detected.

Claims (10)

1. A detection and sorting method for echelon utilization of lithium batteries is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) discharging the lithium battery to be tested to a preset voltage value;
(2) presetting n charge quantities, wherein n is an integer more than or equal to 1;
(3) charging the lithium battery to be tested according to a preset charging amount;
(4) after the charging is finished, testing the open-circuit voltage, the frequency spectrum impedance and the discharge capacity of the lithium battery to be tested;
(5) analyzing the values measured in the step (4), extracting the charge-discharge efficiency value and the resistance and capacitance value in the battery equivalent model, and calculating the deviation rate of each value and the sorting gear setting parameter;
(6) repeating the steps (3) to (5) until the test of all the preset charging amounts in the step (2) is completed;
(7) and sorting the lithium batteries suitable for echelon utilization according to the obtained deviation rate, wherein the deviation rate is at least one of an open-circuit voltage deviation rate, a charge-discharge efficiency deviation rate, a resistance deviation rate and a capacitance deviation rate.
2. The method for detecting and sorting echelon utilization of lithium batteries according to claim 1, wherein when the lithium battery to be tested is a lithium iron phosphate lithium battery, the preset voltage value of the lithium battery to be tested is 2.6-2.8V; when the lithium battery to be tested is a ternary lithium battery, the preset voltage value of the lithium battery to be tested is 2.8-3.0V.
3. The method for detecting and sorting echelon utilization of lithium batteries according to claim 1, wherein n is greater than or equal to 3 in the step (2), and the value of each preset charging amount is different.
4. The method for detecting and sorting echelon utilization of lithium batteries according to claim 1, wherein the preset amount of charge in the step (2) is less than or equal to 80% of rated energy of lithium batteries.
5. The method for detecting and sorting echelon utilization of lithium batteries according to claim 1, wherein the predetermined amount of charge in step (2) is uniformly distributed in an electric quantity range from zero to 80% of rated energy of lithium batteries.
6. The method for detecting and sorting echelon utilization of lithium batteries according to claim 1, wherein the lithium batteries to be tested are left for 0.5 to 4 hours after the charging in the step (4) is finished, and then are subjected to open-circuit voltage, spectrum impedance and discharge capacity tests.
7. The method for detecting and sorting echelon utilization of lithium batteries according to claim 1, wherein the discharge amount test is performed after the open-circuit voltage and spectrum impedance test, and the discharge power is the same as the charging power in the step (3) when the discharge amount is discharged to the preset voltage value in the step (1).
8. The method for detecting and sorting echelon utilization of lithium batteries according to claim 1, wherein the resistances in the battery equivalent model include polarization resistance and ohmic resistance; the capacitor in the battery equivalent model comprises polarization capacitor.
9. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the lithium battery is subjected to appearance inspection, and if at least one of deformation, swelling, damage, leakage and severe corrosion occurs, the lithium battery is discharged and cannot be used as the lithium battery to be tested.
10. The method for detecting and sorting echelon utilization of lithium batteries according to claim 1, wherein in the step (4), when open-circuit voltage, spectrum impedance and discharge capacity tests are performed after charging is completed, the temperature of a test environment is 20-30 ℃.
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CN110797591B (en) * 2019-10-29 2021-07-16 深圳市普兰德储能技术有限公司 Rapid sorting method for lithium power echelon cell recombination and lithium power echelon recombination battery
CN111103482A (en) * 2019-12-16 2020-05-05 肇庆绿宝石电子科技股份有限公司 Full-automatic test method and system for super capacitor
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