CN109681248B - Advanced support method for grouting anchor cable - Google Patents

Advanced support method for grouting anchor cable Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109681248B
CN109681248B CN201811583423.5A CN201811583423A CN109681248B CN 109681248 B CN109681248 B CN 109681248B CN 201811583423 A CN201811583423 A CN 201811583423A CN 109681248 B CN109681248 B CN 109681248B
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China
Prior art keywords
grouting
support
anchor
anchor cable
plate
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CN201811583423.5A
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CN109681248A (en
Inventor
姚强岭
回新冬
朱柳
任燕飞
王思栋
王烜辉
夏泽
杨斌
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XIEZHUANG MINE OF SHANDONG TAISHAN ENERGY CO Ltd
Zaozhuang Mining (group) Co Ltd Binhu Coal Mine
China University of Mining and Technology CUMT
Original Assignee
XIEZHUANG MINE OF SHANDONG TAISHAN ENERGY CO Ltd
Zaozhuang Mining (group) Co Ltd Binhu Coal Mine
China University of Mining and Technology CUMT
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Application filed by XIEZHUANG MINE OF SHANDONG TAISHAN ENERGY CO Ltd, Zaozhuang Mining (group) Co Ltd Binhu Coal Mine, China University of Mining and Technology CUMT filed Critical XIEZHUANG MINE OF SHANDONG TAISHAN ENERGY CO Ltd
Priority to CN201811583423.5A priority Critical patent/CN109681248B/en
Publication of CN109681248A publication Critical patent/CN109681248A/en
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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D20/00Setting anchoring-bolts
    • E21D20/02Setting anchoring-bolts with provisions for grouting
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/14Lining predominantly with metal
    • E21D11/15Plate linings; Laggings, i.e. linings designed for holding back formation material or for transmitting the load to main supporting members
    • E21D11/152Laggings made of grids or nettings
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/14Lining predominantly with metal
    • E21D11/18Arch members ; Network made of arch members ; Ring elements; Polygon elements; Polygon elements inside arches
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D20/00Setting anchoring-bolts
    • E21D20/003Machines for drilling anchor holes and setting anchor bolts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D21/00Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor in galleries or longwall working, or shaft-lining protection
    • E21D21/0026Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor in galleries or longwall working, or shaft-lining protection characterised by constructional features of the bolts

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for advanced support of a grouting anchor cable, belongs to the field of advanced support, and solves the problems of insufficient support strength, low support speed, roof breakage caused by repeated support and high labor intensity of workers in the prior art. The forepoling method of the invention comprises the following steps: step one, determining a mining roadway (1) to be supported on a current mining working face (3); determining a forepoling distance L according to a forepoling pressure distribution rule of the stoping roadway (1) and engineering geological conditions; thirdly, a grouting anchor cable advance support is additionally arranged on a top plate of the stoping roadway (1) to form a top plate support structure; when coal is mined, the stope face (3) is propelled forwards, and meanwhile, a grouting anchor rope advance support is continuously additionally arranged along the propelling direction, so that the advance support distance is maintained within a safety range. The advanced support method for the grouting anchor cable ensures safe extraction, improves support intensity and support efficiency, and reduces labor intensity.

Description

Advanced support method for grouting anchor cable
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of advance support, in particular to a method for advance support of a grouting anchor cable.
Background
The stability of the surrounding rocks of the roadway has important influence on the safe production of the mine, and the instability of the surrounding rocks of the roadway causes a large amount of casualties and property loss, so that the strengthening of the control of the surrounding rocks of the roadway has great significance on the safe production of the mine. The roadway advance support is mainly used for preventing the phenomena of deformation, movement, damage and the like of roadway surrounding rocks on a working face due to the superposition of advance support pressure and support pressure along the inclined direction. At present, comprehensive mechanical equipment is used for coal resource mining, so that the generated general pressure is large, if an active and effective supporting mode cannot be adopted, certain influence can be caused on the mining efficiency of the fully mechanized coal mining face, meanwhile, certain safety risks can be brought, and certain potential safety hazards can be buried for subsequent coal mining work.
Traditional advance support mode is individual hydraulic prop cooperation pi shaped steel (big board) canopy support advance support, has certain limitation in the use, has following problem: 1) the support strength is insufficient, if the top plate is subjected to larger coal seam pressure, the traditional advance support cannot achieve the required strength, at the moment, the top plate at the outlet of the fully mechanized mining face is most likely to sink, meanwhile, the single supports are more in use, the withdrawal treatment difficulty is higher, and particularly, the potential safety hazard is higher in the area with dense top cutting at the rear part of the fully mechanized mining face; 2) the supporting speed is slow, the supporting effect generated by the traditional advance support is slow, the withdrawal speed of the support is slow, the integral propelling speed of the working face is influenced, and the coal mining efficiency and yield are reduced; 3) the labor intensity is high, the traditional advance support process needs to be frequently supported and retracted, and the labor intensity is greatly increased. In addition, the hydraulic support for the forepoling has the following defects: 1) the top plate can be repeatedly supported in the frame moving process, so that the top plate is broken, the safe management and maintenance of the top plate are not facilitated, and the life and equipment of underground roadway workers are threatened; 2) violent sliding friction is generated between the top plate and the top beam when the tunnel is moved forwards, so that the tunnel top plate is damaged to a certain extent, the service life of the tunnel top plate is influenced, the working stability and reliability of the tunnel top plate are reduced, and the safety of workers is threatened; 3) the labor intensity of workers is very high when the bracket is installed, maintained and disassembled.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above analysis, the present invention aims to provide a method for advanced support of a grouting anchor cable, which is used to solve the problems in the prior art that the strength of the advanced support is insufficient, the support speed is slow, the roof is broken due to repeated support, the roof strength is affected, and the labor intensity of workers is high.
The purpose of the invention is mainly realized by the following technical scheme:
a method for forepoling a grouting anchor cable comprises the following steps: determining a mining roadway to be supported on a current mining working face; determining a forepoling distance L according to a forepoling pressure distribution rule of a stoping roadway and engineering geological conditions; thirdly, adding a grouting anchor rope for advanced support to a top plate of the stoping roadway to form a top plate support structure; during coal mining, the stope face is propelled forwards, and meanwhile, the advance support of the grouting anchor cable is continuously additionally arranged along the propelling direction, so that the advance support distance L is maintained within a safety range.
Further, in the third step, the step of additionally installing a grouting anchor cable advanced support comprises the following steps: s1, drilling an anchor cable hole on a top plate of a stoping roadway; s2, feeding the grouting anchor cable into an anchor cable hole, and sequentially installing a grout stop plug, a tray and an anchorage device after the grouting anchor cable is fed to the bottom of the anchor cable hole; s3, grouting the grouting anchor cable through the grouting pipe, injecting slurry along the grouting pipe, and allowing the slurry to flow into a grouting anchoring section from a slurry outlet; and S4, after grouting of the grouting anchoring section is completed and the grouting anchoring section is completely solidified, tensioning and pre-tightening the grouting anchor cable through an anchorage device.
Furthermore, the advance support distance L is as follows,
L=L1+L2
in the formula, L is an advance support distance m; l is1The shortest safe supporting distance, m; l is2And m is the safety support distance.
Furthermore, when the stope face is pushed forwards in coal mining, the effective support distance L of the advance support is realized3Greater than or equal to the shortest safety support distance L1
Further, the top plate supporting structure is a combined arch structure, and the combined arch structure comprises a steel bar mesh, a steel belt, an anchor rod and a grouting anchor cable; the combined arch structure is sequentially divided into an anchor net combined arch area, an anchor rod compression combined arch area and a slurry diffusion reinforcing arch area from a top plate to surrounding rocks.
Furthermore, the reinforcing mesh is tightly attached to the top plate of the roadway, and the steel strip is arranged on the outer side of the reinforcing mesh.
Furthermore, the number of the anchor rods is multiple, the grouting anchor cables and the anchor rods are arranged alternately, and at least one row of grouting anchor cables is arranged between every two adjacent rows of anchor rods.
Further, the number of each row of grouting anchor cables is at least three.
Further, the anchor rod vertically penetrates through the steel belt and the reinforcing mesh, and the anchoring end is connected into the top plate of the roadway.
Furthermore, a grouting anchor cable penetrates into the anchor cable hole, and the anchoring end is connected into a stable rock stratum on the upper portion of the roadway top plate.
Further, slip casting anchor rope includes: the device comprises a plug, an anchorage device, an external grout stop plug, a steel twisted wire, a grouting pipe and a grout outlet.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has at least one of the following beneficial effects:
a) the advanced support method of the grouting anchor cable provided by the invention adopts advanced support of the grouting anchor cable, the support speed is obviously improved, the defect that the strength of the top plate is influenced due to the fact that the top plate is broken due to repeated support is overcome, the advance support and the advancing of the coal mining working face 3 are synchronously carried out, only the support supplement is carried out in front of the distance range of the existing advance support, the operation is convenient, the safe recovery is ensured, the working efficiency of the advance support is improved, and the labor intensity of workers is reduced.
b) According to the grouting anchor cable advanced support method provided by the invention, a multi-layer effective combined arch structure with increased thickness can be formed by matching the grouting anchor cable with the anchor net support, namely the anchor net combined arch area, the anchor rod compression area combined arch area and the slurry diffusion reinforced arch area, so that the roof of a roadway is prevented from being damaged, and the overall stability of the roadway is effectively maintained, thereby expanding the effective bearing range of the support structure, improving the bearing capacity and the support strength of the support structure, and further improving the safety of a stope face.
In the invention, the technical schemes can be combined with each other to realize more preferable combination schemes. Additional features and advantages of the invention will be set forth in the description which follows, and in part will be obvious from the description, or may be learned by practice of the invention. The objectives and other advantages of the invention will be realized and attained by the structure particularly pointed out in the written description and claims hereof as well as the appended drawings.
Drawings
The drawings are only for purposes of illustrating particular embodiments and are not to be construed as limiting the invention, wherein like reference numerals are used to designate like parts throughout.
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a stope face in the practice of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a grouting anchor cable structure;
FIG. 3 is a plan view of a mining roadway support in the practice of the present invention;
fig. 4 is a section view of a mining roadway grouting anchor cable advance support.
Reference numerals:
1-stoping a roadway; 2-coal rock mass; 3-stoping the working face; 4-a goaf; 5-anchor rod; 6, grouting an anchor cable; 7-a steel belt; 8-a tray; 9-plug; 10-an anchorage device; 11-external grout stop plug; 12-steel skein; 13-grouting pipe; 14-slurry outlet.
Detailed Description
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this application, illustrate preferred embodiments of the invention and together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention and not to limit the scope of the invention.
The invention discloses a concrete embodiment of a grouting anchor cable advanced support method, which comprises the following steps:
step one, a mining roadway 1 to be supported is determined on a current mining working face 3. And (3) determining the mining roadway 1, and selecting the mining roadway 1 meeting the conditions for advance support according to geological conditions and engineering production conditions.
Selecting a single or a plurality of stoping roadways 1; and determining the advance support distance L according to the advance support pressure distribution rule of the stoping roadway 1 and the engineering geological conditions.
And thirdly, on the basis of the original permanent support, adding a grouting anchor cable advance support to the top plate of the mining roadway 1 to form a top plate support structure. During coal mining, the stope face 3 is propelled forwards, and meanwhile, a grouting anchor cable 6 is continuously additionally arranged in the propelling direction to support in advance, so that the distance of the advance support is maintained within a safety range.
In the embodiment, as the stoping roadway is dug in advance before coal mining, permanent support (anchor net support) is carried out while tunneling, and the third step is carried out on the basis of the original permanent support. Specifically, anchor cable holes are constructed on the top plate of the stoping roadway 1 along the advancing direction at intervals of anchor rods 5 when the coal face is stoped. When constructing an anchor cable hole, installing a grouting anchor cable 6 and a tray 8 in the anchor cable hole; after the grouting anchor rope 6 is used for sealing holes, a high-pressure pump is used for grouting cracks of the top plate, the cracks and the hole bodies of the broken top plate are filled, the top plate of the stoping roadway is glued into a whole, and the concrete steps of grouting anchor rope advance support are as follows:
s1, drilling an anchor cable hole on a top plate of a stoping roadway 1;
s2, feeding the grouting anchor cable 6 into an anchor cable hole, and sequentially installing an external grout stop plug 11, a tray 8 and an anchorage device 10 after the grouting anchor cable 6 is fed to the bottom of the anchor cable hole;
s3, grouting the grouting anchor cable 6 through the grouting pipe 13, injecting slurry along the grouting pipe 13, and flowing into a grouting anchoring section from the slurry outlet 14; after grouting, the grouting pipe 13 is blocked by a plug 9 to prevent slurry from flowing out.
And S4, after grouting of the grouting anchoring section is completed and the grouting anchoring section is completely solidified, tensioning and pre-tightening the grouting anchor cable 6 through the anchorage device 10.
Fig. 1 shows the position relationship among the goaf 4, the stope face 3, the coal rock 2 and the stope roadway 1, and when the stope face 3 performs coal mining operation, the top plate of the stope roadway 1 within the support distance range in which advance support needs to be performed on both sides of the coal rock 2 in front of the stope face 3 is subjected to grouting anchor rope advance support. With the forward movement of the stoping working face 3 in the stoping direction of the coal rock body 2, the forward movement of the advance support range of the stoping roadway 1 in the stoping direction is synchronously carried out, and the advance support distance in front of the stoping working face 3 is always kept within a safety range.
In this embodiment, the effective support distance L of the advance support3The method is a supporting distance for ensuring coal mining safety in the coal mining process; shortest safe supporting distance L1The method is the shortest effective supporting distance for ensuring coal mining safety; distance L of safety support2The method aims to advance the stope face 3 and simultaneously support the advance so as to ensure the effective support distance L of the advance support3Always greater than or equal to the shortest safe supporting distance L1And the manually set supporting distance, the safety supporting distance L2Related to the advancing speed of the stope face, the supporting speed and the grouting solidification time; advance support distance L equal toShortest safe supporting distance L1Distance L from safety support2Sum, i.e. L ═ L1+L2In the formula, L is an advance support distance m; l is1The shortest safe supporting distance, m; l is2And m is the safety support distance.
In order to improve the supporting strength of advanced support and ensure the supporting effect, the top plate supporting structure constructed by the grouting anchor cable advanced supporting method is a combined arch structure, the combined arch structure comprises a steel bar mesh, a steel belt 7, an anchor rod 5 and a grouting anchor cable 6, and the combined arch structure is sequentially divided into an anchor mesh combined arch area, an anchor rod compression area combined arch area and a slurry diffusion reinforced arch area from the top plate to surrounding rocks. The grouting anchor cable is matched with the anchor net for supporting, a multilayer effective combined arch structure with increased thickness can be formed, namely the anchor net combined arch area, the anchor rod compression area combined arch area and the slurry diffusion reinforced arch area, so that the effective bearing range of the supporting structure is expanded, and the integrity and the bearing capacity of the supporting structure are improved. The reinforcing mesh is tightly attached to the top plate of the roadway, the steel strip 7 is arranged on the outer side of the reinforcing mesh, and the grouting anchor cable plays multiple roles of the anchor cable in the aspects of extrusion reinforcement, multi-layer combined arch structure, grouting and the like, so that the strength of the rock body is improved, the top plate is reinforced secondarily, the surrounding rock is taken as part of a supporting structure and forms a whole with the original rock, and the stoping roadway is kept stable and is not easy to damage.
In a preferred embodiment of this embodiment, the number of the anchor rods 5 is multiple, the grouting anchor cables 6 and the anchor rods 5 are alternately arranged, at least one row of grouting anchor cables 6 is arranged between two adjacent rows of anchor rods 5, the number and the distance of each row of anchor rods 5 are determined according to actual geological conditions, the anchor rods 5 are uniformly stressed, the supporting strength of a top plate is further ensured, and the supporting stability and the supporting safety are improved.
In order to further ensure the supporting strength, grouting anchor cables 6 and anchor rods 5 are alternately arranged, one or more rows of grouting anchor cables 6 are arranged between two adjacent rows of anchor rods 5, the number of each row of grouting anchor cables 6 is at least three, the number of the grouting anchor cables 6 is determined according to the required advanced supporting strength and engineering geological conditions, as shown in fig. 4, the anchor rods 5 vertically penetrate through steel belts 7 and reinforcing mesh, and the anchoring ends of the anchor rods 5 are connected into the top plate of the roadway. The grouting anchor cable 6 penetrates through the reinforcing mesh and the anchor cable hole; the anchoring end of the grouting anchor cable 6 is connected to the stable rock stratum at the upper part of the roadway top plate. The outer anchoring sections of the anchor rods 5 and the grout anchor lines 6 are each provided with a tray 8, as shown in fig. 3 and 4. And after the grouting anchor cable 6 is used for sealing holes, grouting the cracks of the top plate by using a high-pressure pump, plugging the grouting pipe 13 by using a screwed plug 9 after grouting is finished, preventing slurry from flowing outwards, filling the gaps and the hole bodies of the broken top plate, and cementing the top plate of the stoping roadway 1 into a whole. By adopting the grouting anchor cable to be matched with the anchor net for supporting, a multilayer effective combined arch structure with increased thickness can be formed, namely an anchor net combined arch area, an anchor rod compression area combined arch area and a slurry diffusion reinforced arch area, so that the effective bearing range of the supporting structure is expanded, and the integrity and the bearing capacity of the supporting structure are improved.
As shown in fig. 2, the grouting anchor cable 6 structure provided by the embodiment of the present invention includes a plug 9, an anchor 10, an external grout stop plug 11, a steel twisted wire 12, a grouting pipe 13, and a grout outlet 14. The grouting anchor cable 6 can be divided into an outer anchoring section, a grouting anchoring section and a resin anchoring section in sequence. The outside of the grouting anchor cable 6 is provided with a steel strand 12, a grouting pipe 13 is arranged in the grouting anchor cable, and the middle rear part of the grouting pipe is provided with a grout outlet 14. And (3) grouting the surrounding rock through the grouting pipe 13, enabling slurry to flow out from the slurry outlet 14, filling gaps and hole bodies of the broken top plate, and cementing the top plate of the stoping roadway into a whole. The vertical load acting on the top plate can be effectively transmitted to the two sides after grouting, the load can be transmitted to the bottom plate through reinforcing the sides, meanwhile, due to the fact that the thickness of the combined arch structure is increased, the defect of load concentration acting on the bottom plate is overcome, the bottom plate is more stable, and floor heave is reduced. In addition, the bottom plate is stable, which is beneficial to the stability of the two sides, and the bottom plate and the two sides are stable, which can keep the stability of the top plate. The advanced supporting method provided by the embodiment has obvious effects of controlling, supporting and maintaining the surrounding rock of the roadway in the fracture development zone and the roof crushing zone, which are disturbed by stoping.
In the embodiment, the grouting anchor cable 6 is hermetically fixed at a grouting opening on a coal rock wall through the external grout stop plug 11, the grouting anchor cable 6 is sequentially provided with the anchor 10 and the tray 8, the tray 8 extrudes the big end of the external grouting plug 11, and meanwhile, the anchor 10 is used for pre-tightening, so that the bearing capacity and the supporting effect of the anchor cable are improved.
Compared with the prior art, the grouting anchor cable advance support method has the advantages that a mode of advance support by using the grouting anchor cable is innovatively provided, advance support and the advancing of the coal mining stope face 3 are synchronously carried out, support supplement is carried out only in front of the distance range of the existing advance support, the operation is convenient, the safe stope is guaranteed, the working efficiency of the advance support is improved, and the labor intensity of workers is reduced.
The above description is only for the preferred embodiment of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any changes or substitutions that can be easily conceived by those skilled in the art within the technical scope of the present invention are included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. A method for advanced support of a grouting anchor cable is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step one, determining a mining roadway (1) to be supported on a current mining working face (3);
determining a forepoling distance L according to a forepoling pressure distribution rule of the stoping roadway (1) and engineering geological conditions;
thirdly, a grouting anchor cable advance support is additionally arranged on a top plate of the stoping roadway (1) to form a top plate support structure;
during coal mining, the stope face (3) is propelled forwards, and meanwhile, a grouting anchor cable advance support is continuously additionally arranged along the propelling direction, so that the advance support distance L is maintained within a safety range;
in the third step, the step of additionally installing the grouting anchor cable advance support comprises the following steps:
s1, drilling an anchor cable hole on a top plate of the stoping roadway (1);
s2, feeding the grouting anchor cable (6) into the anchor cable hole, and sequentially installing a grout stop plug (11), a tray (8) and an anchorage device (10) after the grouting anchor cable (6) is fed to the bottom of the anchor cable hole;
s3, grouting the grouting anchor cable (6) through the grouting pipe (13), injecting slurry along the grouting pipe (13), and enabling the slurry to flow into a grouting anchoring section from a slurry outlet (14); after the grouting anchor cable (6) is used for sealing holes, a high-pressure pump is used for grouting cracks of the top plate, and the cracks and hole bodies of the broken top plate are filled;
s4, after grouting of the grouting anchoring section is completed and the grouting anchoring section is completely solidified, tensioning and pre-tightening the grouting anchor cable (6) through an anchorage device (10);
the roof supporting structure is a combined arch structure, and the combined arch structure comprises a steel bar mesh, a steel belt (7), an anchor rod (5) and a grouting anchor cable (6);
the combined arch structure is sequentially divided into an anchor net combined arch area, an anchor rod compression combined arch area and a slurry diffusion reinforcing arch area from a top plate to surrounding rocks;
the number of the anchor rods (5) is multiple, the grouting anchor cables (6) and the anchor rods (5) are alternately arranged, and at least one row of grouting anchor cables (6) is arranged between every two adjacent rows of anchor rods (5).
2. The method for the advance support of grouting anchor cables as claimed in claim 1, wherein the advance support distance L is,
L=L1+L2
in the formula, L is an advance support distance m; l is1The shortest safe supporting distance, m; l is2And m is the safety support distance.
3. The method for advance support of grouting anchor cables as claimed in claim 2, wherein the reinforcing mesh is tightly attached to the top plate of the roadway, and the steel band (7) is arranged on the outer side of the reinforcing mesh.
4. A method for the forepoling of grouting anchor cables according to claim 1, characterised in that the number of grouting anchor cables (6) per row is at least three.
5. The method for the advance support of grouting anchor cables as claimed in claim 4, wherein the anchor rods (5) vertically penetrate through the steel strips (7) and the reinforcing mesh, and the anchoring ends are connected into the top plate of the roadway.
6. The method for the advance support of grouting anchor cables as claimed in claim 5, characterized in that the grouting anchor cables (6) are passed into the anchor cable holes, and the anchoring ends are connected to the stable rock layer on the top of the roadway.
7. A method for pre-support of a grouted cable bolt according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterised in that said grouted cable bolt (6) comprises: the device comprises a plug (9), an anchorage device (10), an external grout stop plug (11), a steel twisted wire (12), a grouting pipe (13) and a grout outlet (14).
CN201811583423.5A 2018-12-24 2018-12-24 Advanced support method for grouting anchor cable Active CN109681248B (en)

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