CN109655596A - A kind of multivariable condition submarine shallow gas leakage analogy method - Google Patents

A kind of multivariable condition submarine shallow gas leakage analogy method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109655596A
CN109655596A CN201811539360.3A CN201811539360A CN109655596A CN 109655596 A CN109655596 A CN 109655596A CN 201811539360 A CN201811539360 A CN 201811539360A CN 109655596 A CN109655596 A CN 109655596A
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gas
water
quartz sand
simulating chamber
simulation
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CN109655596B (en
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黄伟
梁金强
陆敬安
尚久靖
张伟
赖洪飞
郭依群
林霖
徐梦婕
杨承志
孟苗苗
单晨晨
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Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey
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Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • G01N33/22Fuels, explosives
    • G01N33/225Gaseous fuels, e.g. natural gas

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of multivariable condition submarine shallow gas to leak analogy method, and include the following steps: step 1: each layer simulating chamber inside water tank is paved with quartz sand, and the partial size of quartz sand is sequentially increased from top to bottom;Step 2: the water in reservoir being injected into inside water tank, in water penetration to quartz sand;Step 3: in simulation gas permeation to quartz sand, simulation gas is migrated upwards and is entered in water, finally escapes from water;Step 4: gas gathering mask will be stored from the simulation gas collection escaped in water and being sent into air collector;Step 5: simulation gas causes the transformation of deformation to act on the quartz sand of most surface, records the deformation process of quartz sand and measures the data of quartz sand deformation;Rapid 6: persistently recording the deformation process of quartz sand and measure the data of quartz sand deformation, until experiment terminates.The present invention simulates ocean subsea environment by being laid with quartz sand, and methane is as simulation gas, and analogy method is easy to be reliable, and analog result is more acurrate.

Description

A kind of multivariable condition submarine shallow gas leakage analogy method
Technical field
The present invention relates to shallow gas simulator technical field, specifically a kind of multivariable condition submarine shallow gas leaks mould Quasi- method.
Background technique
Shallow gas refers to the buried depth all kinds of natural gas resources smaller than shallower (generally within 1500m), reserves, Therefore, there is the presence of shallow gas in many seabeds, and shallow gas may be the biogenetic gas that shallow-layer biological effect is formed, it is also possible to To be deep gas, which dredge channel along migration, enters the oil-related gas of shallow-layer or the hydrate of shallow-layer aggregation because Temperature-pressure Conditions change And decompose the gas for discharging and generating.
Sea-bottom shallow geological conditions is unstable, and shallow gas would generally migrate in the form for spreading or leaking to seabed, And then cause the change of sea-bottom surface landform shape.Due to seabottom geology complicated condition multiplicity, gas permeation to sea-floor relief, The correctional effect of landforms is also not quite similar.Wherein, the lithologic character of sea-bottom shallow sediment, on cover the pressure of seawater, gas seeps Intensity, the position of gas permeation point and leakage acting duration etc. Geological Variables are leaked to the leaky properties of research shallow gas and right The transformation of seabed mima type microrelief, landforms has great influence.
In the seabed marine sediment of continental margin position, shape is often understood in the stable and suitable region of temperature, pressure condition At gas hydrates.However, the change of temperature, pressure condition can often cause the destruction of hydrate stable region, lead to hydrate Fast decoupled simultaneously releases a large amount of methane gas.On the one hand, these gases or disperse enter in deposit or are dissolved in the water, But most of evolution seawater enters atmosphere, impacts to local climatic environment;On the other hand, decomposition of hydrate is along with gas Sharply expand and pressure abrupt release, to sea-bottom shallow sediment have apparent transformation effect, seaknoll shape is commonly formed The typical geologies structures such as body, seabed pockmark, plume, submarine rift.Gas expansion sharply, pressure release release can even cause sea The geological disasters such as bottom slump, submarine rift.Therefore, there is very realistic meaning to the simulation of submarine shallow gas leakage, especially It also has great significance to the research of gas hydrates.
And it is existing to submarine shallow gas leakage simulation there are many shortcomings:
1, the simulation of existing shallow gas leakage be substantially by the acquisition recycling that shallow gas is leaked in simulation process with Chemical composition and properties variation of shallow gas during stratum leaks is analyzed, and is seldom conceived to shallow gas to sea-floor relief Direct transformation process namely existing shallow gas leakage simulation shortage intuitive, the observation under cannot persistently being leaked to shallow gas, The special geology structure of engineered formation can not be quantitatively described;
2, existing shallow gas leakage simulation, which is substantially under fixed, single control Variable Conditions, carries out shallow gas leakage mould Intend and lack background experiment (i.e. control experiment), it can not be to the shallow gas under complex condition, more Geological Variable joint effects Leakage forms system, comprehensive understanding, can not also carry out necessary revising background;
3, existing shallow gas leakage simulation mostly uses monoblock type to the simulation on stratum, and controlled variable is limited, to lead It causes analog result precision lower, not can truly reflect the feature of seabed formation heterogeneity under complex geological condition.
Such as the China of the Chinese utility model patent of Publication No. CN205562141U, Publication No. CN104715674A There is above-mentioned some shortcomings in patent of invention and the Chinese utility model patent of Publication No. CN101726559A.
Summary of the invention
In view of the deficiencies of the prior art, it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of multivariable condition submarine shallow gas to leak simulation side Method is able to solve and leaks the problem of simulating to submarine shallow gas.
The technical solution achieved the object of the present invention are as follows: a kind of multivariable condition submarine shallow gas leakage analogy method, packet Include following steps:
Step 1: each layer simulating chamber inside water tank is paved with quartz sand, each layer simulate the partial size of indoor quartz sand from On be sequentially increased down;
Step 2: the water in reservoir being sprayed after water injection pipe from water filling spray head, is injected into inside water tank, water is successively Pass through each layer simulating chamber downwards and infiltrates into quartz sand;
Step 3: after water penetration to lowest level is simulated in indoor quartz sand, the simulation gas in air feed tank being passed through into gas The top of body isocon is flowed out, and through leaking out outward at the top of leakage hollow cylinder with the venthole of side wall, from leakage hollow cylinder The simulation gas of top outflow by each layer simulating chamber and leaks out in quartz sand upwards in turn, and simulation gas is simulated along each layer Indoor quartz sand is migrated upwards and is entered in water, and simulation gas is finally escaped from water;
Step 4: being arranged in inside water tank and the gas gathering mask that submerges in water by the simulation gas collection escaped from water and passes through It crosses gas delivery tube and is sent into storage in air collector, the gas concentration probe collection on gas gathering mask simulates gas concentration;
Step 5: in upward migration process, simulating gas in quartz sand in simulation gas and the quartz sand of most surface is caused Deformation records the deformation process of quartz sand and measures the data of quartz sand deformation;
Step 6: persistently recording the deformation process of quartz sand and measure the data of quartz sand deformation, until experiment terminates.
Further, axial partition is set in the water tank, and partition divides water tank to form two independent simulations Region;
Different waters are injected in two independent simulated domains, so that the horizontal plane of two independent simulated domains does not exist Sustained height simulates true sea level cyclical upturn and downturn variation;
Respectively arranged drop-leg flows into two independent simulated domains out of two independent simulated domains Simulation gas flow and flow rate it is different, simulate under true ocean subsea environment shallow gas leakage varying strength.
Further, the water filling spray head is arranged inside water tank, and water filling spray head is connect by water injection pipe with reservoir;
The simulating chamber is arranged inside water tank, is equipped with several layers simulating chamber, is equipped with quartz sand on each layer simulating chamber, from On be successively sequentially increased down in the partial size of quartz sand that each layer simulating chamber is laid with;
Water is filled inside water tank more than the most surface of quartz sand, water successively passes through downwards each layer simulating chamber and infiltrates into In quartz sand;
The gas gathering mask for collecting gas is additionally provided with inside water tank, gas gathering mask is located at the lower section of water filling spray head, and gas gathering mask is logical It crosses gas delivery tube to connect with air collector, for storing the gas that gas gathering mask is collected into, gas gathering mask submerges in water air collector;
The air feed tank is connect with drop-leg, and drop-leg stretches to the inside of leakage hollow cylinder, is leaked hollow Cylinder is fixed in simulating chamber and extends to from undermost simulating chamber vertically the simulating chamber of top layer, during leakage hollow cylinder is Hollow structure, the side wall for leaking hollow cylinder are equipped with several ventholes, and the diameter of venthole is less than the partial size of quartz sand, in air feed tank It is stored with simulation gas, simulation gas is leaked out by the top outflow of drop-leg and the venthole through leaking hollow cylinder, The simulation gas leaked out by each layer simulating chamber and leaks out in quartz sand upwards in turn.
Further, the simulation gas is methane.
Further, it is set in the water tank there are three simulating chamber, the bottom simulating chamber respectively set gradually from the bottom up, Middle layer simulating chamber and top layer simulating chamber.
Further, being equipped with partial size on the bottom simulating chamber, middle layer simulating chamber and top layer simulating chamber respectively is 250 micro- The quartz sand of rice, 180 microns and 125 microns.
Further, the gas gathering mask is equipped with gas concentration probe, and gas concentration probe flows into gas gathering mask for measuring Interior simulation gas concentration.
Further, the side wall of the water tank is equipped with the pressure sensor for monitoring the water body pressure in water tank.
Further, further include drainpipe, the side wall that one end of drainpipe passes through water tank enters inside water tank, the other end with Reservoir connection, drainpipe are used to the water of water tank being discharged to reservoir.
Further, it is additionally provided with control valve on the drop-leg, the gas for adjusting air feed tank is injected into gas The pressure of body isocon.
The invention has the benefit that the present invention simulates ocean subsea environment by being laid with quartz sand, and made using methane For the simulation gas of shallow gas, the submarine shallow gas leakage reality under the conditions of multivariable can be reached by the different experiment condition of setting The simulation tested, and the shallow gas under complex condition, more Geological Variable joint effects is leaked and to form system, comprehensive understanding, Can be with necessary revising background, simulation is more acurrate, can be to the special geology of engineered formation by collecting simulated experiment data Structure is quantitatively described, and analogy method is easy to be reliable, and analog result is more acurrate.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of presently preferred embodiments of the present invention;
The structural schematic diagram of Fig. 2 method to realize the present invention;
In figure, 1- partition, 2- fill the water spray head, 3- water tank, 4- water injection pipe, 5- flowmeter, 6- gas delivery tube, 7- gas body Product gauge, 8- control valve, 9- air collector, 10- reservoir, 11- high-pressure pump, 12- controller, 13- electric wire, 14- air feed tank, 15- pressure gauge, 16- drop-leg, 17- rubber leather plug, 18- leakage hollow cylinder, 19- bottom simulating chamber, the simulation of the middle layer 20- Room, 21- top layer simulating chamber, 22- drainpipe, 23- camera, 24- pressure sensor, 25- gas gathering mask, 26- gas concentration probe.
Specific embodiment
In the following, being described further in conjunction with attached drawing and specific embodiment to the present invention:
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of multivariable condition submarine shallow gas leaks analogy method, include the following steps:
Step 1: each layer simulating chamber inside water tank 3 is paved with quartz sand, simulates the partial size of indoor quartz sand in each layer It is sequentially increased from top to bottom, i.e. the partial size of the indoor quartz sand of simulation of top layer is minimum, the undermost indoor quartz of simulation The partial size of sand is maximum, but the partial size of the quartz sand inside each layer is identical;
Step 2: the water in reservoir 10 being sprayed after water injection pipe 4 from water filling spray head 2, is injected into inside water tank 3, water Successively pass through each layer simulating chamber downwards and infiltrates into quartz sand;
Step 3: after water penetration to lowest level is simulated in indoor quartz sand, the simulation gas in air feed tank 14 being passed through The top of drop-leg 16 is flowed out and the venthole through leaking hollow cylinder 18 leaks out, and the simulation gas leaked out passes through upwards in turn It crosses each layer simulating chamber and leaks out in quartz sand, the simulation gas flowed out from the top of leakage hollow cylinder passes through each layer upwards in turn Simulating chamber simultaneously leaks out in quartz sand, and simulation gas is migrated upwards and entered in water, mould along the indoor quartz sand of each layer simulation Quasi- gas is finally escaped from water;
Step 4: the inside of water tank 3 is set and the gas gathering mask 25 that submerges in water by the simulation gas collection escaped from water simultaneously It is sent into air collector 9 and stores by gas delivery tube 6, the gas concentration probe collection on gas gathering mask simulates gas concentration;
Step 5: in upward migration process, simulating gas to 18 surface of leakage hollow cylinder in quartz sand in simulation gas The quartz sand of most surface causes deformation to be transformed, and records the deformation process of quartz sand and measures the data of quartz sand deformation;
Step 6: persistently recording the deformation process of quartz sand and measure the data and related experiment number of quartz sand deformation According to relevant experimental data includes the position simulated gas concentration, gas permeation intensity, drop-leg and stretch to leakage hollow cylinder 18 The controlled variables such as set, until the deformation of quartz sand is disintegrated separation, no longer stable aggregation, experiment terminate simulation gas in water.
Further, axial partition 1 is set in the water tank 3, and partition 1 is independent by the segmentation of water tank 3 formation two Simulated domain;
Different waters are injected in two independent simulated domains, so that the horizontal plane of two independent simulated domains does not exist Sustained height simulates true sea level cyclical upturn and downturn variation so that the hydraulic pressure in two simulated domains is also different with this;
Respectively arranged drop-leg 16 flows into two independent simulated domains out of two independent simulated domains The flow and flow rate of interior simulation gas is different, namely flows into the intensity difference of the simulation gas in two simulated domains, The varying strength of the leakage of the shallow gas under true ocean subsea environment is simulated with this.
The simulation gas of different waters and injection varying strength, mould are injected by being arranged in two independent simulated domains Submarine shallow gas leakage under the conditions of quasi- multivariable.
The water filling spray head 2 is arranged inside water tank 3, and water filling spray head 2 is connect by water injection pipe 4 with reservoir 10, in order to It is sprayed preferably after water injection pipe 4 from water filling spray head 2 so that water energy in reservoir 10 is enough, water injection pipe 4 is equipped with for will The water of reservoir 10 is drawn into the high-pressure pump 11 of water injection pipe 4, and in actual use, water filling spray head 2 is preferably arranged on water tank 3 Upper position;
The gas gathering mask 25 is arranged in 3 inside of water tank and is located at the lower section of water filling spray head 2, and gas gathering mask 25 is for collecting gas Body, gas gathering mask 25 is connect by gas delivery tube 6 with air collector 9, so that the gas that gas gathering mask 25 is collected into passes through gas Transfer tube 6 transports the storage of air collector 9, and gas delivery tube 6 is equipped with flowmeter 5, gas volume metering instrument 7 and control valve 8, Flowmeter 5 measures instrument 7 and collects for calculating for calculating flow of the current time gas Jing Guo gas delivery tube 6, gas volume To gas total volume or the gas being collected into some period volume, control valve 8 be used for gas collection after The gas outlet of air collector 9 is closed, to prevent the gas being collected into from returning in gas gathering mask 25 from air collector 9;
3 bottom of water tank is equipped with several layers simulating chamber, quartz sand is equipped on each layer simulating chamber, and press and successively exist from top to bottom The partial size of each layer simulating chamber setting quartz sand is sequentially increased, so that closer to seabed truth;It can be in each layer simulating chamber Between setting lateral partitions so that being more easily laid with quartz sand on each layer simulating chamber, and make between each layer simulating chamber Boundary also becomes ocular and clear, and lateral partitions are equipped with several through-holes, and the diameter of through-hole is less than the partial size of quartz sand, i.e. most gravelstone The partial size of sand is greater than the diameter of through-hole, prevents quartz sand from falling from lateral partitions, naturally it is also possible to by 3 wall body of water tank On portray cut-off rule to replace lateral partitions, again such that be more easily laid with quartz sand on each layer simulating chamber, and make each Boundary between layer simulating chamber also becomes ocular and clear;
The air feed tank 14 is connect with drop-leg 16, and the interior of leakage hollow cylinder 18 is stretched on drop-leg 16 Portion, leakage hollow cylinder 18 are located at the underface of gas gathering mask 25, i.e. gas gathering mask 25 is located at the surface for leaking hollow cylinder 18, gas point The lower end of flow tube 16 is arranged with rubber leather plug 17, and leakage hollow cylinder 18 is fixed in simulating chamber vertically and from undermost simulating chamber The simulating chamber of top layer is extended to, i.e., leakage hollow cylinder 18 runs through each simulating chamber vertically, and leakage hollow cylinder 18 passes through edge On the bottom of lowest level simulating chamber to leak hollow cylinder 18 and be fixed in simulating chamber vertically, leakage hollow cylinder 18 is Hollow structure, the top and side wall for leaking hollow cylinder 18 are equipped with several ventholes, and the aperture of venthole is less than the minimum of quartz sand The partial size of partial size, i.e., minimum quartz sand is greater than the diameter of venthole, prevents quartz sand from entering in leakage hollow cylinder 18.Air feed tank 14 Memory has the gas for simulated sea bottom shallow gas, simulates the gas of shallow gas as simulation gas, simulation gas passes through gas It is flowed out after isocon 16 from the top of drop-leg 16, the simulation gas after outflow is through leaking top and the side wall of hollow cylinder 18 Venthole leak outward, the simulation gas leaked outward through side wall venthole enters in quartz sand, due to side wall venthole Diameter very little, thus the simulation gas leaked out through the venthole of side wall enter quartz sand after be difficult upwards migrate enter pool The simulation gas that domain, the i.e. venthole through side wall leak out all is gathered in quartz sand or is dissolved in substantially the water in quartz sand In.And from the simulation gas of the top outflow of leakage hollow cylinder 18 due to there is stronger leakage intensity, so that from leakage hollow cylinder It, can be to leakage hollow cylinder 18 under lasting simulation gas permeation effect after the simulation gas of 18 top outflow is assembled The form of quartz sand of surface have an impact so that the quartz sand of the surface of leakage hollow cylinder 18 is loose, expansion even Disintegration is finally escaped up by the quartz sand of each layer simulating chamber from the simulation gas that the top of leakage hollow cylinder 18 is flowed out and is gone forward side by side Enter in gas gathering mask 25, this be also gas gathering mask 25 is arranged in leakage hollow cylinder 18 surface the reason of, it is shallow with this simulated sea bottom The evolution of layer gas, in order to the evolution of the true submarine shallow gas of more preferable simulation, the present embodiment selects methane to simulate gas, i.e., The gas stored in air feed tank 14 is methane.
In the present embodiment, bottom simulating chamber 19, middle layer simulating chamber 20 and top layer mould are successively arranged in water tank 3 from the bottom up Quasi- room 21, be equipped on bottom simulating chamber 19, middle layer simulating chamber 20 and top layer simulating chamber 21 respectively partial size be 250 microns, it is 180 micro- Rice and 125 microns of quartz sand, simulate the true stratum characteristic that sediment grain size gradually increases downwards from seabed with this, in reality When simulation, the quartz sand on each layer simulating chamber is shaken and compressed, so that being come into full contact between quartz sand.
Water is filled above the simulating chamber of top layer and forms water area, i.e., by the way that the water in reservoir 10 is passed through note It is ejected into water tank 3 after water pipe 4 from water filling spray head 2, so that water is filled inside water tank 3 more than simulating chamber, to simulate The true environment in seabed, i.e. 21 area above of top layer simulating chamber fills water in the present embodiment, and gas gathering mask 25 submerges in water.
Methane gas in air feed tank 14 is after the outflow of drop-leg 16, by the venthole for leaking 18 side wall of hollow cylinder Leakage outward, then, the methane gas that the venthole by leaking 18 side wall of hollow cylinder leaks out outward are largely dissolved in water Neutralization enters in the pellet pores of quartz sand, and the methane gas being dissolved in the water finally escapes from water and flows to gas gathering mask 25, it eventually enters into air accumulator and is stored in air accumulator, and in order to flow into the methane gas escaped from water more preferably The size of gas gathering mask 25 can be done big as far as possible and adjust its position in water tank 3, and gas gathering mask 25 is done by gas gathering mask 25 At the satellite pot-shaped shape downward towards mouth, gas concentration probe 26 is additionally provided on gas gathering mask 25, gas concentration probe 26 is for measuring Flow into the concentration of methane gas in gas gathering mask 25, gas concentration probe 26 can be with real-time detection concentration of methane gas, therefore can be with Detect the instant gas concentration of methane gas.
In the present embodiment, the side wall of water tank 3 is equipped with the pressure sensor 24 for monitoring the water body pressure in water tank 3.
In the present embodiment, camera 23 is additionally provided with inside water tank 3, camera 23 is for observing and recording methane in water tank 3 Deformation process is transformed to the form for simulating indoor quartz sand from the upward migration process of simulating chamber in gas.
In the present embodiment, flowmeter 5, high-pressure pump are additionally provided on the pipeline that drop-leg 16 is connect with air feed tank 14 11, control valve 8 and pressure gauge 15 can intuitively observe the first that air feed tank 14 leads to drop-leg 16 by pressure gauge 15 Alkane gas station, so that the flow and flow rate for flowing to the methane gas of drop-leg 16 is preferably adjusted by control valve 8, Namely the gas of adjusting air feed tank 14 is injected into the pressure of drop-leg 16.
It further include drainpipe 22 in the present embodiment, the side wall that one end of drainpipe 22 passes through water tank 3 enters inside water tank 3, The other end is connect with reservoir 10, so as to which the water of water tank 3 is discharged to reservoir 10, in order to preferably control drainpipe 22 With water injection pipe 4, drainpipe 22 and water injection pipe 4 access high-pressure pump 11 jointly after the same pipeline, and high-pressure pump 11 passes through one again A pipeline accesses reservoir 10;A control valve 8 is respectively provided on drainpipe 22 and water injection pipe 4, respectively so as to single respectively Solely control drainpipe 22 and water injection pipe 4.
It further include controller 12 in the present embodiment, control valve 8, water injection pipe 4 on pressure sensor 24, drainpipe 22 Control valve 8, the control valve 8 on drop-leg 16, the control valve 8 in gas delivery tube 6 by electric wire 13 with Controller 12 is electrically connected, so that controller 12 can receive the data of pressure sensor 24, and controls the control on drainpipe 22 Valve 8 processed, the control valve 8 of water injection pipe 4, the control valve in control valve 8 and gas delivery tube 6 on drop-leg 16 8 working condition, including their own open and close.
In the present embodiment, axial partition 1 is equipped in water tank 3, water tank 3 is formed the two independent simulations in left and right by partition 1 Region, the setting in two simulated domains is all the same, so as to which individually two simulated domains carry out simulated experiment again, and can be with It is tested the experiment of one of simulated domain as background.Certainly in actual use, it is independent that more can also be set Simulated domain, so as to accomplish Experimental comparison, reaches so as to which different experiment conditions is arranged in each simulated domain Submarine shallow gas leakage experiment simulation under the conditions of multivariable, for example different waters are injected in two simulated domains, so that two The horizontal plane of simulated domain can simulate the shallow gas leakage pair under sea level cyclical upturn and downturn variation not in the same height Sea-floor relief transformation effect;The gas injection pressure for the drop-leg 16 being injected into different simulated domains is for another example adjusted, It can simulate and sea-floor relief transformation is acted under the leakage intensity of different shallow gas.
Setting in two simulated domains is all the same to be referred to and is equipped with gas gathering mask 25, camera in two simulated domains 23, pressure sensor 24, leakage hollow cylinder 18 and drop-leg 16, specifically, by partition 1 by each layer simulating chamber and simulation Indoor quartz sand is divided into two isolated areas in left and right, water area is divided into two isolated areas by partition 1, setting exists Drop-leg 16 in two simulated domains is connect by the same connecting pipe (not shown) with air feed tank 14, even Adapter tube road is equipped with flowmeter 5, pressure gauge 15 and high-pressure pump 11, is respectively provided with a control valve 8 on two drop-legs 16, To control single drop-leg 16.
In the present embodiment, drop-leg 16 is stretching structure, i.e. it is hollow to stretch to leakage for adjustable gas isocon 16 The axial position of cylinder 18, and then the top position of drop-leg 16 is adjusted, it is initially leaked outward so as to adjust methane gas Position, so that more preferable simulation methane gas leaks the influence deformed to the form transformation of quartz sand from different location outward.
In actual use, the simulating chamber of each layer is laid with to the quartz sand of corresponding partial size, by filling the water spray head 2 for top layer mould Quasi- 21 area above of room fills water, so that the true environment of simulated sea bottom, then flows into gas for the methane gas in air feed tank 14 Body isocon 16, methane gas finally leak out in simulating chamber from the venthole of leakage hollow cylinder 18 outward, and methane gas is from stone The gap of sand enters water area after migrating upwards, is migrated by the quartz sand of top layer simulating chamber 21 to the mistake of water area in methane Cheng Zhong, the lasting aggregation of methane cause the quartz sand of 21 most surface of top layer simulating chamber to expand, deform, be disintegrated, ultimately form " seabed The seabeds mima type microrelief such as mound " and " pockmark ", then, methane gas is escaped from the quartz sand of disintegration, is formed " plume ", is equivalent to The process that seabed is transformed in simulation shallow gas.
In actual use, the simulating chamber of each layer is laid with to the quartz sand of corresponding partial size, by filling the water spray head 2 for top layer mould Quasi- 21 area above of room fills water, thus the true environment of simulated sea bottom, and can be different by being injected in each simulated domain Or same amount of water, to reach different simulated domains with identical or different hydraulic pressure, so as to simulate true ocean ring It is influenced caused by different hydraulic pressure teams shallow gas leakage under border, and the comparison that different hydraulic pressure influence experiment can be carried out;Then By the methane gas inflow gas isocon 16 in air feed tank 14, methane gas inflow gas point is adjusted by control valve 8 The flow and flow rate of flow tube 16, to simulate under true marine environment the not shallow gas of same amount and speed, methane gas finally from The venthole of leakage hollow pipe leaks out in simulating chamber, and methane gas enters water area after migrating upwards from the gap of quartz sand, It migrates the process into water in methane from the quartz sand of top layer simulating chamber 21, methane gas is emerged from quartz sand gives top layer simulating chamber The quartz sand of 21 most surface forms each shapes such as " seaknolls ", " plume " and " pockmark ", is equivalent to simulation shallow gas pair The process of seabed transformation, the transformation that methane forms quartz sand, so that the quartz sand of most surface takes place slight lamina and disturbs Dynamic deformation continues to leak out in water from quartz sand in simulation gas, and the quartz sand of most surface expands and deformation, and is formed small Type seaknoll, when increase is injected into the gas pressure of drop-leg 16, the seaknoll bodily form continues to increase, and is equivalent to seaknoll In " growth phase ", if the gas pressure for being injected into drop-leg 16 increases to a certain extent, the seaknoll bodily form is not It will continue to increase, reach " the growth limit ".
For those skilled in the art, it can make other each according to the above description of the technical scheme and ideas Kind is corresponding to be changed and deforms, and all these change and deform the protection model that all should belong to the claims in the present invention Within enclosing.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of multivariable condition submarine shallow gas leaks analogy method, characterized by the following steps:
Step 1: each layer simulating chamber inside water tank is paved with quartz sand, simulates the partial size of indoor quartz sand from upper past in each layer Under be sequentially increased;
Step 2: the water in reservoir being sprayed after water injection pipe from water filling spray head, is injected into inside water tank, water is successively downward By each layer simulating chamber and infiltrate into quartz sand;
Step 3: after water penetration to lowest level is simulated in indoor quartz sand, the simulation gas in air feed tank being passed through into gas point The top of flow tube is flowed out, and through leaking out outward at the top of leakage hollow cylinder with the venthole of side wall, from the top of leakage hollow cylinder The simulation gas of outflow by each layer simulating chamber and leaks out in quartz sand upwards in turn, simulates gas along in each layer simulating chamber Quartz sand migrate upwards and enter water in, simulation gas finally escaped from water;
Step 4: being arranged in inside water tank and the gas gathering mask that submerges in water is by the simulation gas collection escaped from water and by gas Body transfer tube is sent into storage in air collector, and the gas concentration probe collection on gas gathering mask simulates gas concentration;
Step 5: for simulation gas in quartz sand in upward migration process, simulation gas causes deformation to the quartz sand of most surface, It records the deformation process of quartz sand and measures the data of quartz sand deformation;
Step 6: persistently recording the deformation process of quartz sand and measure the data of quartz sand deformation, and record simulation gas is dense Degree, gas permeation intensity and drop-leg stretch to the position of leakage hollow cylinder, until experiment terminates.
2. multivariable condition submarine shallow gas according to claim 1 leaks analogy method, it is characterised in that: in the water Axial partition is set in cabin, and partition divides water tank to form two independent simulated domains;
Different waters are injected in two independent simulated domains, so that the horizontal plane of two independent simulated domains is not same Highly, true sea level cyclical upturn and downturn variation is simulated;
A drop-leg is respectively provided in two independent simulated domains, simulation gas is separately flowed into through drop-leg to two In a independent simulated domain, the flow and flow rate for flowing into the simulation gas in two independent simulated domains is different, mould Intend the varying strength of the shallow gas leakage under true ocean subsea environment.
3. multivariable condition submarine shallow gas according to claim 1 leaks analogy method, it is characterised in that: the water filling Spray head is arranged inside water tank, and water filling spray head is connect by water injection pipe with reservoir;
The simulating chamber is arranged inside water tank, is equipped with several layers simulating chamber, is equipped with quartz sand on each layer simulating chamber, from upper past Under be successively sequentially increased in the partial size of quartz sand that each layer simulating chamber is laid with;
Water is filled inside water tank more than the most surface of quartz sand, water successively passes through downwards each layer simulating chamber and infiltrates into quartz In sand;
The gas gathering mask for collecting gas is additionally provided with inside water tank, gas gathering mask is located at the lower section of water filling spray head, and gas gathering mask passes through gas Body transfer tube is connect with air collector, and for storing the gas that gas gathering mask is collected into, gas gathering mask submerges in water air collector;
The air feed tank is connect with drop-leg, and drop-leg stretches to the inside of leakage hollow cylinder, and leakage hollow cylinder is perpendicular It is directly fixed in simulating chamber and extends to from undermost simulating chamber the simulating chamber of top layer, leakage hollow cylinder is hollow knot Structure, the top and side wall for leaking hollow cylinder are equipped with several ventholes, and the diameter of venthole is less than the partial size of quartz sand, air feed tank Inside it is stored with simulation gas, simulation gas is by the top outflow of drop-leg and the venthole through leaking hollow cylinder is to extravasation It leaks out, the simulation gas leaked out by each layer simulating chamber and leaks out in quartz sand upwards in turn.
4. multivariable condition submarine shallow gas according to claim 1 or 3 leaks analogy method, it is characterised in that: described Simulation gas is methane.
5. multivariable condition submarine shallow gas according to claim 1 or 3 leaks analogy method, it is characterised in that: described It is set in water tank there are three simulating chamber, the bottom simulating chamber respectively set gradually from the bottom up, middle layer simulating chamber and top layer simulation Room.
6. multivariable condition submarine shallow gas according to claim 5 leaks analogy method, it is characterised in that: the bottom The quartz that partial size is 250 microns, 180 microns and 125 microns is equipped on simulating chamber, middle layer simulating chamber and top layer simulating chamber respectively Sand.
7. multivariable condition submarine shallow gas according to claim 1 or 3 leaks analogy method, it is characterised in that: described Gas gathering mask is equipped with gas concentration probe, and gas concentration probe is used to measure the simulation gas concentration flowed into gas gathering mask.
8. multivariable condition submarine shallow gas according to claim 1 or 3 leaks analogy method, it is characterised in that: described The side wall of water tank is equipped with the pressure sensor for monitoring the water body pressure in water tank.
9. multivariable condition submarine shallow gas according to claim 1 or 3 leaks analogy method, it is characterised in that: also wrap Drainpipe is included, the side wall that one end of drainpipe passes through water tank enters inside water tank, and the other end is connect with reservoir, and drainpipe is used for The water of water tank is discharged to reservoir.
10. multivariable condition submarine shallow gas according to claim 1 or 3 leaks analogy method, it is characterised in that: described Control valve is additionally provided on drop-leg, the gas for adjusting air feed tank is injected into the pressure of drop-leg.
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