CN109651530A - The chitosan extraction element and equipment recycled for shell-fish solid waste - Google Patents

The chitosan extraction element and equipment recycled for shell-fish solid waste Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109651530A
CN109651530A CN201811593199.8A CN201811593199A CN109651530A CN 109651530 A CN109651530 A CN 109651530A CN 201811593199 A CN201811593199 A CN 201811593199A CN 109651530 A CN109651530 A CN 109651530A
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China
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unit
chitosan
shell
extraction element
solid waste
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CN201811593199.8A
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CN109651530B (en
Inventor
张世红
向家涛
邵敬爱
王盛华
张�雄
杨海平
陈应泉
杨晴
曾阔
王贤华
陈汉平
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Huazhong University of Science and Technology
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Huazhong University of Science and Technology
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08BPOLYSACCHARIDES; DERIVATIVES THEREOF
    • C08B37/00Preparation of polysaccharides not provided for in groups C08B1/00 - C08B35/00; Derivatives thereof
    • C08B37/0003General processes for their isolation or fractionation, e.g. purification or extraction from biomass

Abstract

The invention belongs to shell-fish solid waste to recycle correlative technology field, it discloses a kind of chitosan extraction element recycled for shell-fish solid waste and equipment, described device includes the second liquid collecting cavity, third concentrator bowl, lifting unit, agitating unit and centrifugation motor, the third concentrator bowl is arranged in the second liquid collecting cavity body, the top of the second liquid collecting cavity is arranged in the lifting unit, the agitating unit is connected to the lifting unit, is used to be stirred the liquid in the third concentrator bowl;The output shaft of the centrifugation motor is connected to the bottom of the third concentrator bowl after the second liquid collecting cavity, is used to that the third concentrator bowl to be driven to rotate;The chitosan extraction element is used to carry out the shell-fish raw material from crust pretreatment unit that acid to boil, soda boiling, deacetylated and washing and drying are handled, to obtain chitosan product.The present invention improves efficiency and quality, and flexibility is preferable, with strong applicability.

Description

The chitosan extraction element and equipment recycled for shell-fish solid waste
Technical field
The invention belongs to shell-fish solid waste to recycle correlative technology field, be used for more particularly, to one kind The chitosan extraction element and equipment that shell-fish solid waste recycles.
Background technique
With the consumption rapid growth of Shrimp waste aquatic products in recent years, the accumulation of the shell-fish solid waste such as shrimp shell, crab shell Such as mountain.According to incompletely statistics, the various shell-fish solid waste that China is generated because consuming aquatic products every year at present are more than 8.5 ×105Ton.These wastes are generally regarded as house refuse and directly discard, and huge natural resources is not only wasted, Serious pollution can be also caused to ecological environment simultaneously.It is reported that only extremely least a portion of crust is recycled at present, than Such as by shrimp shell, crab shell preliminary treatment at shrimp and crab shells powder, using the additive as mariculture feed.But the production of shrimp and crab shells powder Product value is relatively low, greatly reduces the utility value of crust, it is difficult to form more mature industrial chain, seriously constrain crust The resource utilization rate of class waste.
In shell-fish solid waste other than containing a large amount of calcium titanate, also contain more chitin and protein Deng with compared with high value-added product ingredient.If it is possible to extracted from discarded crust with high value-added product, It is unquestionably an important development direction of shell-fish solid waste resource recovery processing technique.Chitin (C8H13O5N) n, Also known as chitin, chitin, the entitled Chitin of English, were found in 1811 by French scholar Braconno, quilt in 1823 for the first time Odier is successfully extracted from the shell of crustacean.Chitin is very extensive in the distribution of nature, is only secondary on the earth In the second major class organic resource of cellulose, the content in shellfish is higher, (the mainly crust in arthropod Guiding principle, such as shrimp, crab) chitin content be up to 58%~85%.Entitled poly- (the 1,4) -2- amino -2- of chemistry of chitosan is de- Oxygen-β-D-Glucose is a kind of alkaline polysaccharide boiomacromolecule that chitin obtains after deacetylated, medicine, health care product, There is huge application market in the fields such as environmental protection, bioengineering and light industry.
Currently, industrially preparing chitosan from crust mainly using acid-base method, process flow mainly includes cleaning Raw material → diluted acid decalcification → de- albumen → deacetylated → filtering → cleaning → drying and other steps.But it is directed to first currently on the market There is no complete the system perhaps existing extract equipment of device or processes for the recycling of shell class solid waste, not only Mutually indepedent between each processing step, process is very complicated, and operating process is long, and production efficiency is relatively low, it is difficult to meet To the demand that extensive crust is recycled, while it also will cause biggish energy waste and problem of environmental pollution.Accordingly Ground, there is develop a kind of higher chitosan extraction recycled for shell-fish solid waste of extraction efficiency for this field The technical need of device and equipment.
Summary of the invention
Aiming at the above defects or improvement requirements of the prior art, the present invention provides one kind to be used for shell-fish solid waste The chitosan extraction element and equipment of recycling, based on the recycling feature of existing shell-fish solid waste, for Critical component crust pretreatment unit, chitosan extraction element, the Protein Extraction dress of shell-fish solid waste recycling Set and component between linking relationship study and designed, allow the crust pretreatment unit simultaneously from shell-fish Chitosan and protein product are extracted in solid waste, solve the stream during current shell-fish recovery and reuse of waste Journey is cumbersome, low efficiency, energy waste and the problems such as environmental pollution, has easy to operate, low production cost, adaptable and place Manage the advantages that high-efficient.
To achieve the above object, according to one aspect of the present invention, it provides a kind of for shell-fish solid waste time The chitosan extraction element utilized is received, the chitosan extraction element includes the second liquid collecting cavity, third concentrator bowl, lifting list Member, agitating unit and centrifugation motor, the third concentrator bowl are arranged in the second liquid collecting cavity body, the lifting unit setting At the top of the second liquid collecting cavity, the agitating unit is connected to the lifting unit, is used to be centrifuged the third Liquid in cylinder is stirred;It is described centrifugation motor output shaft pass through the second liquid collecting cavity after be connected to the third from The bottom of heart cylinder is used to that the third concentrator bowl to be driven to rotate;
The chitosan extraction element be used for from crust pretreatment unit shell-fish raw material carry out acid boil, alkali It boils, the processing of deacetylated and washing and drying, to obtain chitosan product.
Further, the agitating unit includes stirring motor and the first blender for being connected to the stirring motor, institute It states stirring motor and is connected to the second central control unit;The stirring motor is arranged on the lifting unit, passes through the liter Unit drops to realize the rising or decline of stirring motor described in the course of work, to adjust the height of the stirring motor.
Further, the chitosan extraction element further includes heating unit, and the heating unit is arranged described first On the inner wall of blender, it is connected to second central control unit, second central control unit is described for controlling The heating power of heating unit.
Further, the chitosan extraction element includes the first temperature being arranged on the output shaft of the stirring motor Detection unit and pH detection unit, first temperature detecting unit and the pH detection unit are for measuring the third centrifugation The temperature and pH value of solid-liquid suspension object in cylinder, and the numerical value real-time Transmission that will test gives second central control unit.
Further, the chitosan extraction element further includes the first liquid level detection unit, the first level sensing list Member is arranged in the second liquid collecting cavity body, is connected to second central control unit;The first level monitoring unit For the intracorporal liquid level of the second liquid collecting cavity described in real-time detection, and the liquid level information that will test in real time is transferred to Second central control unit.
Further, second central control unit is used for according to first liquid level detection unit, first temperature Liquid level, temperature value and the pH value information for spending detection unit and pH detection unit transmitting, are arranged with real-time control in institute State each outlet of chitosan device or the opening and closing of the solenoid valve in import, with keep temperature inside the third concentrator bowl and PH value is in given interval range.
Further, the outer wall of the third concentrator bowl offers multiple fine filter openings, and multiple fine filter openings are uniform It is arranged on the third concentrator bowl.
Further, the direction of rotation of the centrifugation motor is opposite with the direction of rotation of the stirring motor.
Further, the bottom of the second liquid collecting cavity is provided with chitosan outlet;The bottom of the third concentrator bowl It is provided with third bottom reversed unit, the third bottom reversed unit is connect with the chitosan outlet activity, and the shell is poly- Sugar outlet protrudes from the second liquid collecting cavity.
Other side according to the invention provides a kind of equipment recycled for shell-fish solid waste, The equipment includes the chitosan extraction element as described above recycled for shell-fish solid waste, the chitosan Extraction element is for handling the solid matter from crust pretreatment unit to obtain chitosan product.
In general, through the invention it is contemplated above technical scheme is compared with the prior art, use provided by the invention It is mainly had the advantages that in the chitosan extraction element and equipment of the recycling of shell-fish solid waste
1. chitosan extraction element of the invention may be implemented acid boil, soda boiling, it is deacetylated and washing etc. processing steps, can Chitin in crust solid matter is refined under conditions of more mild, and it is poly- to extract the shell with high added value Sugar product shortens process flow compared with the prior art, and not only easy to operate, high production efficiency can also effectively reduce the energy Loss reduces production cost.
2. chitosan extraction element of the invention, can by setting lifting unit and the stirring motor on lifting unit It to realize chitosan extraction element in the process of running, is adequately stirred inside third concentrator bowl, uniformity of temperature profile makes First temperature detecting unit and pH detection unit are transmitted reliable information to the second central control unit and then are adjusted in time, favorably In the chitosan product that guarantee production mass is stable.
3. chitosan extraction element of the invention is by being arranged electricity in each inlet and outlet on the second liquid collecting cavity Magnet valve is simultaneously attached with the second central control unit, the second central control unit can be allowed according to the first temperature detecting unit and The information of pH detection unit feedback controls the opening and closing of each import or export in time, realizes in the third concentrator bowl of dynamic adjustment in time The reaction condition in portion, and be also provided with corresponding recycling bins can be effectively improved to acid solution, lye, deacetylated dose and water Utilization rate reduces the loss of the energy.
4. the chitosan extraction element and the Protein Extraction device are connected to the crust pretreatment unit, By the reasonable coordinated regulation between each subsystem, may be implemented in shell-fish solid waste high added value ingredient it is efficient It recycles, chitosan and protein product can be extracted simultaneously, last remaining waste residue can also be used by subsequent processing In industrial building and road construction etc., integrated level is improved, and the degree of automation is higher.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram of the equipment recycled provided by the present invention for shell-fish solid waste.
Fig. 2 is the first of the crust pretreatment unit of the equipment recycled for shell-fish solid waste in Fig. 1 The connection schematic diagram of central control unit and other component.
Fig. 3 is the signal of the crust pretreatment unit of the equipment recycled for shell-fish solid waste in Fig. 1 Figure.
Fig. 4 is the signal of the chitosan extraction element of the equipment recycled for shell-fish solid waste in Fig. 1 Figure.
Fig. 5 is the connection signal between the second central control unit and other component of the chitosan extraction element in Fig. 4 Figure.
Fig. 6 is the signal of the Protein Extraction device of the equipment recycled for shell-fish solid waste in Fig. 1 Figure.
Fig. 7 is the connection signal between the third central control unit and other component of the Protein Extraction device in Fig. 6 Figure.
Fig. 8 is the flow diagram of shell-fish solid waste recoverying and utilizing method provided by the invention.
In all the appended drawings, identical appended drawing reference is used to denote the same element or structure, in which: the pretreatment of 1- crust Device, 11- feed hopper, 12- material inlet, 13- position-limiting unit, 14- jet cleaning unit, 15- is adjustable striker plate, 16- first Backgauge column, 17- coarse crushing gear, 18- first motor, the first concentrator bowl of 19-, 110- coarse strainer, the first belt of 111-, 112- One filter hole, the finely divided gear of 113-, 114- fie screen, the second belt of 115-, 116- the first liquid collecting cavity, 117- liquid substance Outlet, 118- the first bottom reversed unit, 119- second gear stock column, the second motor of 120-, the second concentrator bowl of 121-, 122- second Filter hole, 123- the second bottom reversed unit, the outlet of 124- solid matter, the first central control unit of 125-, 2- chitosan mention Take device, 21- solid matter import, 22- the second liquid collecting cavity, 23- stirring motor, 24- lifting unit, 25- acid solution import, 26- lye import, deacetylated dose of import of 27-, 28- water inlet, the first temperature detecting unit of 29-, 210-pH detection unit, 211- First blender, 212- heating unit, the fine filter opening of 213-, 214- third bottom reversed unit, 215- the first level sensing list Member, the outlet of 216- chitosan, 217- slag-drip opening, 218- are centrifuged motor, 219- acid solution recycling bins, 220- recycle of alkali liquor case, 221- Deacetylated dose of recycling bins, 222- Sewage treatment case, 223- acid solution storage box, 224- lye storage box, deacetylated dose of 225- storage Case, 226- water tank, 227- third concentrator bowl, the second central control unit of 228-, 229- water outlet, deacetylated dose of 230- goes out Mouthful, 231- lye export, 232- acid solution exports, 3- Protein Extraction device, 31- third central control unit, and 32- is vacuumized Pump, the second liquid level detection unit of 33-, 34- motor, the second blender of 35-, 36- Rose Box, 37- filtering medium layer, 38- mistake Filter box outlet solenoid valve, the outlet of 39- Rose Box, the outlet of 310- filtrate storage tank, 311- filtrate storage tank, 312- first are extracted Case, the first centrifugal pump of 313-, the first centrifuge of 314-, 315- extractant recycling bins, 316- condenser pipe, 317- condensation-water drain, 318- second temperature detection unit, 319- primary heater, 320- atomizer, 321- evaporation tank, 322- crystallize case, 323- egg White matter outlet, the second centrifuge of 324-, the second centrifugal pump of 325-, the second extraction box of 326-, 327- protease case, 328- hydrolysis Case, 329- water bath, 330- secondary heater, 331- condensation water tank.
Specific embodiment
In order to make the objectives, technical solutions, and advantages of the present invention clearer, with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments, right The present invention is further elaborated.It should be appreciated that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the present invention, and It is not used in the restriction present invention.As long as in addition, technical characteristic involved in the various embodiments of the present invention described below Not constituting a conflict with each other can be combined with each other.
Referring to Fig. 1, provided by the present invention for the equipment that shell-fish solid waste recycles, the equipment includes Crust pretreatment unit 1, chitosan extraction element 2 and Protein Extraction device 3, the chitosan extraction element 2 and the egg White matter extraction element 3 is connected to the crust pretreatment unit 1.
The crust pretreatment unit 1 carries out ultra-fine grinding and the solid-liquid of two-stage for shell-fish solid waste raw material Separation, thus by pre-treatment of raw material for the tiny solid matter of particle and in liquid substance two parts of flow regime, then Solid matter enters the chitosan extraction element 2, and liquid substance enters the Protein Extraction device 3.The shell is poly- Sugared extraction element 2 be used to carrying out the solid matter acid boil, soda boiling, the processing steps such as deacetylated and washing and drying, then To chitosan product.The Protein Extraction device is used to carry out the liquid substance suction filtration concentration, two-stage extraction, water-bath water The processing steps such as solution and atomization crystallization, then obtain protein product.
Please refer to figs. 2 and 3, and the crust pretreatment unit includes feed hopper 11, the crushing of jet cleaning unit 14, first Mechanism, the first solid-liquid separation device, the second disintegrating mechanism, the second solid-liquid separation device, position-limiting unit 13, the first liquid collecting cavity 116 and first central control unit 125.Two jet cleaning units 14 are separately positioned on the feed hopper 11, described Jet cleaning unit 14 is connect with first central control unit 125.The position-limiting unit 13 is arranged in the feed hopper 11 Lower part that is interior and being located at the feed hopper 11, is used to control the charging rate of shell-fish raw material.The first disintegrator structure One end be connected to the feed hopper 11, the other end is connected to one end of first solid-liquid separation device, the separation of solid and liquid The other end of mechanism is connected to one end of second disintegrating mechanism, and the other end of second disintegrating mechanism is connected to described Two solid-liquid separation devices.First solid-liquid separation device, second disintegrating mechanism and second solid-liquid separation device are equal It is contained in the first liquid collecting cavity 116.The first liquid collecting cavity 116 respectively with the chitosan extraction element 2 and institute Protein Extraction device 3 is stated to be connected.
In present embodiment, the first disintegrator structure carries out coarse crushing for shell-fish raw material, and described second crushes Mechanism is used to carry out finely divided, first solid-liquid point to by shell-fish raw material coarse crushing and that first time is separated by solid-liquid separation Structure and second solid-liquid separation device of disembarking are for being separated by solid-liquid separation smashed crust, so by shell-fish raw material Pretreatment is the tiny solid matter of particle and liquid substance two parts in flow regime, convenient for it is subsequent extract respectively it is high attached Value added chitosan and protein realizes and sufficiently recycles shell-fish solid waste.
The feed hopper 11 is provided with hopper cover far from one end of the first disintegrator structure, is provided in the hopper cover Material inlet 12, the material inlet 12 are used for for shell-fish solid waste raw material by being pre-processed with entering the crust Device 1.
The two jet cleaning units 14 interval settings, and the jet cleaning unit 14 include horizontal washer jet and Vertical washer jet is additionally provided with the first electromagnetism for being connected to the horizontal washer jet and the vertical washer jet Valve and second solenoid valve, first solenoid valve and the second solenoid valve are connected to first central control unit 125, first central control unit 125 controls the spray by controlling first solenoid valve and the second solenoid valve Penetrate the start and stop of cleaning unit 14.
The lower end of the feed hopper 11 is arranged in the position-limiting unit 13 comprising two pieces of symmetrically arranged adjustable striker plates 15 and the controller of the adjustable striker plate 15 and first central control unit 125 is connected, first center control is single Member 125 controls the deflection angle of the adjustable striker plate 15 by controlling the controller, and then controls shell-fish raw material Into the speed of the first disintegrator structure.
The first disintegrator structure includes the first noumenon, is arranged in the intracorporal coarse crushing gear 17 of the first and institute The first gear stock column 16 and coarse strainer 110 that coarse crushing gear 17 matches are stated, the aperture of the coarse strainer 110 is 5 millimeters.It is described The first noumenon is cylindrical in shape, and the first gear stock column 16 is arranged on the inner wall of the first noumenon.The edge of the coarse strainer 110 It is connected to the inner wall of the first noumenon, is used to carry out the shell-fish raw material after the first disintegrator structure coarse crushing Coarse filtration.
First solid-liquid separation device includes first motor 18, the first concentrator bowl 19, the first belt 111 and the first bottom Portion's roll-over unit 118, the first motor 18 and the first bottom reversed unit 118 are connected to first center control Unit 125 processed.One end that first concentrator bowl 19 closes on the first disintegrator structure offers the first pulley groove, and described One belt 111 is arranged in first pulley groove, is connected to the first motor 18, the first motor 18 is for driving It moves first belt 111 to rotate, first concentrator bowl 19 is then driven to rotate.It is opened on the periphery of first concentrator bowl 19 Equipped with multiple first filter hole 112, the aperture of first filter hole 112 is less than or equal to 0.1 millimeter.First bottom reversed Unit 118 is set to the concentrator bowl 19 and closes in one end of second disintegrating mechanism, is connected to first center control Unit 125 processed, first central control unit 125 control the opening and closing and opening size of the first bottom reversed unit 118, And then the solid matter controlled after first time is separated by solid-liquid separation enters second disintegrating mechanism at the appropriate speed.It is described First motor 18 is connected to first central control unit 125, and first central control unit 125 is for controlling described the The start and stop of one motor 18 then control the start and stop of first solid-liquid separation device.
Second disintegrating mechanism includes the second ontology of tubular, is arranged in the described second intrinsic finely divided gear 113, it is arranged on the inner wall of second ontology and the second gear stock column 119 that is matched with the finely divided gear 113 and thin Strainer 114, the edge of the fie screen 114 are connected to the inner wall of second ontology, and aperture is 0.5 millimeter.
Second solid-liquid separation device includes the second motor 120, the second concentrator bowl 121, the second belt 115 and the second bottom Portion's roll-over unit 123, it is recessed that one end that first concentrator bowl 121 closes on first solid-liquid separation device offers the second belt Slot, second belt 115 are arranged in second pulley groove, are connected to the second motor 120, second motor 120 are connected to first central control unit 125, and first central control unit 125 is by controlling second motor 120 rotation controls the rotation of second concentrator bowl 121, and second motor 120 passes through second belt 115 drive Second concentrator bowl 121 rotates.In present embodiment, the periphery of second concentrator bowl 121 offers multiple second filterings The aperture in hole 122, second filter hole 122 is less than or equal to 0.05 millimeter.The second bottom reversed unit 123 is arranged in institute It states in the one end of the second concentrator bowl 121 far from second disintegrating mechanism, is connected to first central control unit 125, First central control unit 125 is used to control the opening and closing and opening size of the second bottom reversed unit 123, then controls It makes the solid matter after second is separated by solid-liquid separation and enters the chitosan extraction element 2 at the appropriate speed.Described Two motors 120 are connected to first central control unit 125, and first central control unit 125 is for controlling described the The start and stop of two motors 120 then control the start and stop of second solid-liquid separation device.
The first liquid collecting cavity 116 is provided with liquid substance outlet 117 and solid far from one end of the feed hopper 11 Material outlet 124, the solid matter outlet 124 are connected to second solid-liquid separation device, are connected to the chitosan Extraction element 1.The liquid substance outlet 117 is connected with the first liquid collecting cavity 116, is connected to the protein and mentions Take device 3.The liquid substance isolated by first solid-liquid separation device and second solid-liquid separation device is described It is temporarily kept in first liquid collecting cavity 116, the Protein Extraction device is then entered by liquid substance outlet 117 In 3.Solid matter after second solid-liquid separation device is separated by solid-liquid separation passes through the second bottom reversed unit 123 Afterwards, the chitosan extraction element 2 is entered from solid matter outlet 124.
Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 is please referred to, the chitosan extraction element 2 includes the second liquid collecting cavity 22, third concentrator bowl 227, rises Unit 24, agitating unit, detection components, third bottom reversed unit 214, centrifugation motor 218 and the second central control unit drop 228, the top of the second liquid collecting cavity 22 is arranged in the lifting unit 24, is connected to the agitating unit, described to stir Unit is mixed to be arranged on the second liquid collecting cavity 22.The third concentrator bowl 227 is arranged in the second liquid collecting cavity 22, The output shaft of the centrifugation motor 218 is connected on the third concentrator bowl 227 after passing through the second liquid collecting cavity 22.It is described The bottom of the third concentrator bowl 227 is arranged in third bottom reversed unit 214.It is the third bottom reversed unit 214, described Detection unit, the lifting unit 224, the centrifugation motor 218 and the agitating unit are connected to second center Control unit 228.The detection unit includes that the first liquid level detection unit 215, the first temperature detecting unit 29 and pH detection are single Member 210.
The top of the second liquid collecting cavity 22 is provided with solid matter import 21, the both ends of the solid matter import 21 It is connected respectively with solid matter outlet 124 and the third concentrator bowl 227, by pretreated shell-fish solids Matter enters in the third concentrator bowl 227 from the solid matter import 21.The bottom of the second liquid collecting cavity 22 is provided with Slag-drip opening 217, the slag-drip opening 217 are used for the discharge of bits.
The top of the second liquid collecting cavity 22 is arranged in the lifting unit 24, is connected to the agitating unit.Institute Stating agitating unit includes stirring motor 23 and the first blender 211 for being connected to the stirring motor 23, the stirring motor 23 It is connected to second central control unit 228.The stirring motor 23 is arranged on the lifting unit 24, passes through the liter The rising or decline that stirring motor 23 described in the course of work may be implemented in drop unit 24 are to adjust the stirring motor 23 Highly.The output shaft of the stirring motor 23 protrudes into the third concentrator bowl 227, and first blender 211 is contained in institute It states in third concentrator bowl 227.The effect that the stirring motor 23 is used to drive the rotation of the first blender 211 to reach stirring Fruit.The raising and lowering of the stirring motor 23 described in system work process may be implemented in the lifting unit 24, and then realizes The height adjustment of first blender 211, so that the first blender 211 is while making rotating motion, in the vertical direction Do reciprocating motion back and forth.
Heating unit 212, the heating unit 212 and described second are provided on the inner wall of first blender 211 Central control unit 228 is connected, by second central control unit 228 come heating unit 212 described in real-time control Heating power.The output shaft of the centrifugation motor 218 is connected to the bottom of the third concentrator bowl 227, the third concentrator bowl 227 carry out rotary motion at a slow speed, the direction of rotation of the centrifugation motor 218 and institute under the drive of the centrifugation motor 218 The direction of rotation of stirring motor 23 is stated on the contrary, to achieve the effect that reinforce stirring.It is opened up on the barrel of the third concentrator bowl 227 There are multiple fine filter openings 213, it, can when the centrifugation motor 218 drives the third concentrator bowl 227 to do the rotary motion of high speed Waste residue and liquid are thrown away the third concentrator bowl 227 to the second liquid collecting cavity 22, to reach the centrifugation of separation of solid and liquid Effect.
First temperature detecting unit 29 and the pH detection unit 210 are separately positioned on the defeated of the stirring motor 23 On shaft, the two is respectively used to measure the temperature and pH value of solid-liquid suspension object in the third concentrator bowl 227, and will test Numerical value real-time Transmission gives second central control unit 228.The setting of first liquid level detection unit 215 is in second collection In sap cavity body 22, it is used to detect the liquid level in the second liquid collecting cavity 22, and the liquid level that will test in real time is high Degree information is transferred to second central control unit 228.The bottom of the second liquid collecting cavity 22 is provided with chitosan outlet 216;The left lower of the third concentrator bowl 227 is additionally provided with the third bottom reversed unit 214, and the third bottom is turned over Turn unit 214 to be flexibly connected with chitosan outlet 216, the chitosan outlet 216 protrudes from the second liquid collecting cavity 22。
The top of the second liquid collecting cavity 22 is disposed with acid solution import 25, lye import 26, de- second from left to right Acyl agent import 27 and water inlet 28.The bottom of the second liquid collecting cavity 22 is disposed with acid solution from left to right and exports 232, alkali Liquid outlet 231, deacetylated dose of outlet 230 and water outlet 229.The 232 connection acid solution recycling bins 219 of acid solution outlet, the acid Liquid recycling bins 219 connect acid solution storage box 223, and the acid solution storage box 223 connects the acid solution import 25.The lye export 231 connection recycle of alkali liquor casees 220, the recycle of alkali liquor case 220 connect lye storage box 224, and the lye storage box 224 connects The lye import 26.The 230 deacetylated dose of recycling bins 221 of connection of deacetylated dose of outlet, the deacetylated dose of recycling bins 221 Deacetylated dose of storage box 225 is connected, the deacetylated dose of storage box 225 connects the deacetylated dose of import 27.The water outlet 229 connection Sewage treatment casees 222, the Sewage treatment case 222 connect water tank 226, and the water tank 226 connects the water inlet Mouth 28.Second central control unit 228 also be separately positioned on the acid solution import 25, lye import 26, described Deacetylated dose of import 27, the water inlet 28 and the water outlet 229, deacetylated dose of outlet 230, the lye export 231 and the acid solution outlet 232 in acid solution inlet solenoid valve, lye import solenoid valve, deacetylated dose of inlet solenoid valve, water inlet Mouth solenoid valve, water outlet solenoid valve, deacetylated dose of outlet solenoid valve, lye export solenoid valve connect simultaneously with acid solution outlet solenoid valve It is controlled;Second central control unit 228 can be according to first liquid level detection unit 215, first temperature Liquid level, temperature value and the pH value information of detection unit 29 and the pH detection unit 210 transmitting are existed with real-time control setting Each outlet or the opening and closing of the solenoid valve in import, to keep the temperature third concentrator bowl 227 inside and pH value giving Interval range in.
In present embodiment, second central control unit 228 is connected with the stirring motor 23, can control institute State the start and stop and running frequency of stirring motor 23;Second central control unit 228 is connected with the lifting unit 24, can With the speed for controlling the start and stop of the lifting unit 24 and pumping;Second central control unit 228 respectively with The acid solution inlet solenoid valve, the lye import solenoid valve, the deacetylated dose of inlet solenoid valve and the water inlet electromagnetism Valve is connected, and can be detected according to first liquid level detection unit 215, first temperature detecting unit 29 and the pH single Liquid level, temperature value and the pH value information of 210 transmitting of member, control the opening and closing of each solenoid valve, to control acid solution, alkali immediately The content of liquid, deacetylated dose and water, to keep temperature inside the third concentrator bowl 227 and pH value in given interval range It is interior;Second central control unit 228 is connected with first temperature detecting unit 29, can be with described in real-time reception first The temperature value information for the solid-liquid suspension object inside the third concentrator bowl 227 that temperature detecting unit 29 transmits;In described second Centre control unit 228 is connected with the pH detection unit 210, the institute that can be transmitted with pH detection unit 210 described in real-time reception State the pH value information of the solid-liquid suspension object inside third concentrator bowl 227;Second central control unit 228 and the heating are single Member 212 is connected, can be with the heating power of heating unit 212 described in real-time control;Second central control unit 228 and institute It states third bottom reversed unit 214 to be connected, can control the opening and closing and opening size of the third bottom reversed unit 214; Second central control unit 228 is connected with first liquid level detection unit 29, can be with the first liquid described in real-time reception The liquid level information for the second liquid collecting cavity 22 that position detection unit 29 is transmitted;Second central control unit 228 with The centrifugation motor 218 is connected, and can control the start and stop and running frequency of the centrifugation motor 218;Second center control Unit 228 processed respectively with the acid solution outlet solenoid valve, the lye export solenoid valve, the deacetylated dose of outlet solenoid valve and The water outlet solenoid valve is connected, and can control the opening and closing of each solenoid valve immediately, thus respectively in pickling, alkali cleaning, de- second Reaction liquid is expelled to corresponding recycling bins after acyl and washing.
Please refer to Fig. 6 and with 7, the Protein Extraction device 3 include third central control unit 31, vacuum pumping pump 32, Rose Box 36, filtrate storage tank 311, extraction module, water-bath water solution component, second temperature detection unit 318, atomization crystallization component And condensation water tank 331, the vacuum pumping pump 32 connect the third central control unit 31 and the filtrate storage tank 311, institute State the top that the filtrate storage tank 311 is arranged in Rose Box 36.The extraction module connects the water-bath water solution component, described Atomization crystallization component is connected to the water-bath water solution component.The condensation water tank 331 is connected to the water-bath water solution component And the atomization crystallizes component.The liquid substance for entering the Protein Extraction device 3 from the crust pretreatment unit 1 passes through After the two-stage extraction of the extraction module, hydrolyzed in the water-bath water solution component by heating water bath, using the atomization It crystallizes component and generates protein.
Filtering medium layer 37, the filtering medium layer are provided between the Rose Box 36 and the filtrate storage tank 311 37 can retain macromolecular substances, only water and small-molecule substance be allowed to pass through and enter the filtrate storage tank 311.It is described Filtrate storage tank 311 is connected with the vacuum pumping pump 32, and the vacuum pumping pump 32 is used to carry out the filtrate storage tank 311 Continuous air extraction reaches and carries out to the liquid substance in the Rose Box 36 so as to form negative pressure inside the filtrate storage tank 311 The effect of concentration is filtered, the vacuum pumping pump 32 is connected with the third central control unit 31, the third center control Unit 31 is used to control the start and stop of the vacuum pumping pump 32.
36 upper end of Rose Box is provided with import, and the import is connected with liquid substance outlet 117.The mistake Motor 34 is additionally provided on filter box 36, the output shaft of the motor 34 protrudes into the Rose Box 36, and is connected to second and stirs Mix device 35.The motor 34 is for driving second blender 35 to rotate, to stir the liquids in the Rose Box 36 Matter prevents the filtering medium layer 37 stifled by dirt, improves the efficiency for filtering concentration.It is also set up on the inner wall of the Rose Box 36 There is the second liquid level detection unit 33, second liquid level detection unit 33 is used to detect the liquid level in the Rose Box 36, And the liquid level information that will test in real time is transferred to the third central control unit 31.The bottom of the Rose Box 36 Be additionally provided with Rose Box outlet 39, Rose Box outlet 39 pass through the filtrate storage tank 311 and with the extraction module phase Connection.Be provided with Rose Box outlet solenoid valve 38 in Rose Box outlet 39, the Rose Box outlet solenoid valve 38 with it is described Third central control unit 31 is connected and is controlled by it.The side of the filtrate storage tank 311 offers filtrate storage tank and goes out Mouth 310, the filtrate storage tank outlet 310 are used to that filtrate to be discharged.
The extraction module includes the first extraction cells and the second extraction cells for being connected to first extraction cells.Institute Stating the first extraction cells includes the first extraction box 312, the first centrifugal pump 313 and the first centrifuge 314, first extraction box 312 one end is connected to the Rose Box outlet 39, and the other end is connected to first centrifugal pump 313, first centrifuge 314 are connected to first centrifugal pump 313.First centrifugal pump 313 is used to extract liquor being pumped into first centrifuge 314 It is interior.Second extraction cells include the second extraction box 326, the second centrifugal pump 325 and the second centrifuge 324, second extraction Case 326 is taken to connect second centrifugal pump 325 and first centrifuge 313, second centrifuge 324 connects described second Centrifugal pump 325 and first extraction box 312, first centrifuge 314 and second centrifuge 324 are all connected to described Water-bath water solution component.Small part protein liquid after second centrifuge 324 separation enters back into first extraction box 213 It is recycled as extract liquor;By the isolated protein liquid of first centrifuge 313 and pass through second centrifuge 324 isolated protein liquids flow into the hydrolysis case 328 of the water-bath water solution component.
The water-bath water solution component includes protease case 327, extractant recycling bins 315, hydrolysis case 328, secondary heater 330 and water bath 329.The protease case 327 and the extractant recycling bins 315 are separately positioned in the hydrolysis case 328, The protease case 327 is used to add protease into the hydrolysis case 328 to carry out water-bath hydrolysis;The extractant recycling bins 315 for absorbing a small amount of extractant of residue being evaporated out of described hydrolysis case 328.The hydrolysis case 328 is arranged described 329 top of water bath, the water bath 329 are provided with the secondary heater 330 far from the side of the hydrolysis case 328.Institute Secondary heater 330 is stated for heating to the water in the water bath 329, then the water bath 329 is to the hydrolysis Case 328 is heated, to provide mild easily-controllable hydrolysising condition.Second temperature inspection is provided on the side wall of the hydrolysis case 328 Unit 318 is surveyed, the second temperature detection unit 318 is connected with the third central control unit 31, and in real time to institute It states third central control unit 31 and transmits temperature value information in the hydrolysis case 328.
The atomization crystallization component includes atomizer 320, primary heater 319, condenser pipe 316, evaporation tank 321 and knot Brilliant case 322, one end of the atomizer 320 are connected to the hydrolysis case 328, and the other end protrudes into the evaporation tank 321.Institute Primary heater 319 is stated to be arranged on the atomizer 320.Protein liquid after hydrolysis is through the 320 spirt institute of atomizer It states and is evaporated in evaporation tank 321.The top of the evaporation tank 321 is arranged in the condenser pipe 316, is additionally provided with condensed water Outlet 317.Steam forms condensed water after the condensation of the condenser pipe 316, and condensed water enters through the condensation-water drain 317 The condensation water tank 331.The condensation water tank 331 is also attached to the water bath 329, and condensed water can be used for the water-bath Water is supplemented in case 329.The crystallization case 322 is connected to the bottom of the evaporation tank 321, and the bottom of the crystallization case 322 is formed There is protein to export 323, crystallization forms protein powder in the crystallization case 322 after protein liquid evaporation, and the protein powder is certainly 323 discharge of protein outlet.
The third central control unit 31 is connected with the vacuum pumping pump 32, to control opening for the vacuum pumping pump 32 Stop and watt level;The third central control unit 31 is connected with second liquid level detection unit 33, with real-time reception The liquid level information for the Rose Box 36 that second liquid level detection unit 33 is transmitted;The third central control unit 31 It is connected with the motor 34, to control the start and stop and running frequency of the motor 34;The third central control unit 31 are connected with the Rose Box outlet solenoid valve 38, to control the mistake by controlling the Rose Box outlet solenoid valve 38 The opening and closing and opening size of filter box outlet 39;The third central control unit 31 is connected with first centrifugal pump 313, with Control the start and stop and watt level of first centrifugal pump 313;The third central control unit 31 and first centrifuge 314 are connected, to control the start and stop and running frequency of first centrifuge 314;The third central control unit 31 and institute It states second temperature detection unit 318 to be connected, the hydrolysis case transmitted with second temperature detection unit 318 described in real-time reception Temperature value information inside 328;The third central control unit 31 is connected with the primary heater 319, to control in real time Make the heating power of the primary heater 319;The third central control unit 31 is connected with second centrifuge 324 It connects, to control the start and stop and running frequency of second centrifuge 324;The third central control unit 31 with described second from Heart pump 325 is connected, to control the start and stop and watt level of second centrifugal pump 325;The third central control unit 31 It is connected with the secondary heater 330, with the heating power of secondary heater 330 described in real-time control.
Referring to Fig. 8, the present invention also provides a kind of shell-fish solid waste recoverying and utilizing method, the recycling side Method is the following steps are included: provide the equipment recycled as described above for shell-fish solid waste, for crust Class solid waste carries out crust pretreatment, chitosan extraction and Protein Extraction, extracts the chitosan with high added value And protein product, to realize the recycling to shell-fish solid waste.
Specifically, crust pre-processes: shell-fish solid waste enters the crust pretreatment unit 1 and is pre-processed, The first disintegrator structure carries out level-one coarse crushing to carapace raw material first, then carries out for the first time through the first solid-liquid separation device It is separated by solid-liquid separation, to be separated into liquid substance and thicker solid matter;Thicker solid matter is carried out by the second disintegrating mechanism Second level is finely divided, then carries out second through the second solid-liquid separation device and is separated by solid-liquid separation, to be separated into liquid substance and relatively thin Solid matter;Finally shell-fish solid waste is pre-processed as shell-fish liquid substance and partial size≤0.5mm fine grained The shell-fish solid matter of shape;
Secondly, chitosan extracts and Protein Extraction: being carried out by the chitosan extraction element 2 to shell-fish solid matter A series of processing are to extract chitosan product;It is Acid treatment first, it is calcareous in crust to remove;Followed by soda boiling Reason, to remove remaining a small amount of albumen;Followed by deacetylated processing, it is wet with what is refined out by carrying out deacetylation to chitin State chitosan;It is finally washed, the dry state chitosan that purification can be obtained to remove various impurity, then after being dried produces Product;
When Protein Extraction, a series of processing are carried out to mention to shell-fish liquid substance by the Protein Extraction device 3 Take out protein product;It is to filter concentration first, to remove extra moisture, improves the protein ingredient concentration in liquid substance; Followed by two-stage extracts, and extracts the protein ingredient in liquid substance using organic solvent and generates protein liquid;Followed by water-bath water Solution, obtained protein liquid issue raw hydrolysis in mild heating water bath;It is finally evaporative crystallization, the protein liquid after hydrolysis exists It evaporates in the evaporation tank 321 and the crystallization case 322 and crystallizes simultaneously, finally obtain powdered protein product.
The chitosan extraction element and equipment recycled provided by the present invention for shell-fish solid waste, described in Equipment includes crust pretreatment unit, chitosan extraction element and Protein Extraction device;When the system works, first by crust Pretreatment unit carries out the super fine crushing and separation of solid and liquid of two-stage to shell-fish solid waste raw material, thus by crust former material Material pretreatment is the tiny solid matter of particle and liquid substance two parts in flow regime;Then described in solid matter enters Chitosan extraction element, and boil through peracid, soda boiling, deacetylated and washing and drying and etc. obtain chitosan product;At the same time, Liquid substance enters the Protein Extraction device, and by filtering the steps such as concentration, two-stage extraction, water-bath hydrolysis and atomization crystallization Suddenly protein product is obtained, simple to operate, low production cost, adaptable and treatment effect is higher.
As it will be easily appreciated by one skilled in the art that the foregoing is merely illustrative of the preferred embodiments of the present invention, not to The limitation present invention, any modifications, equivalent substitutions and improvements made within the spirit and principles of the present invention should all include Within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of chitosan extraction element recycled for shell-fish solid waste, it is characterised in that:
The chitosan extraction element includes the second liquid collecting cavity, third concentrator bowl, lifting unit, agitating unit and centrifugation electricity Machine, the third concentrator bowl are arranged in the second liquid collecting cavity body, and the lifting unit is arranged in the second liquid collecting cavity Top, the agitating unit is connected to the lifting unit, is used to be stirred the liquid in the third concentrator bowl; The output shaft of the centrifugation motor is connected to the bottom of the third concentrator bowl after the second liquid collecting cavity, is used for band Move the third concentrator bowl rotation;
The chitosan extraction element is used to carry out the shell-fish raw material from crust pretreatment unit acid and boils, soda boiling, takes off Acetyl and washing and drying processing, to obtain chitosan product.
2. the chitosan extraction element recycled as described in claim 1 for shell-fish solid waste, feature exist In: the agitating unit includes stirring motor and the first blender for being connected to the stirring motor, the stirring motor connection In the second central control unit;The stirring motor is arranged on the lifting unit, realizes work by the lifting unit The rising or decline of the stirring motor during work, to adjust the height of the stirring motor.
3. the chitosan extraction element recycled as claimed in claim 2 for shell-fish solid waste, feature exist In: the chitosan extraction element further includes heating unit, and the heating unit is arranged on the inner wall of first blender, It is connected to second central control unit, and second central control unit is used to control the heating function of the heating unit Rate.
4. the chitosan extraction element recycled as claimed in claim 2 for shell-fish solid waste, feature exist In: the chitosan extraction element includes the first temperature detecting unit and pH inspection on the output shaft that the stirring motor is arranged in Unit, first temperature detecting unit and the pH detection unit are surveyed for measuring solid-liquid suspension object in the third concentrator bowl Temperature and pH value, and the numerical value real-time Transmission that will test give second central control unit.
5. the chitosan extraction element recycled as claimed in claim 4 for shell-fish solid waste, feature exist In: the chitosan extraction element further includes the first liquid level detection unit, and first liquid level detection unit setting is described the In two liquid collecting cavity bodies, it is connected to second central control unit;The first level monitoring unit is used for real-time detection institute The liquid level information stating the intracorporal liquid level of the second liquid collecting cavity, and will test in real time is transferred to second center control Unit processed.
6. the chitosan extraction element recycled as claimed in claim 5 for shell-fish solid waste, feature exist In: second central control unit is used for according to first liquid level detection unit, first temperature detecting unit and institute Liquid level, temperature value and the pH value information for stating the transmitting of pH detection unit, are arranged in the chitosan device with real-time control Each outlet or the opening and closing of the solenoid valve in import, to keep temperature inside the third concentrator bowl and pH value in given area Between in range.
7. the chitosan extraction element as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 6 recycled for shell-fish solid waste, It is characterized by: the outer wall of the third concentrator bowl offers multiple fine filter openings, multiple fine filter openings are evenly spaced in On the third concentrator bowl.
8. the chitosan extraction element recycled as claimed in claim 2 for shell-fish solid waste, feature exist In: the direction of rotation of the centrifugation motor is opposite with the direction of rotation of the stirring motor.
9. the chitosan extraction element as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 6 recycled for shell-fish solid waste, It is characterized by: the bottom of the second liquid collecting cavity is provided with chitosan outlet;The bottom of the third concentrator bowl is provided with Third bottom reversed unit, the third bottom reversed unit are connect with the chitosan outlet activity, the chitosan outlet Protrude from the second liquid collecting cavity.
10. a kind of equipment recycled for shell-fish solid waste, it is characterised in that: the equipment includes claim The described in any item chitosan extraction elements recycled for shell-fish solid waste of 1-9, the chitosan extract dress It sets for being handled the solid matter from crust pretreatment unit to obtain chitosan product.
CN201811593199.8A 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 Chitosan extraction device and equipment for recycling crustacean solid waste Active CN109651530B (en)

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