CN109622960B - Composite forming device and method for plate - Google Patents

Composite forming device and method for plate Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109622960B
CN109622960B CN201811594193.2A CN201811594193A CN109622960B CN 109622960 B CN109622960 B CN 109622960B CN 201811594193 A CN201811594193 A CN 201811594193A CN 109622960 B CN109622960 B CN 109622960B
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Prior art keywords
tool head
plate
head
processing
powder
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CN109622960A (en
Inventor
常志东
蔡圣
吴仁豪
王志恒
李猛
陈军
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Shanghai Jiaotong University
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Shanghai Jiaotong University
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F10/00Additive manufacturing of workpieces or articles from metallic powder
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F12/00Apparatus or devices specially adapted for additive manufacturing; Auxiliary means for additive manufacturing; Combinations of additive manufacturing apparatus or devices with other processing apparatus or devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F10/00Additive manufacturing of workpieces or articles from metallic powder
    • B22F10/10Formation of a green body
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F10/00Additive manufacturing of workpieces or articles from metallic powder
    • B22F10/20Direct sintering or melting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y10/00Processes of additive manufacturing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y30/00Apparatus for additive manufacturing; Details thereof or accessories therefor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency

Abstract

The invention relates to a composite forming device and a composite forming method for a plate, which comprise an active tool head module, an auxiliary tool head, a backpressure cylinder, a powder spray head, a first driving module and a second driving module, wherein the active tool head module comprises a support, a laser and the active tool head which are arranged on the support, the active tool head and the auxiliary tool head are oppositely arranged, the plate to be processed is arranged between the active tool head and the auxiliary tool head, two ends of the plate are fixed by clamps, the auxiliary tool head is connected with the backpressure cylinder, the first driving module is respectively connected with the support and the backpressure cylinder to drive the active tool head and the auxiliary tool head to synchronously move, the powder spray head is arranged on the same side of the active tool head module, and the second driving module is connected with the powder spray head. Compared with the prior art, the invention integrates the additive manufacturing technology and the incremental forming technology, realizes the integrated operation of composite processing and incremental forming processing of the heterogeneous metal laminated plate, reduces the processing procedures and cost and improves the production efficiency.

Description

Composite forming device and method for plate
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of mechanical engineering, in particular to a composite forming device and method for a plate.
Background
The heterogeneous metal laminated plate is a novel composite plate material formed by combining a layered composite mode, gives full play to and reasonably utilizes the special physical and mechanical properties of various metals through the compounding of multilayer materials, has ideal electrical and thermal properties, low density, excellent bending rigidity, collapse resistance and vibration damping properties, and has more excellent comprehensive properties than single metal.
Chinese patent CN 106311876a proposes a method for machining thin-walled parts containing blocks by combining progressive forming with additive manufacturing, which shortens the manufacturing cycle of complex thin-walled parts. Chinese patent CN 107737929A proposes a method for processing a variable-wall-thickness sheet metal part by combining progressive forming and 3D printing, and solves the problems that the side wall becomes thin and the thickness cannot be controlled in the progressive forming of a sheet material. Comparing the two-point progressive forming technology with the additive manufacturing technology, it can be seen that although the two technologies are respectively directed at forming and connecting the plate, the implementation of the technologies has greater similarity, so that the two technologies are fused to perform composite forming of the laminated plate. Chinese patent CN104607523A proposes a composite forming method, which aims at gradient materials to stir and weld two kinds of plates, completes the forming of shape while preparing the materials, and forms a composite plate with a certain shape. However, the composite plate produced by the device has the defects of poor surface quality, difficulty in controlling the temperature during welding, more complex stirring and friction process, higher axial force, low bonding strength of the laminated plate and the like.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects of the prior art and provide a composite forming device and a composite forming method for a plate.
The purpose of the invention can be realized by the following technical scheme:
the utility model provides a compound forming device of sheet material, includes the initiative tool head module, appurtenance head, backpressure cylinder, powder shower nozzle, first drive module and second drive module, wherein, the initiative tool head module include the support to and install laser instrument and the initiative tool head on the support, initiative tool head and appurtenance head set up relatively, the sheet material setting of treating processing is between initiative tool head and appurtenance head, both ends are fixed by anchor clamps, the appurtenance head connect the backpressure cylinder, first drive module connect support and backpressure cylinder respectively, drive initiative tool head and appurtenance head simultaneous movement, the powder shower nozzle install in the same one side of initiative tool head module, second drive module connect the powder shower nozzle.
Further, the second driving module drives the powder nozzle to spray metal powder to the processing position on one side of the plate, then the first driving module emits laser to heat the processing position, finally, the first driving module drives the driving tool head and the auxiliary tool head to move to the processing position, and the backpressure air cylinder drives the auxiliary tool head to be matched with the driving tool head to compact the processing position.
Further, when the auxiliary tool head cooperates the initiative tool head to carry out the compaction to first processing department, the laser instrument heats second processing department, and second drive module drives the powder shower nozzle and sprays metal powder at third processing department, when the auxiliary tool head cooperates the initiative tool head to carry out the compaction to second processing department, the laser instrument heats third processing department, and the powder shower nozzle sprays metal powder at fourth processing department, analogizes in proper order and carries out the complex of sheet material and metal powder.
Furthermore, the active tool head and the auxiliary tool head both adopt flat-bottom rounded corner type pressing heads.
Further, the diameter of the flat bottom of the flat-bottom round-angle type pressure head is 5-10 mm.
Further, the fillet radius of the flat-bottom fillet type pressure head is 2.5-5 mm.
Further, the active tool head and the auxiliary tool head are both made of nickel-based high-temperature alloy.
A forming method of a composite forming device based on any one of the plates comprises the following specific steps:
s1, removing an oxide layer on the surface of the plate and fixing the plate on a workbench;
s2, setting the running track of the first driving module, the laser power of the laser and the running track and the powder feeding amount of the second driving module according to the shape of the heterogeneous laminated plate part;
and S3, operating the first driving module, spraying metal powder at the processing position by the powder spray head, operating the second driving module after a certain time delay, emitting laser beams by the laser to clad the metal powder, and then enabling the relative extrusion force of the active tool head and the auxiliary tool head to generate certain compaction and reinforcement effects on the clad powder and the plate material through the metal powder layer in a molten state to further compound the clad powder and the plate material into a laminated plate, and enabling the laminated plate to be formed into corresponding parts by the forming force of the laminated plate.
Further, the backpressure air cylinder provides backpressure force to compensate the motion track of the auxiliary tool head in the vertical direction, and meanwhile, the backpressure force provides extrusion force with a certain size when the laminated plate is formed in a composite mode.
Further, after the oxide layer on the surface of the plate is removed, an intermediate layer material is sprayed on one surface of the active tool head for reinforcing the connection between the metal powder and the plate.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
1. the invention integrates the additive manufacturing technology and the incremental forming technology, realizes the integrated operation of composite processing and incremental forming processing of the heterogeneous metal laminated plate, reduces the processing procedures and cost and improves the production efficiency.
2. According to the invention, through the coordinated optimization of the movement tracks of the first driving module and the second driving module, the second driving module drives the powder spray head to spray metal powder at the position to be processed, then the first driving module drives the laser to reinforce the metal powder, and drives the tool head to perform incremental forming processing on the plate, and meanwhile, the second driving module drives the powder spray head to process the next position to be processed, so that the synchronous uninterrupted operation of incremental forming and additive manufacturing is realized.
3. Compared with the traditional laminated plate composite forming method, the composite structure of two layers of plates is replaced by the metal powder layer which is formed by reinforcing the outer surface of one layer of plate to be processed, so that the defects of plate internal and external material arrangement constraint, forming resilience, cracking and the like of the double layers of plates can be overcome, the defect of low deformation compatibility of different materials in the prior art is overcome, in addition, the spraying of metal powder is not needed at the unprocessed position, and compared with the traditional two plates, the material is saved, and the cost is reduced.
4. Compared with a stirring progressive composite forming method, the method has the advantages that the surface quality of the formed part is improved through direct reinforcement and forming of the metal powder layer, the forming temperature can be accurately controlled through adjusting the laser power, and the part with better quality is obtained.
5. The tool head of the invention adopts a flat-bottom fillet type pressure head, and the shape of the tool head can utilize a flat bottom part to provide certain extrusion force for compacting and reinforcing the composite quality of the laminated plate while the fillet part forms the shape of a part.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural view of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a partial schematic view of a circumferential configuration of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a partial schematic view of the radial structure of the present invention;
reference numerals: 1. the device comprises a powder spray head, 2, a laser, 3, an active tool head, 4, an auxiliary tool head, 5, a back pressure air cylinder, 6, a first driving module, 7, a second driving module, 8 and a support.
Detailed Description
The invention is described in detail below with reference to the figures and specific embodiments. The present embodiment is implemented on the premise of the technical solution of the present invention, and a detailed implementation manner and a specific operation process are given, but the scope of the present invention is not limited to the following embodiments.
As shown in fig. 1, the embodiment provides a composite forming device for a sheet material, which includes an active tool head 3 module, an auxiliary tool head 4, a back pressure cylinder 5, a powder nozzle 1, a first driving module 6 and a second driving module 7.
As shown in fig. 2 and 3, the active tool head 3 module includes a support 8, and a laser 2 and an active tool head 3 mounted on the support 8, the active tool head 3 and an auxiliary tool head 4 are oppositely disposed, a sheet material to be processed is disposed between the active tool head 3 and the auxiliary tool head 4, and both ends are fixed by a clamp. The auxiliary tool head 4 is connected with the back pressure cylinder 5, the first driving module 6 is respectively connected with the support 8 and the back pressure cylinder 5, the driving tool head 3 and the auxiliary tool head 4 are driven to move synchronously, and a constant gap between the driving tool head 3 and the auxiliary tool head 4 is kept. The powder spray head 1 is arranged on the same side of the active tool head 3 module, and the powder spray head 1 is connected with a second driving module. The first driving module and the second driving module use two different sets of control systems, namely, the driving tool head 3, the laser 2 and the auxiliary tool head 4 adopt the same control system, the powder spray head 1 adopts the other control system, and during composite forming, the powder spray head 1 operates firstly, and the laser 2 and the main and auxiliary tool heads operate accordingly. The backpressure cylinder 5 can control the auxiliary tool head 4 to move along a given track, compensate the motion track of the auxiliary tool head 4 in the vertical direction, provide extrusion force with a certain size in the composite forming process, and the existence of the extrusion force can obviously improve the bonding strength between metal powder and a plate material, so that a heterogeneous laminated plate with high bonding strength can be formed. The back pressure of the back pressure cylinder can be adjusted according to the extrusion force required by the formed laminated plate part.
The active tool head 3 and the auxiliary tool head 4 are both generally flat-bottom fillet type pressure heads with the flat bottom diameters of 5-10 mm, and the fillet radius of the flat-bottom fillet type pressure heads is generally 2.5-5 mm. In the embodiment, the active tool head 3 and the auxiliary tool head 4 are flat-bottom rounded corner type pressure heads made of nickel-based high-temperature alloy, the flat bottoms of which are 5cm in diameter and 2.5mm in radius. The flat bottom portions provide compressive forces for compacting the composite plies, thereby increasing the bond strength at the composite, and the rounded corner portions are used to form the laminate.
The working principle of the embodiment is as follows:
as shown in fig. 1, the second driving module drives the powder nozzle 1 to spray metal powder to the processing position on one side of the plate, then the laser 2 with holes of the first driving module 6 emits laser to heat the processing position, finally, the first driving module 6 drives the driving tool head 3 and the auxiliary tool head 4 to move to the processing position, and the backpressure cylinder 5 drives the auxiliary tool head 4 to cooperate with the driving tool head 3 to compact the processing position. Meanwhile, the first driving module 6 also drives the driving tool head 3 and the auxiliary tool head 4 to synchronously translate the processing position for processing the progressive forming.
When the auxiliary tool head 4 cooperates initiative tool head 3 to carry out the compaction to first processing department, laser instrument 2 heats second processing department, second drive module drives powder shower nozzle 1 and sprays metal powder in third processing department, when the auxiliary tool head 4 cooperates initiative tool head 3 to carry out the compaction to second processing department, laser instrument 2 heats third processing department, powder shower nozzle 1 sprays metal powder in fourth processing department, the analogy is in proper order carried out the continuous incessant complex of sheet material and metal powder.
The forming method of the embodiment specifically comprises the following steps:
step one, removing a surface oxide layer from a steel product with the thickness of 2mm, spraying a zinc layer with the thickness of 0.2mm on one surface of the steel product needing to be compounded with aluminum powder to serve as an intermediate layer material, and clamping and fixing a base material on a workbench by using a blank holder;
step two, setting motion tracks in three directions of XYZ of a first driving module under the same control system according to the shape of a heterogeneous laminated plate frustum part, setting the laser power of a laser beam to 2000-3000W, setting the motion tracks in the three directions of XYZ of a second driving module under another control system, setting the powder feeding amount to be 3-4 g/s and the like, wherein the spraying thickness of the aluminum powder in the embodiment is 2 mm;
and thirdly, operating the first driving module, spraying metal powder at the processing position by the powder spray head 1, operating the second driving module after 1.5 seconds, cladding the metal powder by the laser beam emitted by the laser, and then enabling the relative extrusion force of the active tool head 3 and the auxiliary tool head 4 to generate a certain compaction and reinforcement effect on the cladding powder and the plate material through the metal powder layer in a molten state to further compound the cladding powder and the plate material into a laminated plate, and enabling the laminated plate to be formed into a corresponding part by the forming force of the laminated plate. And (3) opening the backpressure cylinder 5 at the same time of the operation, adjusting the backpressure to be 1000N, and enabling the backpressure cylinder 5 to apply backpressure to the auxiliary tool head 4 to compensate the Z-direction movement track of the auxiliary tool head.
The foregoing detailed description of the preferred embodiments of the invention has been presented. It should be understood that numerous modifications and variations could be devised by those skilled in the art in light of the present teachings without departing from the inventive concepts. Therefore, the technical solutions available to those skilled in the art through logic analysis, reasoning and limited experiments based on the prior art according to the concept of the present invention should be within the scope of protection defined by the claims.

Claims (10)

1. The utility model provides a compound forming device of sheet material, its characterized in that, includes initiative tool head module, appurtenance head, backpressure cylinder, powder shower nozzle, first drive module and second drive module, wherein, initiative tool head module include the support to and install laser instrument and the initiative tool head on the support, initiative tool head and appurtenance head set up relatively, and the sheet material setting of treating processing is between initiative tool head and appurtenance head, and both ends are fixed by anchor clamps, the appurtenance head connect the backpressure cylinder, first drive module connect respectively support and backpressure cylinder, drive initiative tool head and appurtenance head simultaneous movement, the powder shower nozzle install in same one side of initiative tool head module, second drive module connect the powder shower nozzle.
2. The composite forming device for the sheet material according to claim 1, wherein the second driving module drives the powder nozzle to spray metal powder to the processing position on one side of the sheet material, then the first driving module emits laser to heat the processing position, finally, the first driving module drives the driving tool head and the auxiliary tool head to move to the processing position, and the back pressure cylinder drives the auxiliary tool head to match with the driving tool head to compact the processing position.
3. The composite forming device for the plate according to claim 2, wherein when the auxiliary tool head cooperates with the driving tool head to compact the first processing position, the laser heats the second processing position, the second driving module drives the powder nozzle to spray the metal powder to the third processing position, when the auxiliary tool head cooperates with the driving tool head to compact the second processing position, the laser heats the third processing position, the powder nozzle sprays the metal powder to the fourth processing position, and the like, the combination of the plate and the metal powder is performed.
4. The apparatus for composite forming of the panel according to claim 1, characterized in that said active and auxiliary tool heads are flat-bottomed rounded indenters.
5. The composite forming device for the plate material according to claim 4, wherein the flat bottom of the flat-bottom fillet type pressing head is 5-10 mm in diameter.
6. A composite forming device for sheet material according to claim 4 characterised in that the radius of the flat-bottomed corner-type ram is 2.5-5 mm.
7. A composite forming device for sheet material according to claim 1, characterised in that said active and auxiliary tool heads are made of ni-based superalloy.
8. A forming method based on the composite forming device as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized by comprising the following specific steps:
s1, removing an oxide layer on the surface of the plate and fixing the plate on a workbench;
s2, setting the running track of the first driving module, the laser power of the laser and the running track and the powder feeding amount of the second driving module according to the shape of the heterogeneous laminated plate part;
and S3, operating the first driving module, spraying metal powder at the processing position by the powder spray head, operating the second driving module after a certain time delay, emitting laser beams by the laser to clad the metal powder, and then enabling the relative extrusion force of the active tool head and the auxiliary tool head to generate certain compaction and reinforcement effects on the clad powder and the plate material through the metal powder layer in a molten state to further compound the clad powder and the plate material into a laminated plate, and enabling the laminated plate to be formed into corresponding parts by the forming force of the laminated plate.
9. The composite forming apparatus-based forming method according to claim 8, wherein the back pressure cylinder provides a back pressure to compensate a vertical movement trajectory of the auxiliary tool head while providing a certain amount of pressing force when the laminate is composite-formed.
10. The composite forming apparatus-based forming method according to claim 8, wherein after removing the oxide layer from the surface of the plate, an intermediate layer material is sprayed on one side of the active tool head for reinforcing the connection between the metal powder and the plate.
CN201811594193.2A 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 Composite forming device and method for plate Active CN109622960B (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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CN109622960B true CN109622960B (en) 2020-04-10

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110434223A (en) * 2019-07-11 2019-11-12 南京航空航天大学 Reinforcing rib sheet metal component manufacturing process based on electric arc 3D printing Yu progressive molding technology
CN110369853B (en) * 2019-07-26 2021-07-20 上海交通大学 Laminated plate double-point synchronous connection and progressive composite forming device and method

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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CN103639249B (en) * 2013-12-03 2016-07-06 上海交通大学 A kind of Sheet double-point progressive molding device and manufacturing process
DE102014014202A1 (en) * 2014-09-22 2016-03-24 Technische Universität Dortmund Method and device for the combined production of components by means of incremental sheet metal forming and additive processes in one setting
CN105107933B (en) * 2015-07-13 2017-03-01 山东大学(威海) Plate Electroplastic progressive molding device and its method of work
CN206794504U (en) * 2016-10-27 2017-12-26 山东科技大学 A kind of laser heating location mechanical adjustable is used for the tool heads of progressive molding
CN206169044U (en) * 2016-11-15 2017-05-17 山东大学 Complicated thin wall spare forming system based on incremental forming and vibration material disk
CN107737929A (en) * 2017-10-09 2018-02-27 南京航空航天大学 A kind of change wall thickness sheet metal part processing method and device based on 3D printing Yu progressive molding technology

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