CN109604831B - Laser TIG (tungsten inert gas) hybrid welding process for improving laser welding undercut of titanium and titanium alloy sheets - Google Patents

Laser TIG (tungsten inert gas) hybrid welding process for improving laser welding undercut of titanium and titanium alloy sheets Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109604831B
CN109604831B CN201811595516.XA CN201811595516A CN109604831B CN 109604831 B CN109604831 B CN 109604831B CN 201811595516 A CN201811595516 A CN 201811595516A CN 109604831 B CN109604831 B CN 109604831B
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welding
laser
tig
titanium
undercut
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CN109604831A (en
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李芳�
周洋
孔谅
李兴宇
王敏
华学明
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Shanghai Jiaotong University
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Shanghai Jiaotong University
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/346Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring in combination with welding or cutting covered by groups B23K5/00 - B23K25/00, e.g. in combination with resistance welding
    • B23K26/348Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring in combination with welding or cutting covered by groups B23K5/00 - B23K25/00, e.g. in combination with resistance welding in combination with arc heating, e.g. TIG [tungsten inert gas], MIG [metal inert gas] or plasma welding

Abstract

The invention relates to a laser TIG (tungsten inert gas) hybrid welding process for improving the undercut of laser welding of titanium and titanium alloy sheets, wherein a welding gun positioned in the front is an ultrahigh-frequency pulse TIG (tungsten inert gas) welding gun, a welding gun positioned in the back is a laser head, and the distance between the two welding guns is 1-9mm along the welding direction, so that eutectic pool welding is realized. Compared with the prior art, the invention enhances the fluidity of a molten pool by utilizing the electromagnetic stirring of the TIG high-frequency pulse compression electric arc, prolongs the cooling time of a welding line, can fully inhibit the undercut problem under high-speed welding or certain laser power, has good welding line formation, can reach the welding speed of 6m/min, and has good joint quality.

Description

Laser TIG (tungsten inert gas) hybrid welding process for improving laser welding undercut of titanium and titanium alloy sheets
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of metal welding, and relates to a laser TIG (tungsten inert gas) hybrid welding process for improving the undercut of laser welding of titanium and titanium alloy sheets.
Background
Titanium and titanium alloy are widely applied to the fields of automobiles, biomedical treatment, aerospace, petrochemical engineering, ocean engineering and the like by virtue of high specific strength, small density and good corrosion resistance. The laser welding has the characteristics of concentrated energy density, small heat affected zone, high automation degree and the like, and is suitable for welding titanium and titanium alloy sheets. However, under high-speed welding conditions or a certain specific laser power, as the welding speed is high, the heat input amount is small, the cooling speed is high, and the liquid metal is solidified before filling the two sides of the welding seam, the welding seam has a serious undercut problem.
The laser TIG composite welding can effectively increase the weld penetration, improve the welding speed and inhibit the defects under the high-speed welding condition. The welding was first proposed by the Steen professor of the university of the london, england, in the last 70 th century by combining two heat sources, laser and electric arc. Can overcome the defects of laser welding and electric arc heat source, improve the weld forming and inhibit the welding defects.
In 2014, the Chinese laser literature, "study on thin titanium alloy fiber laser-TIG arc hybrid welding process", suggests that after an electric arc is added, the heat input is increased, and the width of a welding line and a heat affected zone is increased. The defects are that undercut of the back of the welding seam still exists, the welding speed is slow, and the efficiency is low.
In 2015, the study of a welding technical document "TA 15 titanium alloy laser-arc composite heat source welding process optimization" finds that the influence of laser power and welding speed on welding quality is the most significant. The disadvantages are that the welding speed is slow, and the cold wire filling mode is adopted, so that the cost is increased.
The two methods have advantages and disadvantages, but the welding efficiency is low in general, and the effect of improving undercut defects is limited. Therefore, the working efficiency is improved, the undercut problem is solved, the joint with reliable quality is obtained, and the method has great significance for welding titanium and titanium alloy sheets.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects in the prior art and provide a laser TIG (tungsten inert gas) composite welding process for improving the undercut of the laser welding of titanium and titanium alloy sheets, which is characterized in that ultrahigh-frequency pulse TIG welding is added on the basis of laser welding, high-frequency current with the maximum pulse frequency of 40kHZ can be output, the high-frequency current has strong electromagnetic stirring effect on liquid metal in a welding pool, the cooling time of a welding seam is prolonged, the liquid metal can be spread to two sides of the welding seam for a longer time, the undercut problem of high-speed welding or certain laser power can be fully inhibited, the welding seam is well formed, the welding speed can reach 6m/min, and the joint quality is excellent.
The purpose of the invention can be realized by the following technical scheme:
a laser TIG (tungsten inert gas) hybrid welding process for improving the undercut of laser welding of titanium and titanium alloy sheets comprises the steps of fixing a laser head and TIG (tungsten inert gas) welding guns, moving a workpiece, defining the welding direction, wherein the welding gun positioned in front is the TIG welding gun, the welding gun positioned in back is the laser head, and the distance between the two welding guns is 1-9 mm.
The power of the laser head is 1400-2200W, and the defocusing amount is 25 mm.
The TIG welding gun is a high-frequency current ultrahigh frequency pulse TIG welding gun capable of outputting the maximum pulse frequency of 40 kHZ. The ratio of the welding current applied to the TIG welding gun to the thickness of the workpiece is 60 to 100A/mm, preferably 60 to 75A/mm. Under a certain welding speed condition, the thicker the workpiece is, the larger the TIG welding current is required, and when the ratio of the welding current to the thickness of the workpiece is not in the range, the workpiece may be incomplete or burnt through. And when the welding speed is 4.8-6 m/min and the thickness of the workpiece is 0.8-1.5 mm, the TIG welding current I is 50-110A.
In the welding process, the frequency of the high-frequency pulse current output by the TIG welding gun is 10-30 kHZ.
The vertical distance from the bottom end of the laser head to the workpiece is 310mm, and the distance from the tip end of a tungsten electrode of the TIG welding gun to the workpiece is 2-3 mm.
In the welding process, the laser head inclines backwards, the included angle between the central axis of the laser head and the normal direction perpendicular to the workpiece is 5 degrees, the TIG welding gun inclines forwards, and the included angle between the TIG welding gun and the surface of the workpiece is 45 degrees.
For the bevel-free butt welding of the industrial pure titanium TA2 workpiece, no wire filling is carried out, and the welding gap between the workpieces is 0-0.1 mm.
In the welding process, the argon flow of TIG welding is 15-20L/min, and the argon flow of back protection is 15-20L/min.
Compared with the prior art, the invention adds the ultrahigh frequency pulse TIG welding, the high frequency current has strong electromagnetic stirring effect on the liquid metal of a welding pool, the cooling time of a welding line is prolonged, the liquid metal is spread to two sides of the welding line for a longer time, the welding mode is improved, in addition, various process parameters in the welding process are optimized and improved, the undercut defect can be effectively eliminated, the welding speed is increased, the whole welding efficiency is improved by about 150 percent compared with the laser welding, wire filling is not needed, the welding cost is reduced, the undercut problem of common welding can be effectively solved, and the welding quality is ensured.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the present invention as it is being welded;
FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration of the effect of laser power on weld formation during laser welding;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view showing the effect of the welding speed on the formation of a weld during laser welding;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of weld formation for laser TIG hybrid welding of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a molten pool diagram of different welding modes under high-speed photography;
in the figure, 1-laser head, 2-TIG welding gun, 3-workpiece.
Detailed Description
The invention is described in detail below with reference to the figures and specific embodiments. The present embodiment is implemented on the premise of the technical solution of the present invention, and a detailed implementation manner and a specific operation process are given, but the scope of the present invention is not limited to the following embodiments.
Referring to fig. 1, the efficient welding process of the titanium and titanium alloy sheets is laser TIG hybrid welding, specifically, a laser head 1 and a TIG welding gun 2 are fixed, a workpiece 3 is moved, so that the welding gun welds the workpiece, meanwhile, the welding gun placed in front is the TIG welding gun 2 along the welding direction, the other welding gun placed in back is the laser head 1, the included angle between the laser head 1 and the normal line perpendicular to the workpiece is theta, the included angle between the TIG welding gun 2 and the workpiece is beta, and the electrode spacing between the two welding guns is marked as D. The laser is used as a main heat source to perform the function of penetration on a welding seam, and the TIG welding electric arc mainly performs the functions of preheating and molten pool stirring.
In the following embodiments, the TIG welding torch is a TIG welding torch that can output a high-frequency current with a maximum pulse frequency of 40kHZ, and the frequency of the high-frequency pulse current output by the TIG welding torch is 10 to 30kHZ during welding.
Example 1
The following description will be made in detail by taking an example of welding a 0.9mm thick pure titanium TA2 thin plate.
According to the process flow, a laser TIG composite welding process is adopted, equipment comprises an IPG YLS-10000 multimode fiber laser and a KUKA KRC2 welding robot, a welding power supply adopts Newwei MPT-500D, the diameter of a tungsten rod is 3.2mm, protective gas is argon with the purity of 99.9%, and the gas flow is 18L/min.
1. Preparation before welding
Adjusting the angle of a welding gun and the distance between electrodes according to actual welding requirements; in this example, the inclination angle θ of the laser head 1 is 5 °, the inclination angle β of the TIG welding torch 2 is 45 °, and the heat source pitch D is 5 mm.
2. Debugging welding parameters
Setting laser parameters, wherein the laser power is 2200W, the defocusing amount is 25mm, the vertical distance between a laser head 1 and a workpiece 3 is 310mm, and the welding speed is 5.1 m/min; and the TIG welding current I is 54A, the distance from the tip of the tungsten electrode to the workpiece 3 is about 2mm, and then welding is carried out.
Finally, the appearance of the butt weld obtained in the embodiment is analyzed, and the front weld and the back weld are good without obvious undercut.
In conclusion, the laser TIG hybrid welding process method of the embodiment has the following advantages:
(1) when the titanium and titanium alloy sheets are welded, the welding speed is greatly improved, and compared with laser welding, the welding efficiency is improved by more than 150%.
(2) The advantages of laser welding are kept, the welding process is stable, and the undercut problem in laser welding is eliminated.
Referring to the above embodiment 1, the workpiece is welded by pure laser welding and adjusting different laser powers, and the welding effect is shown in fig. 2. When the welding speed is 5.1mm/min, the laser power P is 1400W or 1600W, the penetration is not performed, when the laser power P is 1800W, the critical penetration is performed, when the laser power P reaches 2000W, although the full penetration is realized, the very serious undercut problem occurs, the undercut depth reaches 128.57 μm, when the laser power P continues to increase, the undercut phenomenon rather begins to decrease, and the undercut defect can be almost ignored until the power increases to 2600W.
Referring to fig. 3, when the laser welding process method of titanium and titanium alloy sheets is adopted to weld at different welding speeds, when the laser power P is 2000W, no undercut occurs when the welding speed is low, the problem of severe undercut occurs when the welding speed is increased to 4.5-5.1m/min, the maximum undercut depth reaches 130.66 μm, and the penetration cannot be achieved when the welding speed is continuously increased. It can be seen that the undercut problem is more pronounced when the welding speed exceeds 4.5 m/min.
The two sets of tests described above illustrate: when pure laser welding is carried out at high speed, the undercut phenomenon is serious.
Referring to the three groups of samples in FIG. 4(a), when the welding is performed at different laser powers by using the laser TIG hybrid welding process method referring to the titanium and titanium alloy thin plates in the above examples, and the welding speed is 5.1m/min, and the ratio of the welding current applied by a TIG welding gun to the thickness of the workpiece is 60-75A/mm, the laser power P is 1800W, and the undercut depth is 10.82 μm. When the laser power P reaches 1400W, the undercut depth is 14.23 μm, when the laser power P is continuously increased to 2200W, the undercut depth is 10.99 μm, which are both less than 0.1, and the undercut is qualified.
Referring to the three groups of samples in FIG. 4(b), when the laser TIG hybrid welding process method referring to the titanium and titanium alloy thin plates in the above examples is adopted to carry out welding at different welding speeds, the laser power P is 2000W, the ratio of the welding current of a TIG welding gun to the thickness of a workpiece is 60-75A/mm, and when the welding speed is 4.8-5.7m/min, the undercut depth does not exceed 23 μm, and is less than 0.1, and the undercut is qualified.
Referring to fig. 5, wherein (a) and (b) represent the molten pool images of pure laser welding and the composite welding of the present invention under high-speed photography, it can be seen that, in pure laser welding, the central temperature of the molten pool is not much different from the edge temperature of the molten pool under the power which can just be penetrated by welding due to the existence of the small hole, the difference between the surface tension of the center and the surface tension of the edge is not large, and the difference between the surface tension is the power for spreading the liquid metal to the edge, and the downward digging force of the small hole is relatively large when the metal is not filled, so that the molten pool collapses, thereby showing that the undercut is serious. Moreover, when the welding speed is high, the heat input amount is relatively small, the cooling speed is high, and the liquid metal is solidified before filling the two sides of the welding seam, so that the undercut is serious; the electromagnetic stirring of the auxiliary heat source TIG high-frequency pulse compression electric arc enhances the fluidity of a molten pool, so that liquid metal can be better spread to the two sides of a welding line, and the cooling time of the welding line is prolonged.
According to the embodiment, under the specific welding process, the welding speed is greatly improved compared with that of conventional welding, the welding speed can reach about 6m/min, the joint quality is excellent, the undercut problem can be fully inhibited, and the weld joint is good in forming.
Example 2
Compared with the embodiment 1, the welding process is mostly the same, except that in the embodiment, the welding process parameters are controlled as follows:
argon gas flow of the TIG welding gun 1 is 15L/min, and argon gas flow of back protection is 15L/min. The welding current is 67.5A, and the distance between the electrode tip and the workpiece 3 is about 2-3 mm; the laser power is 1400W, the defocusing amount is 25mm, the vertical distance from the laser head 1 to the workpiece 3 is 310mm, the welding speed is 4.8m/min, the heat source distance is 1mm, the inclination angle theta of the laser head 1 is 5 degrees, and the inclination angle beta of the TIG welding gun 2 is 45 degrees.
Example 3
Compared with the embodiment 1, the welding process is mostly the same, except that in the embodiment, the welding process parameters are controlled as follows:
argon gas flow of the TIG welding gun 1 is 18L/min, and argon gas flow of back protection is 18L/min. The welding current is 65A, and the distance between the electrode tip and the workpiece 3 is about 2-3 mm; the laser power is 1800W, the defocusing amount is 25mm, the vertical distance from the laser head 1 to the workpiece 3 is 310mm, the welding speed is 6m/min, the heat source distance is 9mm, the inclination angle theta of the laser head 1 is 5 degrees, and the inclination angle beta of the TIG welding gun 2 is 45 degrees.
Example 4
Compared with the embodiment 1, the welding process is mostly the same, except that in the embodiment, the welding process parameters are controlled as follows:
the thickness of the workpiece is 1.5mm, the argon flow of a TIG welding gun 1 is 20L/min, and the argon flow of back protection is 20L/min. The welding current is 110A, and the distance between the electrode tip and the workpiece is about 2-3 mm; the laser power is 2200W, the defocusing amount is 25mm, the vertical distance from the laser head 1 to the workpiece 3 is 310mm, the welding speed is 5.2m/min, the heat source distance is 6mm, the inclination angle theta of the laser head 1 is 5 degrees, and the inclination angle beta of the TIG welding gun 2 is 45 degrees.
The embodiments described above are described to facilitate an understanding and use of the invention by those skilled in the art. It will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications to these embodiments may be made, and the generic principles described herein may be applied to other embodiments without the use of the inventive faculty. Therefore, the present invention is not limited to the above embodiments, and those skilled in the art should make improvements and modifications within the scope of the present invention based on the disclosure of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. The laser TIG composite welding process for improving the undercut of the laser welding of the titanium and titanium alloy sheets is characterized in that a laser head and a TIG welding gun are fixed, a workpiece is moved to be welded, the TIG welding gun positioned in the front is defined along the welding direction, the TIG welding gun positioned in the rear is a laser head, and the distance between the two TIG welding guns is 1-9 mm;
the power of the laser head is 1400-2200W, and the defocusing amount is 25 mm;
the ratio of the welding current of the TIG welding gun to the thickness of the workpiece is 60-75A/mm;
the vertical distance from the bottom end of the laser head to the workpiece is 310mm, and the distance from the tip end of a tungsten electrode of the TIG welding gun to the workpiece is 2-3 mm;
in the welding process, the laser head inclines backwards, the included angle between the central axis of the laser head and the normal direction perpendicular to the workpiece is 5 degrees, the TIG welding gun inclines forwards, and the included angle between the TIG welding gun and the surface of the workpiece is 45 degrees.
2. A laser TIG (tungsten inert gas) hybrid welding process for improving the laser welding undercut of the titanium and titanium alloy sheets as claimed in claim 1, wherein the TIG welding gun adopts an ultrahigh frequency pulse TIG welding gun with the output pulse current frequency up to 40 kHZ.
3. A laser TIG composite welding process for improving the undercut of the laser welding of the titanium and titanium alloy sheets as claimed in claim 1, wherein the frequency of the pulse current output by the TIG welding gun is 10-30kHZ during the welding process.
4. A laser TIG (tungsten inert gas) hybrid welding process for improving the undercut of laser welding of titanium and titanium alloy sheets according to claim 1, wherein for the bevelless butt welding of industrial pure titanium TA2 workpieces, no filler wire is added, and the welding gap between the workpieces is 0-0.1 mm.
5. A laser TIG (tungsten inert gas) hybrid welding process for improving the laser welding undercut of the titanium and titanium alloy sheets as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the welding process, the argon flow of TIG welding is 15-20L/min, and the argon flow of back protection is 15-20L/min.
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