CN109591019A - A kind of Space Precision Orientation Method of no certainty location feature object - Google Patents

A kind of Space Precision Orientation Method of no certainty location feature object Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109591019A
CN109591019A CN201910044445.2A CN201910044445A CN109591019A CN 109591019 A CN109591019 A CN 109591019A CN 201910044445 A CN201910044445 A CN 201910044445A CN 109591019 A CN109591019 A CN 109591019A
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China
Prior art keywords
robot
location feature
feature object
certainty
mac
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CN201910044445.2A
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CN109591019B (en
Inventor
李泷杲
黄翔
陈允全
秦龙刚
陈楷
江帆
江一帆
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Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Chengdu Aircraft Industrial Group Co Ltd
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Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Chengdu Aircraft Industrial Group Co Ltd
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Priority to CN2018115558362 priority
Application filed by Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Chengdu Aircraft Industrial Group Co Ltd filed Critical Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Publication of CN109591019A publication Critical patent/CN109591019A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1602Programme controls characterised by the control system, structure, architecture
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1694Programme controls characterised by use of sensors other than normal servo-feedback from position, speed or acceleration sensors, perception control, multi-sensor controlled systems, sensor fusion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1694Programme controls characterised by use of sensors other than normal servo-feedback from position, speed or acceleration sensors, perception control, multi-sensor controlled systems, sensor fusion
    • B25J9/1697Vision controlled systems
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/002Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring two or more coordinates

Abstract

A kind of Space Precision Orientation Method of no certainty location feature object, it is characterized in that: firstly, passing through Pose Control point of the outline point cloud scanning building without certainty location feature object;Secondly, crawl and positioning to no certainty location feature object;Third, using the measurement of multi-vision visual measuring system grabbed without the Pose Control point on certainty location feature object, to calculate the relative pose relationship without certainty location feature object and end effector of robot by the measured value of the determining Pose Control point without certainty location feature object of outline point cloud scanning and the theoretical value of local coordinate system;4th, the spatial pose of real-time follow-up end effector of robot is realized using T-Mac 6D measuring system;5th, the real-time spatial attitude of robot is finally tracked based on T-Mac 6D measuring system, calculates attitude error, and robot is driven to compensate motion positions.The method of the present invention is simple, and precision is high, versatile, can improve assembling speed and quality.

Description

A kind of Space Precision Orientation Method of no certainty location feature object
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of robot technology, especially a kind of industrial robot space placement technology, specifically A kind of Space Precision Orientation Method of no certainty location feature object.
Background technique
Currently, it is that the absolute fix precision of industrial robot is reached institute by error compensation that industrial robot space, which is accurately positioned, The accuracy rating needed, will directly influence the assembly precision of object.And for actual conditions, the object of required positioning may Without deterministic location feature, so needing to carry out the research of space Precise Position System according to such situation.For work Industry robot space placement technology, has studied to obtain comparative maturity both at home and abroad, but it is special to be directed to no certainty positioning The object of sign is positioned, it is also necessary to carry out certain relevant research.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is influence robotic asssembly precision and assembly speed for without determining that the positioning of position location feature object is inconvenient The problem of spending invents a kind of Space Precision Orientation Method of no certainty location feature object.
The technical scheme is that
A kind of Space Precision Orientation Method of no certainty location feature object, it is characterized in that it the following steps are included:
Firstly, passing through Pose Control point of the outline point cloud scanning building without certainty location feature object;
Secondly, realizing that industrial robot grabs no certainty location feature object using industrial robot and its end effector It takes and positions;
Third, using be mounted on industrial robot end effector multi-vision visual measuring system measurement grabbed without determination Property location feature object on Pose Control point, thus by outline point cloud scanning it is determining without certainty location feature object The theoretical value calculating of the measured value and local coordinate system of Pose Control point is held without certainty location feature object with robot end The relative pose relationship of row device;
4th, the spatial pose of real-time follow-up end effector of robot is realized using T-Mac 6D measuring system;
5th, the real-time spatial attitude of robot is finally tracked based on T-Mac 6D measuring system, calculates attitude error, and driving machine Device people compensates movement, realizes the assembly positioning without certainty location feature object.
The Pose Control point is set to no certainty location feature body surface, measurement feature when as space orientation.
The industrial robot system include industrial machine human body (3), the end effector (4) towards component assembling and Linear guides (5);Industrial machine human body (3) is mounted on linear guides (5), obtains robot more along guide rail linear movement Big operating space.
The multi-vision visual measuring system includes four industrial cameras (6), and industrial camera is mounted on end effector (4), And it is connected firmly with it;Multi-vision visual measuring system by measurement end effector (4) firmly grasp without on certainty location feature object Pose Control point calculate the space relative pose of no certainty location feature object and end effector.
The T-Mac 6D measuring system includes T-Mac (7) and laser tracker measuring system (8);T-Mac (7) is mounted on On end effector (4), and connected firmly with it;Laser tracker (8) is by real-time dynamic acquisition T-Mac (7) in measurement coordinate system Under 6D pose, to track the spatial pose of end effector of robot.
The T-Mac 6D measuring system tracks the real-time spatial attitude of robot, calculates attitude error, and drive robot into Row compensation campaign.
The measurement and control software systems, a main control software being integrated into T-Mac 6D measuring system in PC machine On, for control T-Mac 6D measuring system tracking the real-time spatial attitude of robot, calculate attitude error, and drive robot into Row compensation campaign.
Industrial robot system of the invention is mainly used for realizing crawl and positioning of the robot to component;It is surveyed using T-Mac 6D Amount system is mainly used for realizing the spatial pose of real-time tracking and robot measurement end effector;Using measurement and control software On a main control software for being integrated into it in PC machine with T-Mac 6D measuring system, computer is can be realized in line traffic control in system Industrial robot motion processed and positioning.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:
The space that (1 present invention) realizes no certainty location feature object is accurately positioned.It is overcome without certainty to position head First mainly by laser scanning, to obtain the general outline of object, closes and solve by shape scan data and theoretical value simulation Coordinate value of the Pose Control point under its part coordinate system out.Followed by guaranteed by the tuning on-line precision of robot adjacent Accurate assembly precision between object.
(2) multi-vision visual system is used, for determining without certainty location feature object position opposite with the space of end effector Appearance.
(3) T-Mac 6D measuring system is used, for realizing real-time tracking and the spatial pose of robot measurement end effector.
(4) it uses on a main control software on T-Mac 6D measuring system and measurement and control software system integration to PC machine, Realize computer On-line Control industrial robot motion and positioning.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the composed structure schematic diagram of measurement and positioning assembly system of the invention.
Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of end effector mechanism of the invention.
Fig. 3 is measurement assembly system coordinate system schematic diagram of the invention.
Specific embodiment
The present invention is further illustrated with reference to the accompanying drawings and examples.
As shown in Figs. 1-3.
A kind of Space Precision Orientation Method of no certainty location feature object, it the following steps are included:
Firstly, passing through Pose Control point of the outline point cloud scanning building without certainty location feature object;
Secondly, realizing that industrial robot grabs no certainty location feature object using industrial robot and its end effector It takes and positions;
Third, using be mounted on industrial robot end effector multi-vision visual measuring system measurement grabbed without determination Property location feature object on Pose Control point, thus by outline point cloud scanning it is determining without certainty location feature object The theoretical value calculating of the measured value and local coordinate system of Pose Control point is held without certainty location feature object with robot end The relative pose relationship of row device;
4th, the spatial pose of real-time follow-up end effector of robot is realized using T-Mac 6D measuring system;
5th, the real-time spatial attitude of robot is finally tracked based on T-Mac 6D measuring system, calculates attitude error, and driving machine Device people compensates movement, realizes the assembly positioning without certainty location feature object.
As shown in Figure 1, localization method of the invention is realized dependent on following system, which includes:
Industrial robot, end effector, multi-vision visual measuring system, T-Mac 6D measuring system and measurement and control software system System needs to carry out following preparation: clear machine before carrying out the space without certainty location feature object and being accurately positioned Spatial movement relationship between people's system, measuring system and positioning object.The assembly system is mainly concerned with seven coordinate systems, Middle robot root coordinate system 9 is determined that other five coordinate systems need root with flange coordinate system 10 by robot system self structure It is determined according to assembly system practical layout position.Specific coordinate system is as described below:
Robot root coordinate system 9: the coordinate system of robot inherently is fixed on robot base center, indicates robot sheet Position where body;In assembly process, the coordinate system and ground are fixed;
Flange coordinate system 10: being defined on the coordinate system of ring flange center, and the spatial relationship with robot root coordinate system is by machine The angle of six axis of people determines;
Tool coordinates system 11: the spatial position and posture of reflection end effector or component relative to flange coordinate system.
Basis coordinates system 12: using airplane design coordinate system as basis coordinates system, it is believed that be the global coordinate system of assembly system.The coordinate System biases out from robot root coordinate system, the position robot TCP that robot system is shown be tool coordinates system relative to The position of basis coordinates system.
Vision measurement coordinate system 13: the coordinate system of vision system;
Laser tracker measures coordinate system 14: the default coordinate system of laser tracker;
T-Mac coordinate system 15: connecting firmly the coordinate system on T-Mac, indicate T-Mac relative to measurement coordinate system relative position with Posture.
Wherein flange coordinate system 10, tool coordinates system 11, T-Mac coordinate system 15, vision measurement coordinate system 13 are connected firmly same In rigid body, it is known that any one just can determine that other three spatial positions and posture.
The kinematics model of assembly system is established by the following steps:
Firstly, establishing the transformational relation of laser tracker measurement coordinate system 14 and basis coordinates system 12Coordinate will be measured It is transformed under basis coordinates system:
Pi MeasurementIndicate the coordinate value being measured point in the case where measuring coordinate system, Pi BaseIndicate to be measured point under basis coordinates system Coordinate value,Transition matrix between coordinate system and measurement coordinate system, Transition matrix between T-Mac coordinate system and basis coordinates system.
In order to seekUsing datum mark (>=3) on laser tracker survey aircraft, P is rememberedm=[x y z]TFor laser Coordinate, P are measured under tracker measurement coordinate systemg=[x y z]TIt (is directly read from CAD model for theoretical coordinate under basis coordinates system It takes).It is sought by iterative method
The transition matrix of basis coordinates system and tool coordinates system is sought using identical iterative methodBasis coordinates system and robot root The transformational relation of coordinate system is as follows:
Wherein,Indicate the transition matrix between flange coordinate system and tool coordinates system,Indicate robot root coordinate system It, will with the transition matrix between flange coordinate systemWithCorresponding position and attitude parameter input robot controller, TCP point moves to tool coordinates system origin, the current pose reading of robot controller from flange centerTheoretical position and posture of the representational tool coordinate system relative to basis coordinates system.
Laser tracker measures the position T-Mac and attitude dataThen T-Mac Coordinate system is as follows relative to the transition matrix of basis coordinates system:
Wherein, crx=cos (rx), srx=sin (rx), cry, crz, sry, srz are similarly.
Above three step constructs the space reflection from robot controller to TCP and the space reflection from T-Mac to TCP: the former Reflect the theory movement position of robot, the latter reflects that robot is actually reached position, and the difference of the two is that error is mended below The key repaid.
It is integrated by industrial robot and T-Mac 6D measuring system to specify assembly system, constitutes a closed loop feedback system. In assembly process, industrial robot is moved to mesh to be positioned by being equipped with the end effector gripper components of vacuum chuck Cursor position, the process are that the track cooked up according to CAD digital-to-analogue is run.Near target position, industrial robot is according to T- The control information of Mac measuring system feedback iterates compensation, until error is less than the threshold value stopping compensation campaign of setting.The threshold Value is to be required and set according to the alignment tolerance of build-up member.In aircraft components assembly, the usual 0.1-0.5mm model of tolerance In enclosing.
Typically it is made of without certainty location feature object assemble flow following 7 step:
(1) planning system is laid out in CAD software, running track of planning robot's tool under assembling coordinate system, and is generated Off-line procedure;
(2) robot probably moves to the suitable position in system layout on guide rail, determines seven coordinate systems using above-mentioned Method demarcate assembly system;
(3) robot motion is to component tool, gripper components.Pose Control point is measured using multi-vision visual, Pose Control point Measured value and its coordinate value fitting under part coordinate system obtain, and the spatial pose for obtaining it with end effector of robot closes System.
(4) motion profile of Robot planning moves to target point, T-Mac real-time online measuring robot position in motion process Set and posture, can according to demand on extract real-time motion profile arbitrary point measured value and theoretical value.It (can be used by software The prior art is voluntarily worked out) calculate the error of target point;
(5) if the margin of error is less than the threshold value of setting, (6) are jumped to, are otherwise based on the margin of error, robot makees compensation campaign;System base The error of current point is calculated in T-Mac measurement data.Execute (5) again.
(6) using the measured value of the point in the motion profile obtained in (4) and theoretical value as sample, linear relative movement is carried out.
(7) component fixation is bolted, riveted or is glued according to assembly technology, robot returns to HOME.Due to T-Mac It is On-line sampling system, therefore step (4) to (6) all carries out automatically.
Part that the present invention does not relate to is the same as those in the prior art or can be realized by using the prior art.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of Space Precision Orientation Method of no certainty location feature object, it is characterized in that it the following steps are included:
Firstly, by Pose Control point of the outline point cloud scanning building without certainty location feature object in parts locally coordinate system Coordinate;
Secondly, realizing that industrial robot grabs no certainty location feature object using industrial robot and its end effector It takes and positions;
Third, using be mounted on industrial robot end effector multi-vision visual measuring system measurement grabbed without determination Property location feature object on Pose Control point, thus by outline point cloud scanning it is determining without certainty location feature object The theoretical value calculating of the measured value and local coordinate system of Pose Control point is held without certainty location feature object with robot end The relative pose relationship of row device;
4th, it is realized using T-Mac 6D measuring system (6D mechanically tracking detector, be used cooperatively with laser tracker) real-time The spatial pose of tracking measurement end effector of robot;
5th, the real-time spatial attitude of robot is finally tracked based on T-Mac 6D measuring system, calculates attitude error, and driving machine Device people compensates movement, realizes the assembly positioning without certainty location feature object.
2. localization method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the Pose Control point is set to no certainty positioning Feature body surface, measurement feature when as space orientation.
3. localization method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the industrial robot system includes industrial robot Ontology (3), end effector (4) and linear guides (5) towards component assembling;Industrial machine human body (3) is mounted on linearly On guide rail (5), robot is set to obtain bigger operating space along guide rail linear movement.
4. localization method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the multi-vision visual measuring system includes four industry Camera (6), industrial camera are mounted on end effector (4), and connect firmly with it;Multi-vision visual measuring system passes through measurement end Actuator (4) firmly grasp without the Pose Control point on certainty location feature object come calculate no certainty location feature object with The space relative pose of end effector.
5. localization method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the T-Mac 6D measuring system includes (7) T-Mac With laser tracker measuring system (8);T-Mac (7) is mounted on end effector (4), and connects firmly with it;Laser tracker (8) the 6D pose by real-time dynamic acquisition T-Mac (7) in the case where measuring coordinate system, to track the sky of end effector of robot Between pose.
6. localization method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the T-Mac 6D measuring system tracking robot is real When spatial attitude, calculate attitude error, and robot driven to compensate movement.
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