CN109579780B - Polarization-based light splitting auto-collimation three-dimensional angle measuring device and method - Google Patents

Polarization-based light splitting auto-collimation three-dimensional angle measuring device and method Download PDF

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CN109579780B
CN109579780B CN201910025637.9A CN201910025637A CN109579780B CN 109579780 B CN109579780 B CN 109579780B CN 201910025637 A CN201910025637 A CN 201910025637A CN 109579780 B CN109579780 B CN 109579780B
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image sensor
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spectroscope
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CN109579780A (en
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石剑
朱凡
谭久彬
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C1/00Measuring angles

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of precision measurement and the field of optical engineering, and particularly relates to a polarization light splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measuring device and method; the device consists of a light source, a polarizer, a spectroscope, a polarizing spectroscope, an image sensor, a collimating mirror, a fixed plane reflecting mirror and a cooperative target; the method divides a measuring beam into two beams of measuring light which are vertical to each other through a cooperative target, the measuring light beams return after being reflected by a fixed plane reflector and the cooperative target respectively, images of the measuring light beams are formed on an image sensor respectively, and a pitch angle, a yaw angle and a roll angle of the cooperative target relative to an optical axis are calculated by utilizing the positions of the two images, so that the method has the capability of detecting the space three-dimensional corner of a measured object; because the invention adopts the optical lever amplification principle for the roll angle, which is consistent with the measurement principle of the pitch angle and the yaw angle, the invention has the technical advantages of high precision and large working distance for the three-dimensional angle measurement, and further has the advantage of increasing the measurement precision under the same working distance or increasing the working distance under the same measurement precision; the two image sensors respectively receive the two measuring light spots, so that the requirement on the subsequent image processing technology is reduced, and the frequency response of the measuring device is improved. In addition, the cooperative target designed by the invention has the technical advantages of simple structure and low manufacturing cost.

Description

Polarization-based light splitting auto-collimation three-dimensional angle measuring device and method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of precision measurement, and particularly relates to a polarization beam splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measuring device and method.
Background
In the technical field of precision measurement, the field of optical engineering, the field of advanced scientific experiments and the field of high-end precision equipment manufacturing, a large-working-range and high-precision auto-collimation three-dimensional angle measurement technology under a large working distance is urgently needed. It supports the development of technical and instrumental equipment in the above mentioned fields.
In the field of precision measurement technology and instruments, the autocollimator is combined with the circular grating, and can perform any line angle measurement; the autocollimation technology is combined with the polyhedral prism, so that the surface angle measurement and the roundness measurement can be performed; the maximum working distance is from several meters to hundreds of meters; the resolution was from 0.1 to 0.001 arcsec.
In the fields of optical engineering and advanced scientific experiments, an autocollimator is combined with two-dimensional mutually perpendicular circular gratings, so that the spatial angle can be measured; the position reference is formed by two paths of autocollimators, and the measurement of a space three-dimensional angle can be carried out. The angular operation ranges from tens of arcseconds to tens of angular minutes.
In the field of manufacturing of advanced scientific experimental devices and high-end precision equipment, the autocollimator can be used for measuring the angular rotation precision of the advanced scientific experimental device and the high-end precision equipment on the basis of rotary motion, and measuring the spatial linear precision of a linear motion reference and the parallelism and perpendicularity of every two motion references.
The auto-collimation technology has the advantages of non-contact, high measurement precision, convenience in use and the like, and is widely applied to the fields.
As shown in fig. 1, the conventional autocollimator includes a light source 1, a transmissive collimating mirror 4, a beam splitter 2, and an image sensor 3; the light beam emitted by the light source 1 is collimated into parallel light beams by the transmission type collimating lens 4 and then enters the reflecting surface of the object 51 to be measured; the light beam reflected from the reflecting surface of the object 51 is imaged by the image sensor 3. In this configuration, the light beam reflected from the surface of the object 51 carries only the spatial angle information of two axes of the object. Due to the limitation of the condition, when the device is used for measuring the spatial angle information of the measured object, the device cannot measure the angle information of the measured object rotating around the optical axis direction, and only can measure the angle information of other two axes.
The improved autocollimator based on the grating technology and the image processing technology can measure the spatial three-dimensional angle information of the measured object, but has the following two problems:
firstly, the measuring principle of the roll angle around the optical axis direction is different from the measuring principle of the pitch angle and the yaw angle which are perpendicular to the optical axis of the traditional autocollimator, so that the measuring precision of the three-dimensional angle of a measured object space is different, and the measuring precision of the roll angle around the optical axis direction based on the image processing technology is lower by one order of magnitude than the pitch angle and the yaw angle which are perpendicular to the optical axis;
the second, improved autocollimator needs to use the diffracted light of the grating to measure the angle information of the rotation angle around the optical axis, and the diffracted light has a larger divergence angle. When the instrument is operated under a large working distance condition, the measuring light cannot be collected by the image sensor. The improved autocollimator does not have the capability of measuring the space three-dimensional angle of the measured object under the working condition of large working distance.
The conventional autocollimator cannot measure spatial three-dimensional angular information of an object. The two problems show that the improved auto-collimation instrument has the capability of measuring the space three-dimensional angle information of an object, but the measurement precision of the roll angle in the axial direction is lower; and does not have the capability of measuring three-dimensional angles under the condition of large working distance.
Disclosure of Invention
Compared with the traditional auto-collimation measuring device, the device and the method have the technical advantage of simultaneously measuring the three-dimensional angle of the rotation angle around three axes in the space of the measured object under the conditions of the same measuring precision and the same working distance; compared with other auto-collimation three-dimensional angle measuring devices, the device has the technical advantages of high precision, high frequency response and large working distance in the roll angle measurement around the optical axis direction under the condition of simultaneously measuring the three-dimensional angle around the three-axis rotation angle in the measured object space.
The purpose of the invention is realized as follows:
a polarization-based light splitting auto-collimation three-dimensional angle measuring device comprises a light source, a polarizer, a spectroscope, a transmission type collimating mirror, a fixed reflector, a cooperative target, a first image sensor, a second image sensor and a measuring end polarization spectroscope; the light beam emitted by the light source firstly passes through the polarizer to change the light beam of the light source into linearly polarized light, and then is collimated into parallel light beams by the transmission type collimating lens. One path of light passes through the polarization spectroscope in the cooperative target and is incident on the plane reflector in the cooperative target, and the reflected light beam is transmitted by the polarization spectroscope in the cooperative target, returns along the original path of the light path, is transmitted by the polarization spectroscope at the measuring end and is collected and imaged by the first image sensor; the other path is reflected by a polarization beam splitter in the cooperative target and is incident on a fixed plane reflector, and the reflected light beam is reflected by the polarization beam splitter in the cooperative target, returns along the original path of the light path, is reflected by the polarization beam splitter at the measuring end and is collected and imaged by a second image sensor;
the polarizer is a polarizing plate capable of adjusting the polarization direction, and the polarization direction of a light source passing through the polarizer is different from the polarization directions of two paths of mutually perpendicular polarization spectroscopes in the cooperative target. The polarizer can adjust the light intensity of the measuring light spots received by the first image sensor and the second image sensor, so that two paths of measuring ends are kept consistent.
The cooperative target comprises a polarization spectroscope and a plane reflector, and is arranged on the measuring surface of the measured object; the fixed plane reflector is independent of the cooperative target, is not connected with the cooperative target and the measured object, and is fixed on the same measuring base fixed with the light source, the spectroscope, the image sensor and the transmission type collimating mirror. When the measured object rotates in a three-dimensional angle, the cooperative target rotates in the same three-dimensional angle with the measured object, and the fixed reflector and other parts of the measuring device are fixed on the measuring base and do not move.
The polarizing beam splitter in the cooperative target can be replaced by a beam splitter and 1/4 wave plates, and the polarizing beam splitter at the measuring end can be replaced by a beam splitter and an analyzer, so that the function of polarizing beams is realized. The measuring beam reflected by the beam splitter passes twice through the 1/4 wave plate, and the polarization direction of the measuring beam is perpendicular to the beam transmitted by the beam splitter. The two beams of measuring light are divided into two paths when returning to the measuring end spectroscope in a common light path, and the first beam of measuring light is filtered by the analyzer to remove the measuring light reflected by the fixed plane reflector and is converged by the first image sensor; the second beam is filtered by the analyzer to remove the measuring light reflected by the plane reflector in the combined target and is converged by the second image sensor;
the first image sensor and the second image sensor can be formed by CCD cameras, and can also be formed by PSD to further improve the frequency response of the system device.
A polarization light splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measuring method realized on the polarization light splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measuring device comprises the following steps:
a, fixing the combined target to the surface of a measured object, and placing a fixed reflector to enable the mirror surface of the fixed reflector to be parallel to the emergent surface of the spectroscope;
b, lighting a light source, adjusting the positions of the measured object and the fixed reflector, enabling the light spot received by the image sensor to be positioned at the center of the image sensor, and enabling the position of the fixed reflector to be fixed;
c, observing the light spot brightness degree of the first image sensor and the second image sensor, and adjusting the rotation angle of the polarizer to enable the light intensity received by the two image sensors to be consistent;
d, the combined target rotates three-dimensionally along with the object to be measured, the first image sensor outputs displacement values of light spots of the light beams reflected by the plane mirror in the cooperative target, wherein the distance between the light spots and the center of the image sensor is divided into S1 and S2, the second image sensor outputs displacement values of light spots of the light beams reflected by the fixed plane mirror, and the distance between the light spots and the center of the image sensor is S3;
step e, calculating beta and gamma according to S1 and S2 by using the displacements S1 and S2 of the light spot of the first image sensor, wherein the beta and the gamma are angles of the measured object rotating clockwise around the y axis and the z axis;
step f, calculating and obtaining theta according to f · tan (theta) as the result of S3 by using the displacement S3 of the light spot of the second image sensor, wherein theta is an included angle between the return light of one path of light beam reflected by the beam splitter and the optical axis;
and G, calculating according to the angle alpha (theta, beta, gamma), so as to obtain alpha, wherein the angle alpha is an angle of the object to be detected rotating clockwise around the x axis, and G represents a function. And finally obtaining angles alpha, beta and gamma of the clockwise rotation of the object to be measured around the x, y and z axes.
Has the advantages that:
compared with the traditional self-collimation angle measuring device, the plane mirror target is replaced by the cooperation target and the fixed plane reflector to be used as the object space three-dimensional corner detection unit. The structure is arranged to divide the measuring beam into two parts, wherein one part carries the angle information of the pitch angle and the yaw angle of the measured object after being reflected by the plane reflector in the cooperative target, and the other part carries the roll angle information of the measured object rotating around the optical axis direction after being reflected by the fixed plane reflector. The two paths of measuring light are collected by the sensor, so that not only the pitch angle and yaw angle information of the object are obtained, but also the roll angle information of the object is obtained, and the instrument device has the three-dimensional angle measuring capability of measuring the roll angle of the object around the optical axis and the pitch angle and yaw angle of the object vertical to the optical axis; the measuring principle of the roll angle is consistent with the principle of the traditional autocollimator for measuring the pitch angle and the yaw angle, and the measuring precision of the device is higher than that of a device adopting a grating and an image processing technology by using the amplification effect of an optical lever; the device does not generate diffraction light caused by grating diffraction effect, the angle deviation of the measured return light and the original light beam is small, and the device has larger working distance under the same measuring range. Therefore, compared with the traditional self-aligning angle measuring device, the device has the technical advantage that the angle measurement dimension is increased under the condition of the same working distance and the same measurement precision; compared with the improved autocollimator based on the grating technology and the image processing technology, the method has the technical advantages of large working distance and high precision under the same angle measurement dimension.
In addition, the invention has the following technical advantages:
the method comprises the following steps of firstly, selecting a combined target of a polarization beam splitter and a plane reflector, wherein the combined target has small volume and weight, and is arranged on the surface of a measured object without influencing the spatial three-dimensional angle motion of the measured object; and the plane reflector is used as a fixed plane reflector, and compared with special targets in other auto-collimation three-dimensional angle measuring devices, the plane reflector has a simple structure and is easy to process and manufacture.
Secondly, a fixed plane reflector is selected as a third-dimensional angle sensing device, the structure is simple, and the sensing principle of the fixed plane reflector is basically consistent with that of the other fixed plane reflector around two axes vertical to the optical axis, so that the rotation angles of the fixed plane reflector around the optical axis and the other two axes vertical to the two axes of the optical axis keep high measurement accuracy of the same magnitude;
thirdly, the spectroscope in the invention is used as a part of the combined target to generate rotation of a space three-dimensional angle together with the measured object, so that the measurement precision of the rotation angle (yaw angle) around one axis vertical to the optical axis is doubled.
And fourthly, the polarization states of the two beams of measuring light are respectively distinguished by selecting the polarization beam splitter or the beam splitter and 1/4 wave plates, and two paths of measuring light spots are respectively received by two paths of image sensors (CCD or PSD), so that the requirement on the subsequent image processing technology is reduced, and the frequency response of the measuring device is improved.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural view of a conventional self-collimation angle measuring apparatus.
Fig. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of a first embodiment of a polarization splitting auto-collimation-based three-dimensional angle measuring device according to the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of cooperative target installation in the first embodiment.
Fig. 4 is a schematic structural diagram of a second embodiment of the polarization splitting auto-collimation-based three-dimensional angle measuring device according to the present invention.
Fig. 5 is a schematic structural diagram of cooperative target installation in the second embodiment.
Fig. 6 is a schematic structural diagram of a third embodiment of the polarization splitting auto-collimation-based three-dimensional angle measuring device according to the present invention.
In the figure: the device comprises a light source 1, a spectroscope 2, a first image sensor 3, a transmission type collimating mirror 4, a cooperative target 5, a plane reflector 51, a spectroscope 52, a polarizing spectroscope 53, a plane reflector 6, a measured object 7, a polarizing spectroscope at a measuring end 8, a second image sensor 9, a polarizer 10, a spectroscope 11, an analyzer 12, an analyzer 13 and a wave plate 141/4.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENT (S) OF INVENTION
The following describes in further detail specific embodiments of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Detailed description of the preferred embodiment
The embodiment is based on the polarization splitting auto-collimation three-dimensional angle measuring device.
The structure diagram of the polarization splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measuring device of the embodiment is shown in fig. 2. The angle measuring device comprises a light source 1, a spectroscope 2, a first image sensor 3, a transmission type collimating mirror 4, a cooperative target 5 (comprising a polarizing spectroscope 53 and a plane reflecting mirror 51), a fixed plane reflecting mirror 6, a measuring end polarizing spectroscope 8, a second image sensor 9 and a polarizer 10.
The light beam emitted by the light source 1 is collimated into parallel light beams by the transmission type collimating lens 4 and then is incident on the polarization beam splitter 53 in the cooperative target 5; one path of light beam penetrating through the polarization beam splitter 53 is reflected by a plane reflector 51 in the combined target 5, returns along the original path, is transmitted by the polarization beam splitter 8 at the measuring end and is collected and imaged by the first image sensor 3; and the other path of light beam is reflected by the polarization beam splitter 53, then enters the surface of the fixed reflector 6, is reflected by the fixed reflector 6, returns along the original path, is reflected by the polarization beam splitter 8 at the measuring end and is collected and imaged by the image sensor 3.
The spectroscope 2 is arranged between the light source 1 and the transmission type collimating mirror 4, and the first image sensor 3 and the second image sensor 9 are arranged at the focal plane of the transmission type collimating mirror 4 and conjugate with the position of the light source 1; two paths of light beams returning from the cooperation target 5 are transmitted by the transmission type collimating mirror 4, reflected by the spectroscope 2 and transmitted or reflected by the measuring end polarization spectroscope in sequence, and are respectively collected and imaged by the first image sensor 3 and the second image sensor 9; under the condition that the surface of the object to be measured of the fixed cooperative target 5 is vertical to the optical axis and does not rotate around the direction of the optical axis, the point images formed by the first image sensor 3 and the second image sensor 9 are both in the center position of the image surface.
The measurement principle is as follows:
if the spatial three-dimensional corner of the measured object 7 is measured, firstly, a spatial coordinate system of the three-dimensional corner of the measured object 7 needs to be defined: as shown in fig. 3, the optical axis direction is defined as x-axis, the downward direction is defined as y-axis, and the outward direction perpendicular to the surface of the object 7 is defined as z-axis; and the spatial three-dimensional rotation angles of the object 7 to be measured are defined as alpha, beta and gamma which rotate around the x axis, the y axis and the z axis in the clockwise direction respectively.
Next, the cooperative target 5, which includes the polarizing beam splitter 53 and the plane mirror 51, is fixed on the surface of the object 7 to be measured, as shown in fig. 3, so that the spatial three-dimensional angle change of the cooperative target 5 is the spatial three-dimensional angle change of the object 7 to be measured. The fixed reflector 6 is not connected with the cooperative target 5 and the measured object 7, and is fixed on the measuring base.
When the object 7 rotates around the x-axis, the y-axis, and the z-axis clockwise by angle a, β, and γ respectively to generate spatial three-dimensional angular rotation, the cooperative target 5 also rotates around the x-axis, the y-axis, and the z-axis clockwise by angle a, β, and γ respectively, and the spatial position of the fixed mirror 6 is unchanged.
The light beam incident on the plane mirror 51 in the cooperative target is transmitted by the polarization beam splitter 53, and the plane mirror 51 rotates with the object 7 to be measured in a three-dimensional space, so that the light beam reflected by the plane mirror 51 and the original light beam are deflected at angles of 2 beta and 2 gamma. Consistent with the principle of the conventional autocollimator measurement, the light beam is converged on the first image sensor 3, and the central positions of the light beam spot and the image sensor generate displacements S1 and S2, respectively.
And satisfies the following relationship, S1 ═ f · tan (2 β), S2 ═ f · tan (2 γ), and f is the focal length of the transmissive collimator lens 4.
Therefore, the angles β and γ of the rotation of the object 7 around the y-axis and the z-axis can be calculated according to the displacements S1 and S2 between the light spot on the image sensor 3 and the center position of the image sensor.
The light beam incident on the fixed reflector 6 is reflected by the polarization beam splitter 53, and since the polarization beam splitter 53 rotates with the object 7 to be measured in a three-dimensional angle, the light beam reflected by the fixed plane reflector 6 is reflected by the polarization beam splitter 53 to deflect with the original light beam at an angle θ, the light beam is converged on the second image sensor 9, and the light spot of the light beam and the center position of the image sensor generate a displacement S3.
And satisfies the following relationship, S3 ═ f · tan (θ), where f is the focal length of the transmissive collimator lens 4.
From the spatial geometry, θ ═ F (α, β, γ), similarly, α ═ G (θ, β, γ), F, G represent two functions, respectively.
Therefore, the spatial angle θ between the light beam and the original light beam can be calculated according to the displacement S3 between the light spot on the second image sensor 9 and the center position of the image sensor; then, according to the formula α ═ G (θ, β, γ) and the β and γ values obtained before, the angle α can be solved, so that angles α, β, and γ at which the object 7 rotates around the x axis, the y axis, and the z axis are obtained, and spatial three-dimensional rotation angle information of the object 7 is obtained.
The embodiment of the polarization splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measurement method comprises the following steps:
step a, fixing a combined target 5 on the surface of a measured object 7, and placing a fixed reflector 6 to enable the mirror surface of the fixed reflector to be parallel to the emergent surface of a polarizing beam splitter 53;
step b, lighting a light source, adjusting the positions of the object to be measured 7 and the fixed reflector 6, enabling the light spots received by the first image sensor 3 and the second image sensor 9 to be positioned at the center position of the image sensors, and enabling the position of the fixed reflector 6 to be fixed;
c, observing the light spot brightness degree of the first image sensor 3 and the second image sensor 9, and adjusting the rotation angle of the polarizer 10 to enable the light intensity received by the two image sensors to be consistent;
d, the combined target rotates three-dimensionally along with the object to be measured, the first image sensor 3 outputs displacement values of light spots of the light beam reflected by the plane reflector 51, wherein the distance between the light spots and the center of the image sensor is divided into S1 and S2, the second image sensor 9 outputs displacement values of light spots of the light beam reflected by the fixed plane reflector 6, and the distance between the light spots and the center of the image sensor is S3;
step e, calculating and obtaining β and γ according to S1 ═ f · tan (2 β) and S2 ═ f · tan (2 γ) by using the displacements S1, S2 of the light spot of the first image sensor 3, where β and γ are angles of the measured object rotating clockwise around the y and z axes;
step f, calculating and obtaining theta according to f · tan (theta) as the result of S3 by using the displacement S3 of the light spot of the second image sensor 9, where theta is an included angle between the return light of one light beam reflected by the beam splitter and the optical axis;
and G, calculating according to the angle alpha (theta, beta, gamma), so as to obtain alpha, wherein the angle alpha is an angle of the object to be detected rotating clockwise around the x axis, and G represents a function. And finally obtaining angles alpha, beta and gamma of the clockwise rotation of the object to be measured around the x, y and z axes.
The innovation point of the invention is that the cooperation target 5 is formed by utilizing the polarization spectroscope 53, and the measurement end polarization spectroscope 8 is added at the measurement end. The structure gives different polarization to the two measuring beams through the polarization beam splitter 53, the two measuring beams are separated through the polarization beam splitter 8 at the measuring end and are respectively received by the first image sensor 3 and the second image sensor 9. Therefore, the problem of identifying and distinguishing two light spots received by the image sensor is solved, the image processing program of the image sensor is simplified, and the requirements on the image processing software technology are reduced; meanwhile, the data processing speed is improved, and therefore the frequency response of the system is improved.
Secondly, the polarizer 10 is used for adjusting the light intensity of the light spots received by the first image sensor 3 and the second image sensor 9, the problem that the light intensity of the two measuring light beams cannot be adjusted due to the determination of light path elements is solved, and the problem that the light intensity of the light spots in the two light beams is too weak or too strong to cause unmeasurable light spots is avoided.
Detailed description of the invention
The embodiment is based on the polarization splitting auto-collimation three-dimensional angle measuring device.
The structure diagram of the polarization splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measuring device of the embodiment is shown in fig. 4. On the basis of the first embodiment, the cooperative target 5 of the present embodiment only includes the polarization beam splitter 53; the polarizing beam splitter 53 in the cooperative target 5 is directly mounted on the surface of the measured object 7 as shown in fig. 5.
The embodiment of the polarization splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measurement method comprises the following steps:
step a, fixing a combined target 5 on the surface of a measured object 7, and placing a fixed reflector 6 to enable the mirror surface of the fixed reflector to be parallel to the emergent surface of a polarizing beam splitter 53;
step b, lighting a light source, adjusting the positions of the object to be measured 7 and the fixed reflector 6, enabling the light spots received by the first image sensor 3 and the second image sensor 9 to be positioned at the center position of the image sensors, and enabling the position of the fixed reflector 6 to be fixed;
c, observing the light spot brightness degree of the first image sensor 3 and the second image sensor 9, and adjusting the rotation angle of the polarizer 10 to enable the light intensity received by the two image sensors to be consistent;
d, the combined target rotates three-dimensionally along with the object to be measured, the first image sensor 3 outputs displacement values of light spots of the light beam reflected by the surface of the object to be measured 7, wherein the distance between the light spots and the center of the image sensor is divided into S1 and S2, the second image sensor 9 outputs displacement values of the light spots of the light beam reflected by the fixed plane reflector 6, and the distance between the light spots and the center of the image sensor is S3;
step e, calculating and obtaining β and γ according to S1 ═ f · tan (2 β) and S2 ═ f · tan (2 γ) by using the displacements S1, S2 of the light spot of the first image sensor 3, where β and γ are angles of the measured object rotating clockwise around the y and z axes;
step f, calculating and obtaining theta according to f · tan (theta) as the result of S3 by using the displacement S3 of the light spot of the second image sensor 9, where theta is an included angle between the return light of one light beam reflected by the beam splitter and the optical axis;
and G, calculating according to the angle alpha (theta, beta, gamma), so as to obtain alpha, wherein the angle alpha is an angle of the object to be detected rotating clockwise around the x axis, and G represents a function. And finally obtaining angles alpha, beta and gamma of the clockwise rotation of the object to be measured around the x, y and z axes.
Detailed description of the preferred embodiment
The embodiment is based on the polarization splitting auto-collimation three-dimensional angle measuring device.
The structure diagram of the polarization splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measuring device of the embodiment is shown in fig. 6. On the basis of the first specific embodiment, the polarization beam splitting auto-collimation-based three-dimensional angle measuring device of the present embodiment changes the polarization beam splitter 53 in the cooperative target 5 into the beam splitter 52, changes the polarization beam splitter 8 at the measuring end into the beam splitter 11, adds 1/4 wave plate 14 between the beam splitter 52 and the fixed plane mirror, adds the analyzer 12 between the first image sensor 3 and the beam splitter 11, and adds the analyzer 11 between the second image sensor 9 and the beam splitter 11;
the embodiment of the polarization splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measurement method comprises the following steps:
step a, fixing a combined target 5 on the surface of a measured object 7, and placing a fixed reflector 6 and an 1/4 wave plate 14 and enabling the mirror surfaces of the fixed reflector and the 1/4 wave plate to be parallel to the emergent surface of a spectroscope 52;
step b, lighting a light source, adjusting the positions of the object to be measured 7 and the fixed reflector 6, enabling the light spots received by the first image sensor 3 and the second image sensor 9 to be positioned at the center position of the image sensors, and enabling the position of the fixed reflector 6 to be fixed;
and c, when the 1/4 wave plate 14 is not added, adjusting the analyzer 12 to ensure that the light intensity of the light spot received by the first image sensor 3 is strongest, and fixing the position of the analyzer 12. 1/4 wave plate 14 is added to adjust the analyzer 11, so that the position of the analyzer 11 is fixed when the light spot intensity received by the second image sensor is strongest and the angle direction of the analyzer 11 is perpendicular to the angle direction of the analyzer 12;
d, the combined target rotates three-dimensionally along with the object to be measured, the first image sensor 3 outputs displacement values of light spots of the light beam reflected by the plane reflector 51, wherein the distance between the light spots and the center of the image sensor is divided into S1 and S2, the second image sensor 9 outputs displacement values of light spots of the light beam reflected by the fixed plane reflector 6, and the distance between the light spots and the center of the image sensor is S3;
step e, calculating and obtaining β and γ according to S1 ═ f · tan (2 β) and S2 ═ f · tan (2 γ) by using the displacements S1, S2 of the light spot of the first image sensor 3, where β and γ are angles of the measured object rotating clockwise around the y and z axes;
step f, calculating and obtaining theta according to f · tan (theta) as the result of S3 by using the displacement S3 of the light spot of the second image sensor 9, where theta is an included angle between the return light of one light beam reflected by the beam splitter and the optical axis;
and G, calculating according to the angle alpha (theta, beta, gamma), so as to obtain alpha, wherein the angle alpha is an angle of the object to be detected rotating clockwise around the x axis, and G represents a function. And finally obtaining angles alpha, beta and gamma of the clockwise rotation of the object to be measured around the x, y and z axes.
The innovation point of the invention is that the polarizer 10 and the 1/4 wave plate 14 are used for endowing the two measuring light beams with different polarization, the two measuring light beams are separated by the analyzer with the polarization directions of the measuring ends perpendicular to each other and are respectively received by the first image sensor 3 and the second image sensor 9. Therefore, the problem of identifying and distinguishing two light spots received by the image sensor is solved, the image processing program of the image sensor is simplified, and the requirements on the image processing software technology are reduced; meanwhile, the data processing speed is improved, and therefore the frequency response of the system is improved.

Claims (4)

1. The polarization splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measuring device is characterized by comprising a light source (1), a beam splitter (2), a first image sensor (3), a transmission type collimating mirror (4), a cooperation target (5), a fixed plane reflecting mirror (6), a measuring end polarization beam splitter (8), a second image sensor (9) and a polarizer (10), wherein the cooperation target (5) consists of a plane reflecting mirror (51) and a polarization beam splitter (53); light beams emitted by the light source (1) are firstly changed into linearly polarized light through the polarizer (10), and are collimated into parallel light beams through the transmission type collimating mirror (4), and then are incident on the polarization spectroscope (53) in the cooperative target (5); one path of light beam penetrating through the polarization spectroscope (53) is reflected by a plane reflector (51) in the combined target (5), returns along the original path, is transmitted by the polarization spectroscope (8) at the measuring end, and is finally collected and imaged by the first image sensor (3); the other path of light beam is reflected by the polarization spectroscope (53), then enters the surface of the fixed plane reflector (6), is reflected by the fixed plane reflector (6), returns along the original path, is reflected by the polarization spectroscope (8) at the measuring end, and finally is collected and imaged by the second image sensor (9);
the spectroscope (2) is arranged between the light source (1) and the transmission type collimating mirror (4), and the first image sensor (3) and the second image sensor (9) are both arranged at the focal plane of the transmission type collimating mirror (4) and conjugate with the position of the light source (1); two paths of light beams returning from the cooperative target (5) are transmitted by the transmission type collimating mirror (4), reflected by the spectroscope (2), split by the measuring end polarization spectroscope (8) and collected and imaged by the first image sensor (3) and the second image sensor (9) respectively; under the condition that the surface of a measured object of the fixed cooperative target (5) is vertical to the optical axis and does not rotate around the direction of the optical axis, the imaging points of the first image sensor (3) and the second image sensor (9) are imaged at the center position of the image surface;
the cooperative target (5) comprises a polarizing beam splitter (53) and a plane reflector (51) and is fixed on the surface of the measured object (7), so that the spatial three-dimensional angle change of the cooperative target (5) is the spatial three-dimensional angle change of the measured object (7); the fixed plane reflector (6) is not connected with the cooperative target (5) and the measured object (7) and is fixed on the measuring base;
or
The cooperative target (5) comprises a polarizing beam splitter (53) which is fixed on the surface of the object to be measured (7), so that the spatial three-dimensional angle change of the cooperative target (5) is the spatial three-dimensional angle change of the object to be measured (7); the fixed plane reflector (6) is not connected with the cooperative target (5) and the measured object (7) and is fixed on the measuring base; the measuring surface of the measured object (7) acts as a reflecting surface instead of the plane mirror (51).
2. The polarization-based spectroscopic auto-collimation three-dimensional angle measurement device according to claim 1, further comprising a beam splitter (52), a beam splitter (11), an 1/4 wave plate (14) and two analyzers (12), (13) in the cooperative target (5);
the spectroscope (52) is arranged in front of a plane reflector (51) in the cooperative target (5), the polarizer (10) enables the light source (1) to be changed into linearly polarized light, and the linearly polarized light is divided into two beams of measuring light by the spectroscope (52); the 1/4 wave plate (14) is arranged between the spectroscope (52) and the fixed plane reflector (6), and the polarization direction of one measuring light beam reflected by the spectroscope (52) is exactly vertical to the polarization direction of the second measuring light beam transmitted by the spectroscope (52) after the measuring light beam is transmitted twice by the 1/4 wave plate;
the spectroscope (11) is arranged between the spectroscope (2) and the first and second image sensors (3) and (9), two beams of measuring light are uniformly divided into two beams at a detection end, and the measuring light transmitted by the analyzer (12) is the measuring light reflected by the plane reflector (51) and is converged on the first image sensor (3); the measurement light transmitted by the analyzer (11) is the measurement light reflected by the fixed plane mirror (6) and is converged on the second image sensor (9).
3. The polarization splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measuring method implemented on the polarization splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measuring device of claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps:
a, fixing a combined target (5) to the surface of a measured object (7), and placing a fixed reflector (6) to enable the mirror surface of the fixed reflector to be parallel to the emergent surface of a polarizing beam splitter (53);
b, lighting a light source, adjusting the positions of the object to be measured (7) and the fixed reflector (6), enabling the light spots received by the first image sensor (3) and the second image sensor (9) to be positioned at the center position of the image sensors, and enabling the position of the fixed reflector (6) to be fixed;
c, observing the light spot brightness degree of the first image sensor (3) and the second image sensor (9), and adjusting the rotation angle of the polarizer (10) to enable the light intensity received by the two image sensors to be consistent;
d, the combined target rotates three-dimensionally along with the object to be measured, the first image sensor (3) outputs displacement values of light spots of the light beam reflected by the plane reflector (51), wherein the distance between the light spots and the center of the image sensor is divided into S1 and S2, the second image sensor (9) outputs displacement values of the light spots of the light beam reflected by the fixed plane reflector (6), and the distance between the light spots and the center of the image sensor is S3;
step e, calculating beta and gamma according to S1 and S2 by using the displacements S1 and S2 of the light spot of the first image sensor (3), wherein the beta and the gamma are angles of the measured object rotating clockwise around the y axis and the z axis;
step f, calculating and obtaining theta according to the displacement S3 of the light spot of the second image sensor (9) and f · tan (theta) after S3 is adopted, wherein theta is an included angle between the return light of one path of light beam reflected by the spectroscope and the optical axis;
step G, calculating according to alpha ═ G (theta, beta, gamma) to obtain alpha, wherein alpha is an angle of clockwise rotation of the object to be detected around an x axis, and G represents a function; and finally obtaining angles alpha, beta and gamma of the clockwise rotation of the object to be measured around the x, y and z axes.
4. The polarization splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measuring method implemented on the polarization splitting auto-collimation based three-dimensional angle measuring device of claim 2 is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
step a, fixing a combined target (5) to the surface of a measured object (7), and placing a fixed reflector (6) and an 1/4 wave plate (14) and enabling the mirror surface of the fixed reflector and the 1/4 wave plate to be parallel to the emergent surface of a spectroscope (52);
b, lighting a light source, adjusting the positions of the object to be measured (7) and the fixed reflector (6), enabling the light spots received by the first image sensor (3) and the second image sensor (9) to be positioned at the center position of the image sensors, and enabling the position of the fixed reflector (6) to be fixed;
step c, when the 1/4 wave plate (14) is not added, adjusting the analyzer (12) to enable the light intensity of the light spot received by the first image sensor (3) to be strongest, fixing the position of the analyzer (12), adding 1/4 wave plate (14) and then adjusting the analyzer (11) to enable the light spot received by the second image sensor to be strongest and the position of the analyzer (11) to be fixed when the angle direction of the analyzer (11) is perpendicular to the angle direction of the analyzer (12);
d, the combined target rotates three-dimensionally along with the object to be measured, the first image sensor (3) outputs displacement values of light spots of the light beam reflected by the plane reflector (51), wherein the distance between the light spots and the center of the image sensor is divided into S1 and S2, the second image sensor (9) outputs displacement values of the light spots of the light beam reflected by the fixed plane reflector (6), and the distance between the light spots and the center of the image sensor is S3;
step e, calculating beta and gamma according to S1 and S2 by using the displacements S1 and S2 of the light spot of the first image sensor (3), wherein the beta and the gamma are angles of the measured object rotating clockwise around the y axis and the z axis;
step f, calculating and obtaining theta according to the displacement S3 of the light spot of the second image sensor (9) and f · tan (theta) after S3 is adopted, wherein theta is an included angle between the return light of one path of light beam reflected by the spectroscope and the optical axis;
step G, calculating according to alpha ═ G (theta, beta, gamma) to obtain alpha, wherein alpha is an angle of clockwise rotation of the object to be detected around an x axis, and G represents a function; and finally obtaining angles alpha, beta and gamma of the clockwise rotation of the object to be measured around the x, y and z axes.
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