CN109557128A - A kind of simulation test case for frozen construction - Google Patents

A kind of simulation test case for frozen construction Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN109557128A
CN109557128A CN201811500587.7A CN201811500587A CN109557128A CN 109557128 A CN109557128 A CN 109557128A CN 201811500587 A CN201811500587 A CN 201811500587A CN 109557128 A CN109557128 A CN 109557128A
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
freezing
plate
frame
baffle
pipe
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
CN201811500587.7A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Other versions
CN109557128B (en
Inventor
周小平
李长清
李铮
郭德平
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Chongqing University
Original Assignee
Chongqing University
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Chongqing University filed Critical Chongqing University
Priority to CN201811500587.7A priority Critical patent/CN109557128B/en
Publication of CN109557128A publication Critical patent/CN109557128A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN109557128B publication Critical patent/CN109557128B/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N25/00Investigating or analyzing materials by the use of thermal means
    • G01N25/14Investigating or analyzing materials by the use of thermal means by using distillation, extraction, sublimation, condensation, freezing, or crystallisation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N25/00Investigating or analyzing materials by the use of thermal means
    • G01N25/14Investigating or analyzing materials by the use of thermal means by using distillation, extraction, sublimation, condensation, freezing, or crystallisation
    • G01N25/145Accessories, e.g. cooling devices

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of simulation test casees for construction freezing method, it includes grid framework, baffle and reaction frame, and grid framework connects composition hexahedron frame by high-strength bolt, and hexahedron frame inner wall has embedded six block baffles;The perforation of pipeline is reserved in an at least block baffle;Reaction frame is quadrangle box, and two adjacent edges of reaction frame inside casing are equipped with counter-force thick stick equipped with jack, another side, and jack passes through baffle with counter-force thick stick and connects pressure plare, and the 4th side of reaction frame pushes against a face of hexahedron frame;Cabinets cavity arrangement is placed with freezing pipe, and is embedded with seepage flow water pipe, and the baffle of seepage flow water outlet mouth is equipped with loaded filter.The invention has the advantages that under the effect of the various factors couplings such as load, seepage flow, excavation disturbance, it can influence of the quantitative assessment construction freezing method overall process to stratum temperature field, displacement field, moisture field and soil water pressure field.

Description

A kind of simulation test case for frozen construction
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of civil engineering, and in particular to a kind of simulation test case for construction freezing method.
Background technique
Construction freezing method technique functions are derived from the sixties in 19th century, in the construction foundation working of the Wales of Britain south in 1862 first Freezing process has been used, has hereafter been graduallyd mature by the development in century more than one, China introduces construction freezing method technology in nineteen fifty-five, And be applied successfully in opening Luan Linxi ventilating shaft, hereafter freeze law technology and gradually promote, freezing process is mine vertical shaft, inclined shaft, gallery Pass through the effective means of high water rich strata.
Recently as the quickening of Urbanization in China, the contradiction of urban development and urban land resource shortage is increasingly prominent Out, in order to solve this problem, China big and medium-sized cities active development utilize urban underground space, build underground commerce synthesis, The hypogees such as underground garage, underground pipe gallery, subway structure, development and utilization urban underground space become the new of current urban development Direction;The unfavorable geologies such as high rich water boulder and cobble and weak soil are frequently encountered in the structure construction of hypogee, in the construction process If handling the relationship between bad engineering construction and unfavorable geologic body, it is possible to engineering accident very serious occur.
Construction freezing method is since soil stabilization intensity is high, sealing performance is good and is not take up ground place, in recent years in city It is more and more applied in underground engineering construction.During mine, tunnel, city underground engineering construction freezing method, freeze The distribution in the earth formation of junction temperature field, freeze with the variation of formation displacement field in melting process, moisture stratum distribution situation And the variation of soil water pressure is to determine the governing factor of construction freezing method safety in frozen construction overall process, is that freezing process is set The problem of must being verified before meter, construction.However current research achievement is that qualitatively this problem is described mostly, it is difficult to Quantify the changes in distribution rule of formation temperature field in construction freezing method overall process, displacement field, moisture field and soil water pressure field.For Solve the problems, such as that construction freezing method quantifies, there are two solutions at present: first is that field test, although field test reliability Height, data are accurate, but test costly, time-consuming and laborious;Second is that model test, model assay systems obtain in recent years Very fast development, but technology is also immature at present, such as: existing model test apparatus only considered single factors or a small amount of several Factor, it is difficult to the multifactor frozen construction overall process under complex working condition in simulation scene.
Summary of the invention
In view of the problems of the existing technology, the technical problem to be solved by the invention is to provide one kind for freezing to apply The simulation test case of work, it can simulate under the factors coupling such as confining pressure, seepage flow, excavation disturbance construction freezing method overall process over the ground The influence of layer is implemented to stratum temperature field, displacement field, moisture field and soil water pressure field real-time measurement.
In order to solve the above technical problem, the present invention provides a kind of simulation test casees for frozen construction, including grid Frame, baffle and reaction frame, grid framework connect composition hexahedron frame by high-strength bolt, and hexahedron frame inner wall has embedded Six block baffles;The perforation of pipeline is reserved in an at least block baffle;Reaction frame is quadrangle box, two adjacent edges of reaction frame inside casing It is equipped with counter-force thick stick equipped with jack, another side, jack passes through baffle with counter-force thick stick and connects pressure plare, the 4th side of reaction frame Push against a face of hexahedron frame;Cabinets cavity arrangement is placed with freezing pipe, and is embedded with seepage flow water pipe, seepage flow water outlet mouth Baffle is equipped with loaded filter.
External force provides the pressure of both direction by reaction frame for simulation test case, and seepage apparatus is that sample applies seepage flow , cold energy is inserted into sample by freezing pipe, is applied temperature field to sample, is freezed sample.Test sensor is embedded in sample In, real-time testing specimen temperature field, moisture field, displacement field and soil water pressure field changing rule.
The solution have the advantages that: it, can quantitative assessment under the effect of the various factors couplings such as load, seepage flow, excavation disturbance Influence of the construction freezing method overall process to stratum temperature field, displacement field, moisture field and soil water pressure field, solves existing freeze Method model test only considers single factors or a small amount of several factors, it is difficult to frozen construction under the live multifactor and complex working condition of simulation The problem of overall process is to formation influence.
The present invention considers that construction site various factors coupling acts on lower influence of the construction freezing method overall process to stratum, both can be with Applied to mine vertical shaft, inclined shaft freezing method construction simulation (reaction frame is horizontal positioned), and gallery, mountain tunnel and city can be simulated City's subway construction freezing method (reaction frame is placed vertically), under the effect of quantitative assessment various factors coupling (confining pressure, seepage flow, excavation disturbance) Influence of the construction freezing method to stratum temperature field, displacement field, moisture field and soil water pressure field, application prospect are extensive.
Detailed description of the invention
Detailed description of the invention of the invention is as follows:
Fig. 1 is the structural diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the structural schematic diagram of reaction frame;
Fig. 3 is the cut away view of reaction frame;
Fig. 4 is the structure chart of freezing pipe;
Fig. 5 is the structure chart of seepage apparatus;
Fig. 6 is the connection figure for freezing liquid circulating device and simulation test case.
In figure: 1, grid framework;2, baffle;3, reaction frame;31, jack;32, counter-force thick stick;33, pressure plare;4, freeze Pipe;41, inner tube;42, outer tube;5, seepage apparatus;51, water tank;52, lifter plate, 53, pressure device;7, refrigerating plant;8, it recycles Device;81, freezing liquid circulating pump;82, the first collector tube;83, communication port;84, the second collector tube.
Specific embodiment
Present invention will be further explained below with reference to the attached drawings and examples:
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, the present invention includes grid framework 1, baffle 2 and reaction frame 3, and grid framework 1 is connected by high-strength bolt Composition hexahedron frame is connect, hexahedron frame inner wall has embedded six block baffles 2;The perforation of pipeline is reserved in an at least block baffle 2; Reaction frame 3 is quadrangle box, and two adjacent edges of 3 inside casing of reaction frame are equipped with jack 31, another side is equipped with counter-force thick stick 32, thousand Jin top 31 and counter-force thick stick 32 pass through baffle 2 and connect pressure plare 33, and the 4th side of reaction frame 3 pushes against a face of hexahedron frame; Cabinets cavity arrangement is placed with freezing pipe 4, and is embedded with seepage flow water pipe, and the baffle of seepage flow water outlet mouth is equipped with loaded filter.
Hexahedron frame flexibly disassembles and installs according to actual needs, baffle 2 be tempered glass, due to volume of the present invention compared with Greatly, influence of the digging process to stratum during construction freezing method can be simulated.When progress mine vertical shaft, inclined shaft freezing method construction mould When quasi-, reaction frame is placed horizontally on ground first, then places simulation test case, hydraulic jack is installed, is tried in simulation Pressure plare is installed inside tryoff, finally fills soil according to test requirements document.When carrying out tunnel and city underground freezing process is simulated, anti- Power frame is placed vertically, then places simulation test case, is installed hydraulic jack, pressure plare is installed inside simulation test case, most Soil is filled according to test requirements document afterwards.
Illustrate test process by taking the simulation of city underground freezing process as an example: reaction frame being placed vertically first, then places mould Quasi- chamber installs hydraulic jack, pressure plare is installed inside simulation test case, finally according to test requirements document dress soil (according to Scene practically surveys data and determines the soil layer number of plies and soil layer property), temperature, humidity, position are buried in design position during banketing Shifting and Water And Earth Pressures sensor, sensor lead-out wire external data Acquisition Instrument;Sample applies after loading in design position It is as described below to apply process for seepage field:
By external water pipe to water tank 51 persistently plus water, after water tank is full of, water is from 52 notch of lifter plate outside overflow (lifter plate 52 It can move up and down in the card slot inside water tank wall, to change liquid level in water tank, change water in water outlet of water tank Flow velocity) so that liquid level constant obtains stable head in water tank, seepage flow water pipe, seepage flow water pipe are accessed in 51 water outlet position of water tank Other end is embedded in soil sample design position (base area surveys data and determines water-bearing layer position), thus in simulated formation water seepage flow, Incoming stream meter monitors flow rate of water flow, pervious bed of the water flow inside simulation test case in real time on the pipeline of connection seepage flow water pipe Middle flowing is arranged loaded filter in cabinet water outlet position, prevents seepage flow from causing failure by piping.
Apply pressure to sample according to design requirement, jack passes through computer real-time control;According to construction freezing method scheme It drills in design position and buries freezing pipe, freezing liquid circulating device is opened after freezing pipe is embedded, freezing liquid passes through freezing pipe Specimen temperature is reduced, sample starts actively to freeze;In design position tunneling after the completion of actively freezing, frozen construction, which enters, to disappear Freeze the stage in pole;The supporting construction lining cutting made of organic glass when excavating, is completed until excavating;In load, seepage flow, excavation It disturbs under various factors coupling effect, data collecting instrument records formation temperature, displacement, moisture and soil in construction freezing method overall process Hydraulic pressure force data.
It as shown in figure 3, reaction frame 3 is the frame with wing plate, including is upper plate I, lower plate V, left plate II, middle plate III, right panel IV, right side wing plate VI and left side wing plate VII clamp left plate II, middle plate III and right panel along crossbeam between upper plate I and lower plate V IV, installation left side wing plate VII on the outside of left plate II, installation right side wing plate VI on the outside of right panel IV.It is calculated by structural mechanics, the counter-force Frame has larger counter-force and generates to be deformed compared with small deflection.
As shown in figure 4, freezing pipe 4 is mainly composed of inner tube 41 and outer tube 42, freezing liquid is flowed into from inner spout, inner tube Base opening is excessive to enter outer tube slot, flows out from outer tube draining hole.
As shown in figure 5, seepage apparatus 5 is mainly made of water tank 51, lifter plate 52 and pressure device 53, lifter plate 52 is in water tank It being moved up and down in the card slot of pars intramuralis, lifter plate 52 is fixed by pressure device 53, water is persistently added to water tank 51 by external water pipe, After water tank is full of, water from the outside overflow of 52 notch of lifter plate (lifter plate 52 can move up and down in the card slot inside water tank wall, To change liquid level in water tank, change the flow velocity of water in water outlet of water tank) so that liquid level constant obtains stable water in water tank Head accesses seepage flow water pipe in 51 water outlet position of water tank, and seepage flow water pipe other end is embedded in soil sample design position, and (money is surveyed in base area Expect determine water-bearing layer position), thus in simulated formation water seepage flow, connection seepage flow water pipe pipeline on incoming stream meter it is real-time Flow rate of water flow is monitored, water flow flows in the pervious bed inside simulation test case, and loaded filter is arranged in cabinet water outlet position, prevents Only seepage flow causes failure by piping.
As shown in fig. 6, freezing liquid circulating device includes refrigerating plant 7 and circulator 8, refrigerating plant is controlled by temperature Device, compressor, condenser, filter, evaporator and cooling tower composition, refrigerating plant cool down in evaporator to freezing liquid; Circulator 8 includes that freezing liquid circulating pump 81, the first collector tube 82, freezing pipe 4 and the second collector tube 84 composition, freezing liquid are selected Salt water.Enter the first collection collector tube 82, collector tube from the outlet of the freezing liquid of refrigerating plant 7 under the action of freezing liquid circulating pump 81 Communication port 83 is laid by array along cylinder face, communication port 83 connects 4 inner spout of freezing pipe by the road, and freezing pipe 4 is laid in simulation In chamber, freezing liquid and stratum occur heat exchange and reduce formation temperature, and after absorbing Formation heat, freezing liquid is outside freezing pipe 4 Tube Drain mouth flows into next stage pipeline, and the communication port through the second collector tube 84 is collected, and passes back into refrigerating plant 7, and freezing liquid is completed Circulation.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of simulation test case for construction freezing method, it is characterized in that: including grid framework (1), baffle (2) and reaction frame (3), grid framework (1) connects composition hexahedron frame by high-strength bolt, and hexahedron frame inner wall has embedded six block baffles (2);The perforation of pipeline is reserved in an at least block baffle (2);Reaction frame (3) is quadrangle box, the two-phase of reaction frame (3) inside casing Adjacent side is equipped with counter-force thick stick (32), jack (31) and counter-force thick stick (32) equipped with jack (31), another side and connects across baffle (2) It connects pressure plare (33), the 4th side of reaction frame (3) pushes against a face of hexahedron frame;Cabinets cavity arrangement is placed with freezing pipe (4), and it is embedded with seepage flow water pipe, the baffle of seepage flow water outlet mouth is equipped with loaded filter.
2. the simulation test case according to claim 1 for construction freezing method, it is characterized in that: reaction frame (3) is winged The frame of plate, including be upper plate I, lower plate V, left plate II, middle plate III, right panel IV, right side wing plate VI and left side wing plate VII, upper Between plate I and lower plate V, left plate II, middle plate III and right panel IV are clamped along crossbeam, installation left side wing plate VII, right panel on the outside of left plate II IV outside installation right side wing plate VI.
3. the simulation test case according to claim 1 or 2 for construction freezing method, it is characterized in that: the freezing pipe (4) Mainly it is composed of inner tube (41) and outer tube (42), freezing liquid is flowed into from inner spout, and inner tube base opening is excessive to enter outer tube slot, It is flowed out from outer tube draining hole.
4. the simulation test case according to claim 3 for construction freezing method, it is characterized in that: the freezing pipe (4) is even Connect circulator (8), the circulator (8) include freezing liquid circulating pump (81), the first collector tube (82), freezing pipe (4) and Second collector tube (84), freezing liquid circulating pump (81) export from the freezing liquid of refrigerating plant (7) and send freezing liquid to the first liquid collecting It manages (82), collector tube lays communication port (83) by array along cylinder face, and communication port (83) connects freezing pipe (4) inner tube by the road Mouthful, freezing liquid flows into next stage pipeline from freezing pipe (4) outer tube draining hole, and the communication port through the second collector tube (84) is collected, and returns It flows into refrigerating plant (7).
5. the simulation test case according to claim 4 for construction freezing method, it is characterized in that: the seepage flow water pipe connects Seepage apparatus (5), seepage apparatus (5) are mainly made of water tank (51), lifter plate (52) and pressure device (53), and lifter plate (52) exists It is moved up and down in card slot inside water tank wall, lifter plate (52) is fixed by pressure device (53), and seepage flow water pipe is accessed in water tank (51) water outlet.
6. the simulation test case according to claim 5 for construction freezing method, it is characterized in that: in connection seepage flow water pipe Flowmeter is connected on pipeline.
CN201811500587.7A 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 Simulation test box for freezing construction Active CN109557128B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201811500587.7A CN109557128B (en) 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 Simulation test box for freezing construction

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201811500587.7A CN109557128B (en) 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 Simulation test box for freezing construction

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN109557128A true CN109557128A (en) 2019-04-02
CN109557128B CN109557128B (en) 2021-06-29

Family

ID=65869352

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201811500587.7A Active CN109557128B (en) 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 Simulation test box for freezing construction

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN109557128B (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110031508A (en) * 2019-05-28 2019-07-19 安徽理工大学 A kind of vertical hydrothermal reaction coupling model test apparatus and test method

Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP3740620B2 (en) * 1996-12-20 2006-02-01 大成建設株式会社 Shield machine
CN101551373A (en) * 2009-05-25 2009-10-07 黑龙江省水利科学研究院 Frozen soil mechanics model test device
CN103915030A (en) * 2014-04-24 2014-07-09 湖南大学 Underground engineering tunneling model test device with expanding and contracting function
CN104297052A (en) * 2014-09-25 2015-01-21 浙江科技学院 Tunnel excavation three-dimensional model experiment loading device
KR101655220B1 (en) * 2016-03-07 2016-09-07 우경기술주식회사 Construction method of pressing tunnel structure for non-cutting natural ground and tunnel structure constructed by this
CN106124234A (en) * 2015-09-10 2016-11-16 安徽理工大学 A kind of coal petrography tunnel simulated experiment platform possessing adjustable inclination angle
CN107101924A (en) * 2017-03-08 2017-08-29 安徽理工大学 Experimental rig and method that monitoring seepage flow influences on frozen temperature field
CN107807051A (en) * 2017-11-23 2018-03-16 中南大学 Simulate the experimental rig and test method of Blasting Excavation off-load under three-dimensional loading environment
CN108387334A (en) * 2018-02-09 2018-08-10 西安科技大学 A kind of inclined shaft freezing construction borehole wall mechanical characteristic monitoring device
CN209690208U (en) * 2018-12-25 2019-11-26 武汉市市政建设集团有限公司 Rich water thin silt construction freezing method effect simulation system

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP3740620B2 (en) * 1996-12-20 2006-02-01 大成建設株式会社 Shield machine
CN101551373A (en) * 2009-05-25 2009-10-07 黑龙江省水利科学研究院 Frozen soil mechanics model test device
CN103915030A (en) * 2014-04-24 2014-07-09 湖南大学 Underground engineering tunneling model test device with expanding and contracting function
CN104297052A (en) * 2014-09-25 2015-01-21 浙江科技学院 Tunnel excavation three-dimensional model experiment loading device
CN106124234A (en) * 2015-09-10 2016-11-16 安徽理工大学 A kind of coal petrography tunnel simulated experiment platform possessing adjustable inclination angle
KR101655220B1 (en) * 2016-03-07 2016-09-07 우경기술주식회사 Construction method of pressing tunnel structure for non-cutting natural ground and tunnel structure constructed by this
CN107101924A (en) * 2017-03-08 2017-08-29 安徽理工大学 Experimental rig and method that monitoring seepage flow influences on frozen temperature field
CN107807051A (en) * 2017-11-23 2018-03-16 中南大学 Simulate the experimental rig and test method of Blasting Excavation off-load under three-dimensional loading environment
CN108387334A (en) * 2018-02-09 2018-08-10 西安科技大学 A kind of inclined shaft freezing construction borehole wall mechanical characteristic monitoring device
CN209690208U (en) * 2018-12-25 2019-11-26 武汉市市政建设集团有限公司 Rich water thin silt construction freezing method effect simulation system

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110031508A (en) * 2019-05-28 2019-07-19 安徽理工大学 A kind of vertical hydrothermal reaction coupling model test apparatus and test method
CN110031508B (en) * 2019-05-28 2021-08-20 安徽理工大学 Vertical type hydrothermal coupling model test device and test method

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CN109557128B (en) 2021-06-29

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN104597222A (en) Large frozen soil model test system with moisturizing function and frost heaving test function
CN109239123A (en) Large-scale freezing test model casing and analogue test platform
Yuan et al. Numerical simulation of dewatering thick unconsolidated aquifers for safety of underground coal mining
CN109209396A (en) A kind of shield tunnel end joint reinforcement structure and construction method
CN102864793A (en) Test device for simulating permafrost region well heat insulation or heating
CN107101924A (en) Experimental rig and method that monitoring seepage flow influences on frozen temperature field
CN108196019A (en) A kind of three-dimensional injection-recovery apparatus for testing underground water seal pit hole library reinjected water water quality index
CN109557128A (en) A kind of simulation test case for frozen construction
CN109344547A (en) Freezing process design methods and device under a kind of seepage effect of combination stratum
Wang et al. Investigation of the geological and hydrogeological environment with relation to metro system construction in Jinan, China
CN105352989A (en) Geo-technical frozen soil frost heave experiment machine
CN209539356U (en) The simulation system that subway station bottom frozen construction influences station structure
CN209606283U (en) It is a kind of for measuring the automatic test device of soil layer infiltration coefficient
CN106706697A (en) Model test device for simulating pre-cooling freezing method construction under flowing effect of underground water
CN105927271A (en) Grouting backfilling system and grouting backfilling method for vertical shafts in vertical heat exchangers
CN104457028B (en) Without the ground buried pipe of ground source heat pump heat exchanger of backfill
CN110284530A (en) In conjunction with the Multifunctional assembled model test case apparatus and application in foundation pit and tunnel
CN110031508A (en) A kind of vertical hydrothermal reaction coupling model test apparatus and test method
CN109975177A (en) A kind of simulation test device and method of horizontal grouting mouth slip casting spreading morphology
CN202177708U (en) Hillside point rainfall runoff measuring instrument
CN205876388U (en) Grout system of backfilling of shaft in vertical heat exchanger
CN108612546A (en) Horizontal grouting construction method under a kind of enclosed environment
CN113030277A (en) System and method for testing permeability damage and grouting injectability of surrounding rock of water-rich sand layer tunnel
CN202057620U (en) Comprehensive miniature test-bed for ground heat exchanger
CN209690208U (en) Rich water thin silt construction freezing method effect simulation system

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
PB01 Publication
PB01 Publication
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
GR01 Patent grant
GR01 Patent grant