CN109551612A - 一种耐火匣钵的等静压成形方法及模具 - Google Patents

一种耐火匣钵的等静压成形方法及模具 Download PDF

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CN109551612A
CN109551612A CN201710933573.3A CN201710933573A CN109551612A CN 109551612 A CN109551612 A CN 109551612A CN 201710933573 A CN201710933573 A CN 201710933573A CN 109551612 A CN109551612 A CN 109551612A
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刘光海
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Enping City Vaughn Machinery Manufacturing Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28BSHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS; SHAPING SLAG; SHAPING MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER
    • B28B3/00Producing shaped articles from the material by using presses; Presses specially adapted therefor
    • B28B3/003Pressing by means acting upon the material via flexible mould wall parts, e.g. by means of inflatable cores, isostatic presses
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28BSHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS; SHAPING SLAG; SHAPING MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER
    • B28B7/00Moulds; Cores; Mandrels
    • B28B7/0097Press moulds; Press-mould and press-ram assemblies
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28BSHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS; SHAPING SLAG; SHAPING MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER
    • B28B7/00Moulds; Cores; Mandrels
    • B28B7/28Cores; Mandrels
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/01Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on oxide ceramics
    • C04B35/10Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on oxide ceramics based on aluminium oxide
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/01Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on oxide ceramics
    • C04B35/16Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on oxide ceramics based on silicates other than clay
    • C04B35/18Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on oxide ceramics based on silicates other than clay rich in aluminium oxide
    • C04B35/185Mullite 3Al2O3-2SiO2
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/01Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on oxide ceramics
    • C04B35/16Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on oxide ceramics based on silicates other than clay
    • C04B35/18Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products based on oxide ceramics based on silicates other than clay rich in aluminium oxide
    • C04B35/195Alkaline earth aluminosilicates, e.g. cordierite or anorthite
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/66Monolithic refractories or refractory mortars, including those whether or not containing clay

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  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Ceramic Engineering (AREA)
  • Manufacturing & Machinery (AREA)
  • Materials Engineering (AREA)
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Abstract

一种耐火匣钵的等静压成形方法及模具,将混合好的耐火材料粉料填入等静压耐火匣钵模具内,等静压耐火匣钵模具的模芯为金属硬模,其形状和尺寸跟等静压耐火匣钵坯体内表面的形状和尺寸一致;等静压耐火匣钵模具的外模为橡胶或聚氨酯软模,外模和模芯之间留有填充耐火材料粉料的型腔,型腔空间尺寸根据耐火材料粉料的压缩比放尺。在模芯和外模上部是橡胶或聚氨酯盖模,将所需重量的耐火材料粉料加入型腔后,刮平粉料,盖上盖模,放在干袋等静压机工作台,送进等压室进行加压、保压、卸压后,取出模具,开模即可取出成形好的等静压耐火匣钵坯体。

Description

一种耐火匣钵的等静压成形方法及模具
所属技术领域
本发明涉及一种生产耐火匣钵的等静压成形方法及模具,尤其适用于生产高致密的堇青石、莫来石、堇青石-莫来石、刚玉、刚玉-莫来石耐火匣钵,该耐火匣钵可广泛用于各种物料的高温煅烧,尤其是锂电池材料等对匣钵要求较高的场合。
背景技术
目前,公知的耐火匣钵的生产方法是采用注浆成形法,摩擦压力机金属模压成形法,螺杆压力机金属模压成形法,液压机金属模压成形法。采用注浆成形法适用粒径较小耐火材料原料的生产工艺,其水份比例高,干燥、烧成收缩大,容易产生变形、开裂及气孔,致最终产品合格率低,浪费资源。
现用摩擦压力机金属模压成形法或螺杆压力机金属模压成形法生产的耐火匣钵,靠冲击力虽然可以做出致密度较高的耐火匣钵,但由于受力特点和多次加料的原因,造成底部密度高,边框密度低且容易分层,影响匣钵的使用寿命。用液压机金属模压成形的耐火匣钵,虽然可以做到一次填料,密度也比较均匀,但仍然由于粉料与模具间的摩擦力造成的压力梯度,边框密度也不均匀。不管是哪种金属模具的机压成形,都存在模具磨损大(易磨损),模具制造复杂,需要大吨位的压力机,特别是大吨位的摩擦压力机安装基础复杂,成本高。用压力机金属模压生产出来的耐火匣钵致密度不够,密度不均匀,煅烧如锂电池材料等有浸蚀性的物料时易腐蚀匣钵,造成匣钵寿命低。
发明内容
为了克服现有成形方法的不足,提高产品质量和降低生产成本,本发明提供一种干袋等静压成形耐火匣钵的方法。该方法生产的耐火匣钵与现有各种方法成形的耐火匣钵比较,成形的坯体密度高,密度和尺寸均匀性好,坯体水份含量低不变形,生产成本低,易于实现自动化生产,可满足高质量大批量生产的要求。
本发明所采用的技术解决方案是:利用干袋等静压机,将混合好的耐火材料粉料填入匣钵等静压模具的型腔内,匣钵等静压模具的模芯为金属硬模,其形状和尺寸与匣钵烧成前内表面的形状和尺寸一致;匣钵等静压模具的外模为橡胶或聚氨酯软膜,外模和模芯之间留有填充耐火材料粉料的型腔,型腔空间尺寸根据耐火匣钵坯体厚度和耐火材料粉料的压缩比放尺。在金属模芯和橡胶外模上部是橡胶或聚氨酯做成的盖模,将所需重量的耐火材料粉料加入模具型腔后,刮平上部粉料,盖上盖模,自动或者手动放在干袋等静机的工作台上,压机自动将装有粉料的等静压匣钵模具升入等压室进行等静压,经加压,保压、卸压后,取出整套模具,拿开胶模,即可取出成形好的耐火匣钵坯体。
本发明的效果是,可将混好的耐火材料干粉直接经过超高压的等静压成形出带高边框、有缺口或者无缺口的耐火匣钵。由于是利用干粉直接等静压成形,使得内部密度均匀一致,坯体密度和强度高,坯体不变形。水份含量低(可小于1%),烧成收缩小,产品变形小,不分层,烧成不易产生气孔。模具不易损耗,模具费用低,产品合格率大大提高。
用这种方法成形出来的耐火坯体,经简单清理即可直接进窑炉烧成,得到高品质的等静压耐火匣钵,可大量用于各种高低边框、有缺口和无缺口耐火匣钵的生产。
附图说明
下面结合附图和实施例对本发明进一步说明。
图1是本发明干袋等静压成形耐火匣钵示意图。
图2是本发明等静压成形耐火匣钵模具示意图。
图中1.等静压容器,2.等静压工作介质,3.等静压隔离胶胆,4.橡胶或聚氨酯盖模,5.橡胶或聚氨酯外模,6.耐火材料粉料,7.金属模芯,8.干袋等静压机工作台,9.盖模与外模定位台阶,10,外模与盖模定位台阶,11.金属模芯与外模定位台阶,12.外模定位缺口,13.金属模芯上的外模定位销,14.金属模芯夹持位,15.金属模芯底部定位台阶,16外部增压器。
具体实施方案
如图2中所示的等静压成形耐火匣钵模具,是一种带高边框的无缺口耐火匣钵模具,它是将橡胶或聚氨酯外模5紧套在金属模芯7的定位台阶11处,外模5上的2至4个定位缺口12对准金属模芯上的2至4个外模定位销13,金属模芯7的外部加工有圆弧夹持位14以实现机械手夹持而不会损伤等压室隔离胶胆3,金属模芯7的下部设有圆锥形定位台阶15,以便准确放在干袋等静压机工作台上自动对中找正。拿开橡胶或聚氨酯底模4,从外模上边的敞口将造粒好的耐火材料粉料6加到橡胶或聚氨酯外模5与金属模芯7之间的间隙即型腔中,并将上部的耐火材料粉料6刮平,再将橡胶或聚氨酯盖模4盖在外模5的上部,橡胶或聚氨酯盖模4的下部有内锥形定位台阶9与外模5上部的外锥形定位台阶10定位,锥度利于排气,盖平即完成填料。填好料的等静压耐火匣钵成形模具,既可在干袋等静压机中压制成形,也可密封后在传统的湿袋等静压机压制成形。
金属模芯7与耐火材料粉料6接触的表面,根据耐火匣钵设计要求,可以是圆形,也可以是正方形的或者长方形的。当做成边缘有缺口的耐火匣钵时,金属模芯7的外表面有相应的凸台,并保证橡胶或聚氨酯外模5及橡胶或聚氨酯盖模4的内表面与金属模芯7的外表面填料部分形成的型腔间隙一致,才能使模具填料均匀,压出来的坯体厚度才一致。
如图1中所示,将完成填料的耐火匣钵等静压成形模具即4、5、6、7的组合体整体平移放到于袋等静压机工作台8上,并配合模芯定位台阶15定位。干袋等静压机工作台8连同等静压成形模具整体上升伸入干袋等静压机的等静压室,等静压室周围及顶部是等静压隔离胶胆3,等静压隔离胶胆3由橡胶或聚氨酯做成,等静压隔离胶胆的外面是等静压加压介质2,加压介质2可以是液压油或者防锈水。加压介质2在等静压容器1和外部增压器16的高压缸中,由外部增压器16不断向等静压1容器中注入加压介质2,根据帕斯卡定律,通过外部增压器16给加压介质2加压,其压强将大小不变地向各个方向传递,这些加压介质2把压强作用在等静压隔离胶胆3上,等静压隔离胶胆3将把加压介质2的压强传递到其里面的橡胶或聚氨酯盖模4及橡胶或聚氨酯外模5上,同样由于橡胶或聚氨酯在压力作用下近似于流体,橡胶或聚氨酯盖模4及橡胶或聚氨酯外模5就把加在加压介质2上的压强传递到耐火材料粉料6的表面,使耐火材料粉料6受到均匀的压强而被压缩在金属模芯7的外表面,金属模芯7的外表面和所需压制的耐火匣钵坯体的内表面、缺口尺寸和形状一致,金属模芯7与耐火材料粉料6接触的表面须进行表面硬化和抛光处理,以便脱模和内表面的质量。
在对完成填料的耐火匣钵等静压成形模具即4、5、6、7的组合体加压到160MPa-300MPa或者更高、然后保压、卸压结束后,干袋等静压机工作台8下降,开缸取出经等静压压过的模具组合体,拿开橡胶或聚氨酯盖模4及橡胶或聚氨酯外模5,即可看到耐火匣钵坯体罩在金属模芯7的外表面,将其取下即是压好的耐火匣钵坯体,再经外表面修坯、烧成即得到所需的等静压耐火匣钵。
完成填料的耐火匣钵等静压成形模具即4、5、6、7的组合体经密封处理后也可整体单个或多个放入传统意义上的湿法冷等静压机的工作缸中进行压制。

Claims (6)

1.一种耐火匣钵的等静压成形方法及模具,是将经混料后的耐火材料干粉,装入等静压耐火匣钵模具中,再将装料后的等静压耐火匣钵模具组合体整体放在干袋等静压机的工作台上,工作台连同装料后的等静压耐火匣钵模具组合体整体升入等压室中加压、保压、卸压后取出,脱开模具而得到耐火匣钵坯体,其特征在于:该耐火匣钵是用耐火材料干粉经干袋等静压一次压制成形。
2.根据权利要求1所述的耐火匣钵的等静压成形方法及模具,其特征是:该干袋等静压成形方法的压制压力在160MPa-300MPa甚至更高。
3.根据权利要求1所述的耐火匣钵的等静压成形方法及模具,其特征在于:金属模芯7的外表面形状可以是边框有缺口,也可以是无缺口。
4.根据权利要求1所述的耐火匣钵的等静压成形方法及模具,其特征在于:金属模芯7的外表面形状和尺寸与所需成形的耐火匣钵坯体的内表面、缺口形状和尺寸一致。
5.根据权利要求1所述的耐火匣钵的等静压成形方法及模具,其特征在于:外模5由橡胶或聚氨酯材料制成。
6.根据权利要求1所述的耐火匣钵的等静压成形方法及模具,其特征在于:底模4由橡胶或聚氨酯材料制成。
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