CN109541392A - A kind of one-end fault ranging method suitable for flexible HVDC transmission system - Google Patents

A kind of one-end fault ranging method suitable for flexible HVDC transmission system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109541392A
CN109541392A CN201811197790.1A CN201811197790A CN109541392A CN 109541392 A CN109541392 A CN 109541392A CN 201811197790 A CN201811197790 A CN 201811197790A CN 109541392 A CN109541392 A CN 109541392A
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fault
voltage
distance
transmission system
current
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CN109541392B (en
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薛士敏
刘存甲
陆俊弛
刘冲
范勃旸
赵杨竹雨
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Tianjin University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/08Locating faults in cables, transmission lines, or networks
    • G01R31/081Locating faults in cables, transmission lines, or networks according to type of conductors
    • G01R31/085Locating faults in cables, transmission lines, or networks according to type of conductors in power transmission or distribution lines, e.g. overhead
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/08Locating faults in cables, transmission lines, or networks
    • G01R31/088Aspects of digital computing

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of one-end fault ranging methods suitable for flexible HVDC transmission system, comprising: transmission system detects that both-end inverter quick lock, side breaker preferentially trips after the failure occurred when monopolar grounding fault occurs;Fault transient process is waited to terminate, fault localization is carried out in stationary acquisition data: defining virtual circuit impedance, comprehensively utilize the direct current and 3k order harmonic components in voltage and current, their be distributed along the line is calculated under frequency domain, the data group that voltage, electric current of each distance under different moments are constituted along one group is then obtained under time domain, virtual circuit impedance is sought, according to virtual circuit impedance only in the feature of fault point fluctuation minimum, establishes fault localization function using variance thought;By carrying out numerical value comparison to all distance measurement results, taking its reckling is final fault distance;Fault distance is calculated, other side circuit breaker trip realizes fault clearance.

Description

A kind of one-end fault ranging method suitable for flexible HVDC transmission system
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of relay protection in power, and in particular to a kind of fault localization of flexible HVDC transmission system Method.
Background technique
Flexible DC transmission technology due to its flexible control, power quality and in terms of outstanding advantage, It is more conducive to west area new energy scale exploitation and sends outside at a distance.Overhead transmission line transmission of electricity has become flexible DC transmission The main direction of development of technology, but be limited to instantaneity DC Line Fault and take place frequently equal engineering problems.Accurately and reliably fault localization is The key technology for supporting the transregional conveying of new energy, after MMC-HVDC DC power transmission line breaks down, quick fault point And failure is removed, it is of great significance for the economy and reliability of the operation of raising system
Currently, it is relatively fewer for the research of MMC-HVDC transmission system fault localization both at home and abroad, Traditional DC can be used for reference The distance measuring method of transmission system and VSC-HVDC transmission system.The fault distance-finding method of DC transmission system is broadly divided into traveling wave method With two class of fault analytical method.D.C. high voltage transmission mostly uses greatly traveling wave method to carry out fault localization, but such methods pair in engineering The sample frequency of equipment requires to be up to 1MHz, and there are the wavefront identification more technical problems such as difficulty, anti-interference difference, surveys Away from precision susceptible.For non-Method of Traveling Wave Fault Ranging in addition to using R-L model individually, remaining is all made of Bei Ruilong distribution parameter Model does not account for the frequency dependent characteristic of route, therefore only just has when line characteristic impedance is much smaller than wave impedance more high-precision Degree, and there are line parameter circuit values to fix, the low defects such as cause range accuracy low of sample rate.
In the long line DC transmission system of high pressure, the accuracy of circuit model directly affects the precision of fault distance-finding method, And line parameter circuit value is often what frequency became in practical projects, so in the simulated environment using frequency variable parameter model, above-mentioned side There is biggish error in method.It is therefore proposed that being suitable for the fault localization principle right and wrong of frequency variable parameter model often with there is engineering The urgent need that practical significance is flexible HVDC transmission system development and is promoted.
Summary of the invention
The invention is directed to both-end flexible HVDC transmission system, designs a kind of one-end fault ranging method, compares traditional list Fault distance-finding method is held, this method is based on frequency variable parameter model, sample frequency can be effectively reduced and improve range accuracy.This hair The bright accuracy that can guarantee ranging when monopolar grounding fault occurs for system different location should compared to other distance measuring methods Distance measuring method remains to action message under low sample frequency, great transition resistance scene.Technical scheme is as follows:
A kind of one-end fault ranging method suitable for flexible HVDC transmission system, includes the following steps:
(1) when transmission system detects generation monopolar grounding fault, both-end inverter quick lock, side breaker is in event Barrier preferentially trips after occurring;
(2) it waits fault transient process to terminate, carries out fault localization in stationary acquisition data: defining virtual circuit impedance Z:
In formula: Udc(x, t) and Idc(x, t) is that the electricity of the false voltage under different moments is in apart from DC power supply side bus x The DC component of stream, u3(x, t) and i3(x, t) is 3 order harmonic components being under different moments apart from DC power supply side bus x False voltage and fault current, u3k(x,t)、i3k(x, t) is respectively to be under different moments apart from DC power supply side bus x 3k order harmonic components false voltage and fault current, wherein k=1,2,3 ...;
The direct current and 3k order harmonic components in voltage and current are comprehensively utilized, their be distributed along the line is calculated under frequency domain, The data group that voltage, electric current of each distance under different moments are constituted along one group is then obtained under time domain, seeks dummy line Roadlock is anti-, according to virtual circuit impedance only in the feature of fault point fluctuation minimum, establishes fault localization letter using variance thought Number:
In formula: Zi(x) the virtual impedance value that certain is put on the route measured for i-th,It is obtained for certain point on route Virtual circuit decision value;
By carrying out numerical value comparison to all distance measurement results, taking its reckling is final fault distance;
(3) fault distance is calculated, other side circuit breaker trip realizes fault clearance.
The present invention has the advantage that compared with the prior art
1, it compares based on Two-Terminal Electrical Quantities fault distance-finding method, there is no data synchronization, cost of investment height etc. to ask for this method Topic is of great significance for the economy and reliability of the operation of raising system.
2, travelling wave ranging and the distance measuring method based on Bergeron model are compared, requirement of this method to sample frequency is lower, It is not influenced by transition resistance and distribution capacity in principle, range accuracy is high under frequency variable element environment.This method is not only applicable in In the point-to-point type flexible HVDC transmission system of the transregional conveying of extensive new energy, for small-scale flexible direct current power grid, acyclic Single outlet station of shape network etc. also has applicability.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is both-end flexible HVDC transmission system;
Fig. 2 is fault localization action policy timing diagram;
Fig. 3 is single-end electrical quantity fault localization calculation process.
Specific embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail with example with reference to the accompanying drawing.
Fig. 1 show a typical both-end flexible HVDC transmission system, compared to intereelectrode short-circuit failure, monopole ground connection event Barrier incidence is higher but harm is smaller, therefore the present invention only considers monopolar grounding fault.
Fig. 2 is fault localization action policy timing diagram.Specific protection scheme is as follows:
1. when monopolar grounding fault occurs for system, 3ms or so completes fault detection.
2. the time delay of consideration movement, 1ms or so both-end inverter are reliably latched, electric discharge and the energy of submodule capacitor are avoided Amount loss.
3. side breaker preferentially trips in 3~5ms of fault detection or so, other side delay tripping (is exchanged according to two sides The relatively strong and weak selection of power grid, the present invention is by taking inverter side breaker preferentially trips as an example).
4. fault transient process is waited to terminate, fault localization is carried out in stationary acquisition 4ms data window.Utilize DC line event The direct current and 3k order harmonic components in voltage and current after barrier carries out fault localization.
When metallic short circuit occurs for power transmission line, fault point voltageIt can must calculate a little away from the voltage at rectification side xAnd electric currentAre as follows:
In formula:For the phasor form of line fault point voltage, electric current.WithRespectively route Characteristic impedance and propagation constant, x'=l-x.
Calculating point can then be acquired to the equivalent input impedance between fault point are as follows:
It enables
Then above formula can abbreviation are as follows:
Above formula be sampled point is acquired under a certain frequency to the equivalent input impedance between fault point, but by transmission line of electricity frequency Becoming characteristic influences, and equivalent input impedance also can be different under different frequency, and expression formula should be away from rectification side distance x's and frequency f Binary function, it may be assumed that
Zeq(x, f)=Req(x,f)+jωLeq(x,f) (5)
The void that the present invention constructs the ratio of the sum of the DC component along line voltage, electric current and all 3k order harmonic components Quasi- line impedance is analyzed.Define virtual circuit impedance:
In formula: UdcAnd IdcFor the DC component of false voltage electric current, u3k(x,t)、i3k(x, t) is respectively 3k subharmonic The corresponding false voltage of component and fault current, k=1,2,3 ....
Since the dc circuit breaker of inverter side converter station preferentially acts, the fault current of transmission line of electricity is only mentioned by rectification side For there is no opposite ends to help increasing problem.Using formula (5) can virtual circuit impedance abbreviation indicate are as follows:
Wherein:
DC current I for any position along the line, in formula (8)dc(x, t), line equivalent resistance Req(x, 0) and Req (x, 3k), line equivalent inductance Leq(x, 3k) is definite value, only because of harmonic current i3kThe presence of (x, t) causes K (x, t) One variable.And if only if x=xFWhen, i.e., when being overlapped along line voltage, electric current calculating point with fault point, route shown in formula (5) Equivalent input impedance Zeq(x, 0)=Zeq(x, 3k)=0, therefore have K (x, t)=0, at this time virtual circuit impedance Zeq(x, t)=RF It is constant.And work as x ≠ xFWhen, Z (x, t) due to variable K (x, t) presence and change over time, virtual circuit impedance only exists Fault point is constant.
According to above-mentioned analysis, virtual circuit impedance is only that constant constant therefore can be according to dummy line roadlock in fault point It is anti-only to carry out fault localization in the minimum feature of fault point fluctuation.Fault localization function is established using variance thought:
In formula: Zi(x) the virtual impedance value measured for i-th,For line The virtual circuit decision value that certain point obtains on the road.
Fault localization is carried out by following ranging criterion:
f(xF)=min [f (x)] (10)
Electromagnetic induction existing for the positive and negative interpolar of DC power transmission line will affect standard when voltage and current distribution along calculating True property.For this purpose, the anode and cathode electrical quantity that measure at rectification side line outlet are decoupled first, under 1 mould and 0 modulus It is respectively calculated.Under the respective modulus of two kinds of components, using 1 mould corresponding with frequency and 0 modulus line parameter circuit value, obtain Under modulus along line voltage, current distribution:
In formula:WithFor single-end electrical quantity at DC side failure polar curve way outlet under corresponding frequencies.
Theoretically, the virtual circuit impedance only feature constant in fault point, for failure pole along line voltage, electric current DC component is superimposed with any 3k order harmonic components and sets up, it is contemplated that and triple-frequency harmonics is the main ingredient in harmonic component, DC component therein can only be extracted and third-harmonic component carries out failure pole and calculates along line voltage, current distribution, neither influenced Range accuracy, and reduce calculation amount.DC component and harmonic wave in modulus signal are realized using discrete Fourier transform when calculating Effective extraction of component.In the case where known a certain frequency line parameter, the line under optional frequency is obtained using Kathon CG formula Road parameter.
It by phase mould reverse transform matrix, synthesizes the respective mode voltage of two kinds of components to obtain failure pole tension, by mould electric current Synthesis obtains failure electrode current;Failure pole tension, the electric current of two kinds of components that synthesis obtains are passed through into inverse discrete fourier transform It is superimposed after being restored to time domain, obtains any point false voltage and DC component and triple-frequency harmonics in electric current within the scope of total track length The time domain of component is superimposed expression formula;Voltage, electric current of each distance under different moments along one group is obtained under time domain to constitute Data group substitutes into range function and carries out fault localization.
5. about 20ms or so sampling after the failure occurs is completed, other side breaker trips within 10ms later Realize fault clearance, whole process is no more than 30ms.
In conclusion it is as shown in Figure 3 to obtain single-end electrical quantity fault localization flow chart.
Distance measuring method most short mentioned of the invention need to acquire 4ms data window, remaining relies on high-speed dsp and is counted offline It calculates.In principle, more intensive along line voltage, current distribution calculating point step size Δ S, range accuracy is higher, but will affect ranging calculation The calculating speed of method.In the case where the two conflict, it should preferentially guarantee range accuracy, in order to improve calculating speed and not lose essence Degree, it is proposed that Δ S value 1km.Both ends inverter is made of half-bridge submodule, and model of power transmission system uses frequency variable parameter model,
In view of need to only extract direct current and third-harmonic component in single-end electrical quantity, sampled according to Nyquist-Shannon Theorem can determine that sample frequency need to only be greater than 300Hz, therefore distance measuring method of the present invention is lower to sample frequency requirement, is emulating When, comprehensively consider factors, the data sampling frequency such as Reliability of Microprocessor and engineering reality and is taken as 10kHz.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of one-end fault ranging method suitable for flexible HVDC transmission system, includes the following steps:
(1) when transmission system detects generation monopolar grounding fault, both-end inverter quick lock, side breaker is sent out in failure It preferentially trips after life;
(2) it waits fault transient process to terminate, carries out fault localization in stationary acquisition data: defining virtual circuit impedance Z:
In formula: Udc(x, t) and Idc(x, t) is the false voltage electric current being under different moments apart from DC power supply side bus x DC component, u3(x, t) and i3(x, t) is 3 order harmonic components failures being under different moments apart from DC power supply side bus x Voltage and fault current, u3k(x,t)、i3k(x, t) is respectively the 3k being under different moments apart from DC power supply side bus x Order harmonic components false voltage and fault current, wherein k=1,2,3 ...;
The direct current and 3k order harmonic components in voltage and current are comprehensively utilized, their be distributed along the line is calculated under frequency domain, then The data group that voltage, electric current of each distance under different moments are constituted along one group is obtained under time domain, seeks dummy line roadlock It is anti-, according to virtual circuit impedance only in the feature of fault point fluctuation minimum, fault localization function is established using variance thought:
In formula: Zi(x) the virtual impedance value that certain is put on the route measured for i-th,For the dummy line that certain point obtains on route Road decision value;
By carrying out numerical value comparison to all distance measurement results, taking its reckling is final fault distance;
(3) fault distance is calculated, other side circuit breaker trip realizes fault clearance.
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CN111521904A (en) * 2019-11-15 2020-08-11 上海交通大学 Direct-current distribution line double-end fault location method based on current harmonic quantity
CN112083285A (en) * 2020-09-07 2020-12-15 昆明理工大学 Large-scale wind power plant long-distance sending-out line time domain double-end fault distance measurement method
CN112595928A (en) * 2020-12-09 2021-04-02 天津大学 Flexible-direct system ground fault distance measurement method suitable for monopolar ground operation
CN112595929A (en) * 2020-12-09 2021-04-02 天津大学 Monopole grounding fault location method suitable for true bipolar flexible direct system
CN113009275A (en) * 2021-02-22 2021-06-22 天津大学 Double-end fault location method for flexible direct-current access alternating-current hybrid line
CN113138321A (en) * 2021-04-20 2021-07-20 华北电力大学 Single-ended fault location method in flexible direct current transmission system
CN113156259A (en) * 2021-02-22 2021-07-23 天津大学 Flexible direct-current power grid double-end fault location method based on Marti frequency-variable model
CN113433423B (en) * 2019-04-10 2022-06-03 三峡大学 T-shaped line voltage cross correction fault location method
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CN110221172B (en) * 2019-06-17 2020-08-14 海南电网有限责任公司电力科学研究院 Distributed fault diagnosis automation algorithm for power transmission line
CN110221172A (en) * 2019-06-17 2019-09-10 海南电网有限责任公司电力科学研究院 A kind of transmission line of electricity distributed diagnostics automation algorithm
CN110427734A (en) * 2019-09-27 2019-11-08 四川大学 System side harmonic impedance estimation method and system based on variance minimum criteria
CN110427734B (en) * 2019-09-27 2020-01-14 四川大学 System side harmonic impedance estimation method and system based on variance minimum criterion
CN111521904A (en) * 2019-11-15 2020-08-11 上海交通大学 Direct-current distribution line double-end fault location method based on current harmonic quantity
CN111308271A (en) * 2020-03-07 2020-06-19 云南电网有限责任公司 Fault distance measuring method for high-voltage direct-current transmission line
CN111308271B (en) * 2020-03-07 2022-06-17 云南电网有限责任公司 Fault distance measuring method for high-voltage direct-current transmission line
CN112083285A (en) * 2020-09-07 2020-12-15 昆明理工大学 Large-scale wind power plant long-distance sending-out line time domain double-end fault distance measurement method
CN112595928A (en) * 2020-12-09 2021-04-02 天津大学 Flexible-direct system ground fault distance measurement method suitable for monopolar ground operation
CN112595929A (en) * 2020-12-09 2021-04-02 天津大学 Monopole grounding fault location method suitable for true bipolar flexible direct system
CN112595928B (en) * 2020-12-09 2022-07-05 天津大学 Flexible-direct system ground fault distance measurement method suitable for monopolar ground operation
CN112595929B (en) * 2020-12-09 2022-08-02 天津大学 Monopole grounding fault location method suitable for true bipolar flexible direct system
CN113009275A (en) * 2021-02-22 2021-06-22 天津大学 Double-end fault location method for flexible direct-current access alternating-current hybrid line
CN113156259A (en) * 2021-02-22 2021-07-23 天津大学 Flexible direct-current power grid double-end fault location method based on Marti frequency-variable model
CN113138321A (en) * 2021-04-20 2021-07-20 华北电力大学 Single-ended fault location method in flexible direct current transmission system
CN113138321B (en) * 2021-04-20 2022-07-19 华北电力大学 Single-ended fault location method in flexible direct current transmission system

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