CN109541347B - Sensor for electric energy metering - Google Patents

Sensor for electric energy metering Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109541347B
CN109541347B CN201811415900.7A CN201811415900A CN109541347B CN 109541347 B CN109541347 B CN 109541347B CN 201811415900 A CN201811415900 A CN 201811415900A CN 109541347 B CN109541347 B CN 109541347B
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China
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transistor
electrode
energy metering
sensor
equipment
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CN201811415900.7A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN109541347A (en
Inventor
岳振宇
张东辉
丁恒春
张忠宝
岳虎
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国网冀北电力有限公司唐山供电公司
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J1/00Photometry, e.g. photographic exposure meter
    • G01J1/42Photometry, e.g. photographic exposure meter using electric radiation detectors
    • G01J1/44Electric circuits
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J1/00Photometry, e.g. photographic exposure meter
    • G01J1/42Photometry, e.g. photographic exposure meter using electric radiation detectors
    • G01J1/44Electric circuits
    • G01J2001/4446Type of detector
    • G01J2001/446Photodiode

Abstract

The invention relates to a sensor for electric energy metering, and belongs to the field of electric energy metering of visible light spectrums of electric equipment. The technical scheme of the invention is as follows: the pixel circuit comprises N multiplied by N matrix-arranged pixel circuits which are independent from each other, the areas of original photosensitive surfaces of the pixel circuits are the same, wherein N is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2, and the pixel circuits comprise a detection unit, a mirror image unit and a shaping unit which are connected in sequence. The invention has the beneficial effects that: the problems of false alarm and missing report in the prior art are solved, the image data in the spectral image analysis of the power transformation equipment is efficiently utilized, the safe and reliable operation of the power grid equipment is ensured, and the method has higher theoretical and practical significance.

Description

Sensor for electric energy metering

Technical Field

The invention relates to a sensor for electric energy metering, and belongs to the technical field of electric energy metering application of a visible light spectrum of electric equipment.

Background

With the rapid development of economy in China, extra-high voltage, alternating current and direct current mixing, large amount of new energy access and the like become inevitable development trends of power grids. At present, the power grid coverage range of China is very large, the number of various power transformation equipment is huge, for example, the number of transformer substations, wires, towers and the like is greatly increased, and the distribution range is wide and the distance is long. In practical application, the operation parameters of important equipment need to be monitored in real time, the requirement on real-time performance is difficult to meet by adopting manual inspection, and the responsibility, working attitude and mental condition of an inspector seriously influence the detection result; the operation state of many high-voltage equipment is difficult to be converted into electric signals, and diagnosis is easily influenced by strong electromagnetic field interference in the signal conversion and transmission processes; the detection of the equipment by using infrared is still in a simple application level of temperature record, is not associated with the equipment state, and historical data is difficult to store and retrieve; in addition, it is difficult for the human eye to distinguish gradation changes of fine images, and it is difficult to objectively analyze the degree of surface defects of the power transformation apparatus. It is obviously impossible to perform maintenance entirely by manpower, and the requirement for unified management and monitoring of these power transformation devices is also increased.

As a complete power system, a large number of power equipment are involved in each link, the equipment is various in types, complex in operation project, wide in work place distribution and different in working conditions, and great difficulty is brought to maintenance, overhaul and management of the power equipment. More and more power enterprises begin to monitor power equipment by adopting an intelligent online monitoring means, but as the field operation of each service is gradually increased, and different services have multiple rounds of personnel going to the field, the overall arrangement is lacked, the management of field maintenance and repair personnel and maintenance and repair facilities are still lagged behind, the field operation mode is basically ensured by artificial subjective factors such as the working experience and the responsibility of the personnel in a power system, corresponding technical equipment and management means are lacked, and the field operation mode needs to be improved and enhanced. The field operation and the background system can not be synchronized immediately, the problem of information island of the field operation is serious, field personnel can not obtain the comprehensive information of the system, the utilization of system resources is low, and the field service operation lags behind the system debugging. For example, after the asset metering equipment is rotated, various equipment information and parameters need to be brought back by field personnel, and then the field personnel enters a system for debugging to see the quality and effect of field work, so that the occurrence of wrong operation is caused, and huge loss is brought to the safety of power equipment and personnel; data between businesses does not completely form sharing common, multiple business interfaces such as measurement asset rotation, acquisition equipment debugging, marketing and distribution information acquisition and recording exist in the same operation field, different business personnel repeatedly work in the same field, then changed data are respectively updated to a power utilization information acquisition system, a marketing business application system, a marketing and distribution through system and the like according to the process, the information transfer process is slow, process disconnection is easy to occur to form error data, and synchronous updating and sharing of business data are not achieved. Traditional equipment maintenance mode and field operation personnel management mode have following hidden danger:

poor timeliness and low efficiency: for field operation personnel, a traditional manual recording mode is mainly adopted, the specific situation of the power equipment cannot be sent back to the monitoring center in real time, and the problems of poor timeliness and low efficiency exist.

The misoperation is easy to occur: the power grid is huge, the variety of power equipment is various, and the work place is extensive. Many power equipment still adopt traditional bar code to discern, and traditional bar code is easily influenced by time, natural environment and weather condition etc. in case the bar code can't be seen clearly, or reading error appears, under the condition of no relevant warning information, takes place equipment maloperation easily, brings the loss for the normal operating of electric wire netting.

The safety guarantee is poor: because the power equipment state is unclear, whether the power is cut off or not, and how the current situation is, under the condition of no warning information, in case of electric shock or live operation and other conditions, the field operation personnel bring about great hidden dangers to the safety of the power equipment and personnel.

On the basis, the unattended transformer substation is rapidly developed and also provides new requirements for safe operation management of the unattended transformer substation. Therefore, in order to improve the safety of the personnel and equipment of the unattended or unattended transformer substation, the running state and the information hidden danger of the transformer equipment need to be monitored in real time. At present, some transformer substations are provided with video monitoring systems, and the functions of monitoring field equipment, controlling the motion of a remote camera, recording digital videos and the like can be realized. However, only the monitoring function is not provided with the image recognition function, and the automatic recognition and analysis functions of the substation transformation equipment are lacked. Still rely on the personnel on duty to observe and the image of analysis collection to the running state of analysis substation equipment, the system lacks the automatic identification and the analysis function to substation equipment image. The method is fundamentally not mature in research on analysis of transformer substation images with complex backgrounds and a method for judging operation information of transformer equipment, improves image analysis capability practically, and is a problem which needs to be solved urgently. The application of the spectral image analysis and recognition technology can promote the intellectualization and automation of the on-line monitoring system, improve the working efficiency of the transformer substation workers, obtain higher economic benefit and have greater practical value and application prospect.

The invention provides a hyperspectral detection method for a composite insulator, which is disclosed by the patent number 201110419576 of national institute of electrical power science of electric power company, and comprises the following steps: 1) imaging the composite insulator by adopting a hyperspectral imager to obtain a hyperspectral image of the composite insulator; 2) preprocessing a hyperspectral image of the composite insulator, wherein the hyperspectral image comprises geometric correction and radiation correction so as to obtain more accurate spectral information; 3) and (4) processing and analyzing by using a professional analysis platform, determining the running state of the composite insulator, outputting/displaying a judgment result, and analyzing whether the composite insulator needs to be replaced. The hyperspectral detection method for the composite insulator can be used for carrying out non-contact detection on the composite insulator without climbing a tower by workers; the time required by field operation is short, when the hyperspectral imager is used for acquiring data, the information of a plurality of composite insulators can be acquired at the same time, the plurality of composite insulators can be conveniently processed and analyzed at the later stage, the purpose of batch detection is achieved, and the requirement of state detection of the composite insulators in China is met.

The invention discloses a composite insulator detection method based on multiple spectra, which is disclosed by the patent number 201510412958 of Shandong electric power company institute, and comprises the following steps: selecting detection equipment, and performing visible light detection, infrared detection and ultraviolet detection on the same composite insulator by using the detection equipment under the same operation condition to obtain a detection image of the composite insulator; comparing a partial discharge luminous point of the visible light image, a partial hot spot of the infrared image and a corona discharge point of the ultraviolet image; under the same operation condition, comparing visible light images, infrared images and ultraviolet images of different composite insulators of the same base tower on the same line; and establishing a multispectral detection database for each composite insulator, comparing the data according to the detected data in a certain period, and finding out the existing data difference. The invention organically combines three detection means of visible light, infrared and ultraviolet, has complementary advantages, is easy to carry out charged detection on the insulator, can find the defects of the composite insulator in time and is convenient to carry out large-area routing inspection.

The invention of Shanxi electric power company's Power science research institute patent No. 201810119274 introduces a framework of an image acquisition system of power equipment based on a multispectral sensor group, however, the above-mentioned equipment is in a theoretical stage of a method, and no actual hardware entity is given yet. Therefore, it is desirable to find a new hardware solution to overcome the above problems.

Disclosure of Invention

The invention aims to provide a sensor for electric energy measurement, which can effectively utilize image data in spectral image analysis of power transformation equipment, ensure safe and reliable operation of power grid equipment, has higher theoretical and practical significance and effectively solves the problems in the background technology.

The technical scheme of the invention is as follows: a sensor for electric energy metering comprises N multiplied by N matrix-arranged pixel circuits which are independent of each other, wherein the areas of original photosensitive surfaces of the pixel circuits are the same, N is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2, and each pixel circuit comprises a detection unit, a mirror image unit and a shaping unit which are connected in sequence; the detection unit comprises a first diode with the anode grounded, a first capacitor connected with the first diode in parallel, a first transistor, a sixth transistor and a first amplifier, wherein the drain electrode of the sixth transistor is electrically connected to a power supply through the first transistor connected in a resistance mode, and the source electrode of the sixth transistor is electrically connected with the cathode of the first diode and is electrically connected to the grid electrode through the first amplifier in the forward direction; the mirror image unit comprises a second transistor, a third transistor, a seventh transistor and an eighth transistor, wherein the drain electrode of the seventh transistor is connected with the drain electrode and the grid electrode of the second transistor in parallel, the grid electrode of the seventh transistor is connected with the cathode electrode of the first diode in parallel, the source electrode of the seventh transistor is grounded, the third transistor is connected with the eighth transistor connected in a resistance mode, the grid electrode of the third transistor is connected with the drain electrode and the grid electrode of the second transistor in parallel, and the source electrode of the third transistor and the source electrode of the second transistor are connected with the power supply in; the shaping unit comprises inverters of integer multiples of the number of stages 2.

The first transistor, the sixth transistor, the seventh transistor and the eighth transistor are NMOS transistors, and the second transistor and the third transistor are PMOS transistors.

The width of the third transistor is 6-18 times the width of the second transistor.

The number of the detection units is more than two, and the number of the mirror image units is matched with the number of the detection units.

The shaping unit comprises an inverter with the stage number of 2, and comprises a fourth transistor, a fifth transistor, a ninth transistor and a tenth transistor; the sources of the fourth transistor and the fifth transistor are connected to the power supply at the same time; the grid electrode of the ninth transistor and the grid electrode of the fourth transistor are simultaneously connected to the drain electrode of the third transistor, the source electrode of the ninth transistor is grounded, and the drain electrode of the ninth transistor is connected to the drain electrode of the fourth transistor; the grid electrode of the tenth transistor and the grid electrode of the fifth transistor are connected to the drain electrode of the fourth transistor, the source electrode of the tenth transistor is grounded, and the drain electrode of the tenth transistor is connected to the drain electrode of the fifth transistor.

The invention has the beneficial effects that: the problems of false alarm and missing report in the prior art are solved, the image data in the spectral image analysis of the power transformation equipment is efficiently utilized, the safe and reliable operation of the power grid equipment is ensured, and the method has higher theoretical and practical significance.

Drawings

FIG. 1 is a circuit schematic of an embodiment of the present invention;

in the figure: the circuit comprises a first diode 1, a first capacitor 2, a first transistor 3, a sixth transistor 4, a first amplifier 5, a second transistor 6, a third transistor 7, a seventh transistor 8, an eighth transistor 9, a fourth transistor 10, a fifth transistor 11, a ninth transistor 12 and a tenth transistor 13.

Detailed Description

The technical solution of the present invention is further described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and examples.

A sensor for electric energy metering comprises N multiplied by N matrix-arranged pixel circuits which are independent of each other, wherein the areas of original photosensitive surfaces of the pixel circuits are the same, N is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2, and each pixel circuit comprises a detection unit, a mirror image unit and a shaping unit which are connected in sequence; the detection unit comprises a first diode 1 with the anode grounded, a first capacitor 2 connected with the first diode 1 in parallel, a first transistor 3, a sixth transistor 4 and a first amplifier 5, wherein the drain electrode of the sixth transistor 4 is electrically connected to a power supply through the first transistor 3 connected in a resistance mode, and the source electrode of the sixth transistor is electrically connected with the cathode of the first diode 1 and is positively connected to the grid electrode through the first amplifier 5; the mirror image unit comprises a second transistor 6, a third transistor 7, a seventh transistor 8 and an eighth transistor 9, wherein the drain electrode of the seventh transistor 8 is connected with the drain electrode and the grid electrode of the second transistor 6 in parallel, the grid electrode of the seventh transistor 8 is connected with the cathode of the first diode 1 in parallel, the source electrode of the seventh transistor is grounded, the third transistor 7 is grounded through the eighth transistor 9 which is connected in a resistance mode, the grid electrode of the third transistor is connected with the drain electrode and the grid electrode of the second transistor 6 in parallel, and the source electrode of the third transistor and the source electrode of the second transistor 6 are connected with; the shaping unit comprises inverters of integer multiples of the number of stages 2.

The width of the third transistor 7 is 6-18 times the width of the second transistor 6.

The number of the detection units is more than two, and the number of the mirror image units is matched with the number of the detection units.

The shaping unit comprises an inverter with the number of stages being 2, and comprises a fourth transistor 10, a fifth transistor 11, a ninth transistor 12 and a tenth transistor 13; the sources of the fourth transistor 10 and the fifth transistor 11 are connected to the power supply at the same time; the grid electrode of the ninth transistor 12 and the grid electrode of the fourth transistor 10 are connected to the drain electrode of the third transistor 7, the source electrode of the ninth transistor 12 is grounded, and the drain electrode is connected to the drain electrode of the fourth transistor 10; the gate of the tenth transistor 13 is connected to the drain of the fourth transistor 10 together with the gate of the fifth transistor 11, the source of the tenth transistor 13 is grounded, and the drain is connected to the drain of the fifth transistor 11.

The detection unit is used for converting the light quantity input of the light flow irradiated on the photodiode into the electric quantity output of the current, wherein the first capacitor 2 is used for storing and maintaining the stability of the output current of the first diode 1, and the first amplifier 5 can improve the response speed of voltage change generated between the source and the grid of the sixth transistor 4. In other words, the first amplifier 5 increases the speed at which the pixel circuit detects a change in light intensity.

The mirror unit is used for amplifying and transmitting the output current of the detection unit, and the ratio of the third transistor 7 to the second transistor 6 determines the amplification factor of the photocurrent.

The shaping unit is used for buffering the output signal of the mirroring unit and shaping the output square wave signal.

The working principle and the specific process of the sensor for electric energy metering of the invention are described in detail as follows:

the output current of the first diode 1 is in proportion to the intensity of the optical signal when being illuminated, the current is firstly stored in the first capacitor 2 and keeps the stability of the output current, then the current is transmitted to the drain electrode of the second transistor 6 in the mirror image unit after being amplified for the first time by the seventh transistor 8, if the current mirror image unit is amplified for the second time by the proportion, the leakage current on the drain electrode of the third transistor 7 is increased due to the resistance action of the eighth transistor 9, and due to the clamping action of the current mirror image, the voltage on the drain electrode of the third transistor 7 is close to the voltage to trigger the level inversion of the inverter and output pulse square waves after the inverter buffers and shapes. The duty ratio of the pulse square wave corresponds to the light intensity; the first amplifier 5 can improve the response speed of the voltage change generated between the source and the gate of the sixth transistor 4; the first transistor 3 and the eighth transistor 9 are diode-connected load resistors of the transistors.

In conclusion, the sensor for electric energy metering solves the problems of false alarm and missing report in the prior art, enables image data in spectral image analysis of the power transformation equipment to be efficiently utilized, ensures safe and reliable operation of power grid equipment, and has higher theoretical and practical significance.

Claims (5)

1. A sensor for electrical energy metering, characterized by: the pixel circuit comprises N multiplied by N matrix-arranged pixel circuits which are independent from each other, the areas of original photosensitive surfaces of the pixel circuits are the same, wherein N is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2, and the pixel circuit comprises a detection unit, a mirror image unit and a shaping unit which are connected in sequence; the detection unit comprises a first diode (1) with the anode grounded, a first capacitor (2) connected with the first diode (1) in parallel, a first transistor (3), a sixth transistor (4) and a first amplifier (5), wherein the drain electrode of the sixth transistor (4) is electrically connected to a power supply through the first transistor (3) which is connected in a resistance mode, and the source electrode of the sixth transistor is electrically connected with the cathode of the first diode (1) and is positively connected to the grid electrode through the first amplifier (5); the mirror image unit comprises a second transistor (6), a third transistor (7), a seventh transistor (8) and an eighth transistor (9), wherein the drain electrode of the seventh transistor (8) is connected with the drain electrode and the grid electrode of the second transistor (6) in parallel, the grid electrode of the seventh transistor is connected with the cathode of the first diode (1) in parallel, the source electrode of the seventh transistor is grounded, the third transistor (7) is grounded through the eighth transistor (9) which is connected in a resistance mode, the grid electrode of the third transistor is connected with the drain electrode and the grid electrode of the second transistor (6) in parallel, and the source electrode of the third transistor and the source electrode of the second transistor (6) are connected with the power; the shaping unit comprises inverters of integer multiples of the number of stages 2.
2. A sensor for electrical energy metering according to claim 1, wherein: the first transistor (3), the sixth transistor (4), the seventh transistor (8) and the eighth transistor (9) are NMOS transistors, and the second transistor (6) and the third transistor (7) are PMOS transistors.
3. A sensor for electrical energy metering according to claim 1, wherein: the width of the third transistor (7) is 6-18 times the width of the second transistor (6).
4. A sensor for electrical energy metering according to claim 1, wherein: the number of the detection units is more than two, and the number of the mirror image units is matched with the number of the detection units.
5. A sensor for electrical energy metering according to claim 1, wherein: the shaping unit comprises an inverter with the number of stages being 2, and comprises a fourth transistor (10), a fifth transistor (11), a ninth transistor (12) and a tenth transistor (13); the sources of the fourth transistor (10) and the fifth transistor (11) are connected to the power supply at the same time; the grid electrode of the ninth transistor (12) and the grid electrode of the fourth transistor (10) are simultaneously connected to the drain electrode of the third transistor (7), the source electrode of the ninth transistor (12) is grounded, and the drain electrode is connected to the drain electrode of the fourth transistor (10); the grid of the tenth transistor (13) and the grid of the fifth transistor (11) are connected to the drain of the fourth transistor (10), the source of the tenth transistor (13) is grounded, and the drain is connected to the drain of the fifth transistor (11).
CN201811415900.7A 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 Sensor for electric energy metering CN109541347B (en)

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