CN109538318A - A kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system - Google Patents

A kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109538318A
CN109538318A CN201910052868.9A CN201910052868A CN109538318A CN 109538318 A CN109538318 A CN 109538318A CN 201910052868 A CN201910052868 A CN 201910052868A CN 109538318 A CN109538318 A CN 109538318A
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cryogenic fluid
temperature
cryogenic
steam turbine
expanding machine
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翁志远
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翁志远
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01BMACHINES OR ENGINES, IN GENERAL OR OF POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT TYPE, e.g. STEAM ENGINES
    • F01B23/00Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of engines with devices driven thereby
    • F01B23/10Adaptations for driving, or combinations with, electric generators
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01BMACHINES OR ENGINES, IN GENERAL OR OF POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT TYPE, e.g. STEAM ENGINES
    • F01B31/00Component parts, details, or accessories not provided for in, or of interest apart from, other groups
    • F01B31/08Cooling of steam engines; Heating; Heat insulation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D11/00Preventing or minimising internal leakage of working-fluid, e.g. between stages
    • F01D11/003Preventing or minimising internal leakage of working-fluid, e.g. between stages by packing rings; Mechanical seals
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D15/00Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of engines with devices driven thereby
    • F01D15/10Adaptations for driving, or combinations with, electric generators
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D25/00Component parts, details, or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart from, other groups
    • F01D25/005Selecting particular materials
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D25/00Component parts, details, or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart from, other groups
    • F01D25/08Cooling; Heating; Heat-insulation
    • F01D25/14Casings modified therefor
    • F01D25/145Thermally insulated casings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K11/00Plants characterised by the engines being structurally combined with boilers or condensers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K11/00Plants characterised by the engines being structurally combined with boilers or condensers
    • F01K11/02Plants characterised by the engines being structurally combined with boilers or condensers the engines being turbines
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K25/00Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for
    • F01K25/08Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for using special vapours
    • F01K25/10Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for using special vapours the vapours being cold, e.g. ammonia, carbon dioxide, ether

Abstract

The embodiment of the present invention provides a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system, belong to thermo-mechanical power generation technical field, more particularly to efficient low-temperature generating system is carried out with low-grade heat source, it is mainly used in the fields such as ultralow temperature cogeneration, hot water power generation, cooling-water machine.The working medium that ORC Rankine cycle boiling point is 15 DEG C is, it can be achieved that 60~80 DEG C or more hot water power generations;The system is using carbon dioxide even liquid air or the liquid nitrogen of lower boiling, and generating working medium boiling point is down to -196 DEG C, it can be achieved that 15~20 DEG C or more of hot water generates electricity;The core of the embodiment of the present invention is that solve the condensation problem of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium;The evaporation reduction problem of cryogenic liquid working is also solved simultaneously;And the shaft end leakage problem of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;The embodiment of the present invention is set to form the low-temperature generating system and dynamical system that the efficient low-grade energy of complete set generates electricity.Low with temperature, construction cost is low, high-efficient advantage.

Description

A kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system
Technical field
The present invention relates to the cogeneration of low temperature, hot water power generation, cooling-water machine etc. technical fields, specifically, especially relating to And a kind of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium for being lower than 0 DEG C using normal boiling point, the thermal energy of low-grade heat source is absorbed, and carry out high efficiency power generation Electricity generation system and dynamical system.
Background technique
Traditional electricity generation system and afterheat generating system, most of is all using water as generating working medium, and water passes through water pump It is pressed and delivered in waste heat boiler, gasification forms high steam after absorbing high-grade waste heat and industrial waste heat, then inputs and drives Dynamic steam turbine high speed rotation, or generator high speed rotation is driven to export electric energy.The steam exhaust of steam turbine discharge, passes through cooling tower and ring Cold water or cold air heat exchange in border, latent heat energy in steam exhaust are discharged, formation condensed water passes through water pump again and is conveyed to pot Furnace reheats into steam, and driving steam turbine simultaneously drives generator to export electric energy, and the steam exhaust of steam turbine discharge passes through cooling tower again System, in the cold air in cold water or environment that the latent heat energy in steam exhaust can be discharged into environment, after steam exhaust is condensed into water, It is continued cycling through again by water pump pressurization, so continuous power generation output.
Make generation technology and the cogeneration of generating working medium with water, can centering high-grade residual heat resources carry out absorb thermal energy and Power generation;Since useless residual heat resources are heat sources extra and free in industrial processes, while country is to the waste heat of this environmental protection Power generation project is helped, so using more in industrial market.
The disadvantage is that residual heat generating efficiency is low, usual generating efficiency only has 10% or so, the Gao Pin relatively high for temperature Position waste heat, also just 20% or so, nearly 80~90% thermal energy is released generating efficiency by cold water in environment and cold air Fall, causes huge waste, and thermal pollution is formed to environment.
In the market except generating working medium is made using water, there are also a kind of Organic Rankine Cycle of low temperature, which uses boiling point temperature Degree about 15 DEG C organic working medium, it can be achieved that more than 80 DEG C (or even 60 DEG C) hot water and steam carry out cogeneration, the low temperature Technology is substantially the same with using water as the principle of generating working medium, the steam exhaust of screw expander discharge, and using in environment Cold water or cold air realize condensation reduction.Steam turbine is substituted using screw expander, while being used because Organic Rankine Cycle generates electricity The low boiling working fluid that boiling point is 15 DEG C or so, so can generate electricity to 80 DEG C or more hot water and hot steam.
The advantage of the technology is can to generate electricity to the low grade residual heat more than 80 DEG C (or even 60 DEG C).The disadvantage is that needing Using cooling tower by cold water of the steam exhaust latent heat treatment into environment either cold air, hot dirt is not only caused in the environment Dye, low while also result in generating efficiency, general only 10% or so generating efficiency, peak efficiency is also with regard to 20% or so, nearly 80 ~90% thermal energy is by waste in vain and can be discharged into environment.Cogeneration technology simultaneously, using price per ton about 10 Ten thousand yuan or so of expensive organic working medium, therefore not only low efficiency, generating working medium are also expensive for the cogeneration product.
0 degree Celsius of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium is lower than for standard atmospheric pressure boiling temperature, it is internal and international all also in grinding Study carefully the stage, for the technical staff for doing power generation, the storage of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium is a difficult point, extremely the power generation work of low temperature Matter, boiling point are far below environment temperature, and the low temperature meson placement of equipment and the inside will gasify in the environment, form high pressure gas just It is not available and carries out to generate electricity;There are one maximum difficult points, are after steam turbine acting, the reduction of low-temperature steam exhaust becomes maximum Pain spot.
In general, after steam turbine acting, steam exhaust be all using cooling tower by cold water of the latent heat treatment of steam exhaust into environment or In cold air, but the steam exhaust temperature of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium is lower than environment temperature from far away, and under normal circumstances, being can not will extremely The latent heat treatment of low temperature also can not just carry out Rankine cycle in the cold water and cold air into environment again.If using pressure Contracting machine compresses steam exhaust, or is pumped steam exhaust latent heat to environment temperature with heat pump and be discharged into cold water or cold air, is paid Cost is again too high.Generate electricity electric energy consumed by all possible not enough compressor of electric energy and heat pump of output, and cost is so high.
In addition in addition, steam turbine cylinder is stationary, the revolving speed of turbine rotor (or expansion machine rotor) is very fast, high It needs to be sealed between the shaft and stationary cylinder body of speed rotation, otherwise the extra-high of steam turbine input, it will It leaks along rotating shaft of steam turbine, and leak pressure is very big.Steam turbine needs gland seal system, and tradition has toothed belt vapour seal, Bu Laideng Packing, honeycomb steam seal, brush steam seal, soft tooth packing, elastic toothed belt vapour seal;Although high pressure admission end is equipped with axle envelope, still Steam can not be avoided to leak outside by axle envelope.The leakage rate of large-size steam turbine is per hour up to 10 tons or more.
Self-sealing system, in stopping process, high-voltage end axle envelope does not have steam, then needs to quote by subtracting for steam turbine starting The initial steam of temperature decompression, while being sent in high-voltage end and low-pressure end axle envelope, system reach after 80% or so load in conjunction with from Systems, the entire gland seal systems such as sealing are also considerably complicated.After remaining a small amount of gas leakage is using a few road axle envelope pieces, arranged by signal pipe It puts to atmosphere, it can emitting vapour situation and monitor the quality of axle envelope work by observation signal pipe in operation.Especially low temperature has Machine working medium, per ton cost is up to 100,000 or so, therefore the leakage of axle envelope, cost also comparable valuableness.
The embodiment of the present invention, not only can be with using the more low-temperature electricity-generating working medium such as carbon dioxide, liquid air, liquid nitrogen of lower boiling Realize the cogeneration of lower temperature;CO2, liquid air, liquid nitrogen simultaneously, per ton cost also only several hundred RMB, opposite organic working medium Cost it is much lower.
Normal atmosphere pressure, boiling temperature is lower than 0 DEG C of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium, for the technical staff for doing power generation, The extremely liquid nitrogen of low temperature or liquid air generating working medium, boiling point will be far below environment temperature, and maximum pain spot is low-temperature electricity-generating working medium After driving steam turbine acting, it is maximum difficult point that extremely how the steam exhaust of low temperature, which restores,.In order to solve these problems, applicant passes through Nearly more than 20 years continuous research and probes eventually find one kind efficiently, do not consume energy, inexpensive, cryogenic fluid is cold Solidifying technical method, while also finding a kind of new technology for preventing cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine shaft sealing leakage.
Summary of the invention
The storage problem of cryogenic fluid, for the technical staff of long campaigns power generation, what is contacted daily is all boiling point Boiling temperature for 100 DEG C of water, low-temperature electricity-generating working medium is very low, and placing can gasify in environment;For doing the relevant technologies of space division For personnel, low temperature liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, the liquid argon even storage of liquid hydrogen, liquid helium can be solved well using the technology of vacuum insulation Certainly;Moreover, long to prevent vacuum insulation to be destroyed or shelve the time, cause external heat to enter cryogenic fluid memory, Generally pressure protective device can be all installed on cryogenic fluid memory, just more safe, these technologies pair are set in this way It is not any technical problem for the personnel for doing low temperature and doing space division.The technology being most difficult to is how to allow the steam exhaust of extremely low temperature, Be then reduced into the liquid of low temperature, it is necessary to be it is inexpensive, do not consume the solution of energy low-cost, otherwise unpractical value, The core of the present patent application is exactly this problem of the solution of low cost.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a kind of steam turbine or expanding machine, the steam exhaust temperature of output end discharge reaches critical Or be more than critical-temperature, latent heat 0, steam exhaust latent heat becomes sensible heat, using the liquid working substance of the extremely low temperature of cryogenic liquid pump output It can be achieved with the condensation and reduction of steam exhaust;Provided in an embodiment of the present invention is a kind of efficient, the electricity generation system of low temperature and dynamic Force system.During industrial application and generation, possess extremely large number low-grade heat energy, to better illustrate problem, this hair Bright embodiment emphasis describes a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system.It is able to solve low grade heat energy power generation, middle Gao Pin The heat energy power-generating of position will become to be more easier, and for those of ordinary skill in the art, this is also to be easily done.
The embodiment of the present invention is achieved in that
In a first aspect, the embodiment of the present invention provides a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system, by power generation pipeline, weary Vapour backheat condenser pipe and cryogenic fluid cooling line are constituted;
The power generation pipeline, including sequentially connected cryogenic fluid memory, cryogenic liquid pump, main heat exchanger, low temperature work Matter steam turbine or expanding machine and generator are constituted;
The steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe, including steam exhaust regenerator;
The cryogenic fluid cooling line, including compressor, cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;
The cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, are made of stationary part and rotating part;The cryogenic fluid steamer The material of the stationary part and/or rotating part of machine or expanding machine is low temperature material, including austenitic cryogenic steel, ferrite be low Wen Gang and other low temperature resistant steel alloys;
The cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine are divided into from output is input to, cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine it is defeated Enter end;The apparatus body of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;With the output end of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;
The high pressure gas Temperature of Working for enabling the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine input terminal be inputted necessarily is greater than institute State the critical-temperature of generating working medium;
The steam exhaust Temperature of Working for enabling the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine output end are discharged has to reach described The critical-temperature of generating working medium;The steam exhaust latent heat for enabling the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine output end is zero;
The operating condition area for enabling the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, be in always the critical-temperature of the generating working medium with On;
The cryogenic fluid steam turbine or the output end of expander plant connect steam exhaust regenerator, the steam exhaust regenerator with The cryogenic liquid generating working medium heat exchange of cryogenic liquid pump output;Enable the cryogenic liquid working of the cryogenic liquid pump output, condensation What cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expander plant exported, temperature reaches the high temperature steam exhaust of generating working medium critical-temperature.
Further, the power generation pipeline joins end to end with the steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe, forms closed loop;The power generation Pipeline further includes the cryogenic pipe of steam exhaust regenerator, and the cryogenic pipe setting of the steam exhaust regenerator is changed in cryogenic liquid pump and master Between hot device;
The steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe further includes steam exhaust outlet and the cryogenic fluid of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine Memory;Steam exhaust outlet and the institute of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine is arranged in the high temperature conduit of the steam exhaust regenerator It states between cryogenic fluid memory;
The cryogenic fluid memory, the cryogenic liquid pump, the cryogenic pipe of the steam exhaust regenerator, the main heat exchange Device, the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine are sequentially communicated;The steam exhaust of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine exports, even Connect the high temperature conduit of steam exhaust regenerator;The high temperature conduit of the steam exhaust regenerator exports, and connects the cryogenic fluid memory and enters Mouthful;
The main heat exchanger includes boiler, waste heat boiler, high-temperature flue gas heat exchanger, hot water waste liquid heat exchanger, waste heat time Receive device, air heat exchanger, condenser, any one or more combination in device cooling system.
In the present patent application, the steam exhaust temperature also including cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expander plant output end is in stagnation temperature Region near degree reaches and exceeds critical-temperature (latent heat be all be 0), therefore, the steam exhaust of steam turbine equipment output end working medium Temperature be more than it is critical also completely can be with, but be more than that critical-temperature is too many, will result in the waste of resources costs;
In addition in addition, the steam exhaust temperature of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expander plant output end is lower than critical-temperature, steam exhaust It just will form certain latent heat in working medium, and the generating efficiency of system can be reduced, the processing of latent heat also will increase cost;Therefore The steam exhaust temperature of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expander plant output end is critical-temperature, or well over critical-temperature for most Good state, these are all ranges provided by the embodiment of the present invention.
Second aspect, the cryogenic fluid cooling line, by the cryogenic fluid memory, steam exhaust regenerator it is second low Warm pipeline, the main heat exchanger, heat exchanger, compressor, the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expansion mechanism at;
The cryogenic fluid memory, the second cryogenic pipe of the steam exhaust regenerator, the heat exchanger, the compression Machine, the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine are sequentially communicated;
Or the cryogenic fluid memory, the second cryogenic pipe of the steam exhaust regenerator, the compressor, the master Heat exchanger, the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine are sequentially communicated;
Or the cryogenic fluid memory, the compressor, the main heat exchanger, the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or swollen Swollen machine is sequentially communicated.
The compressor includes piston type, slide sheet type, screw, rotor-type compressor, centrifugal, axial-flow type, positive displacement , the gas compressor of velocity profile.
It should be noted that three of the above cryogenic fluid cooling line, is all to be deposited using compressor to the cryogenic fluid The gas (containing a large amount of latent heats of vaporization) that reservoir is evaporated is compressed, while also passing through the heat exchanger and/or the master Heat exchanger, it is further to absorb and obtain external energy, it is high by pipeline to the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine It is pressed into mouth, drives the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine high speed rotation to do work and generate electricity and exports.
Although compressor consumes electric energy, due to the cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system, maximum flow is being sent out In fulgurite road and steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe;It is simultaneously also that main power generation output provided in an embodiment of the present invention and power are defeated Out.Cryogenic fluid cooling line is used only to handle and solves the problems, such as cryogenic fluid memory liquid evaporation, because of liquid evaporation A large amount of heat of vaporization, therefore this liquid evaporation phenomenon of cryogenic fluid memory can be inhaled, comparatively flow is not very big.Pressure Contracting machine compressed gas need to consume energy, but compressor operating is formed by pressure and energy, most of to be also all input to low temperature It goes to do work inside working medium steam turbine or expanding machine.
Meanwhile external energy is further also obtained, therefore by the heat exchanger (and/or described main heat exchanger) The cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, the energy for the output that generates electricity can cover energy consumed by compressor completely.Reason It is very simple, first is that the liquid evaporation amount of cryogenic fluid memory is little, it is another the reason is that compressor production pressure energy also by Power generation, while more external energies are also absorbed by the heat exchanger (and/or described main heat exchanger), it is common to realize that power generation is defeated Out, therefore, the power generation output of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, be greater than electric energy consumed by compressor from far away, Therefore it is worth for doing so.
The third aspect, the cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system, due to the cost and transportation cost of cryogenic fluid It is more much higher than device of working medium, harsher requirement, therefore this hair also are proposed to cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine sealing performance Bright embodiment also provides a kind of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine structure that high-seal is carried out with cylinder body, can satisfy low temperature Working medium electricity generation system and dynamical system seal proposed rigors to cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, and also make The embodiment of the present invention is more creative, practicability and novelty.
The cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine are made of stationary part and rotating part;The cryogenic fluid steam turbine Or expanding machine is divided into from output is input to, the input terminal of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;Cryogenic fluid steam turbine is swollen The ontology of swollen machine;With the output end of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;
The input terminal of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, including input terminal cylinder body, input end bearing and bearing block, Input terminal shaft, high pressure admission mouth;The input end bearing and bearing block include spring bearing and thrust bearing;Described defeated The outside for entering end bearing and bearing block, is additionally provided with insulated case;
Further, the upper insulated case of the insulated case point and lower insulated case;The lower insulated case is located at input In the lower cylinder of end bearing and bearing block position, and combine closely with lower cylinder;The input end bearing and bearing block are mounted on In the lower insulated case in lower cylinder;
Further, the lower insulated case and the upper insulated case are equipped with flange, tight by the flange and bolt Gu the inner cavity of the lower insulated case and the upper insulated case forms a closed adiabatic space;The input terminal turns Axis, the input end bearing and bearing block and lubricating oil, are sealed in inside the adiabatic space of the insulated case;
Further, the insulated case wraps up the contact position of the input terminal shaft, is provided with insulated case sealing, The insulated case sealing prevents the intracorporal bearing oil of insulated shell from insulated case sealing place to external leakage.
Further, the upper insulated case of the insulated case and lower insulated case are internal by flange and bolt fastening A closed adiabatic space is formed, and sets lubricating oil injection hole at the top of the upper insulated case, enables the bearing and bearing Lubricating oil is injected in the adiabatic space of seat;
The insulated case further include have the lubricating oil output channel being connected with the insulated case, lubricating oil filter, Lube oil cooler and grease pump;The cryogenic high pressure lubricating oil of the grease pump output is sent through lubricating oil input duct to institute State the intracorporal bearing of insulated shell and bearing block;
The lubricating oil filter, the lube oil cooler and grease pump setting in cryogenic fluid steam turbine or The cylinder interior of expanding machine, and/or be arranged in outside the cylinder body of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;
Further, when lube oil cooler is arranged in cylinder body, there are pipeline and the external world in the lube oil cooler Connection is flowed by the meson inside pipeline, cooling by heat exchanger outside the heat transfer to cylinder body of lubricating oil in cylinder body The inside of cylinder body is returned to afterwards.
Further, in the cylinder body of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, lubricating oil temperature probe, profit are additionally provided with The cylinder interior pressure probe of lubricating oil pressure probe, lubricants capacity probe and cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;
Optionally, between the high pressure admission mouth and the insulated case, axle envelope, the insulated case and axis are additionally provided with Between envelope, being additionally provided with input terminal reserved space, perhaps the pipeline input terminal reserved space or pipeline are located in lower cylinder, storage The lubricating oil leaked out from insulated case sealing place is deposited, and is arranged the lubricating oil leaked out by first pipe valve Out.
Further, the output end of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine includes steam exhaust outlet, output end cylinder Body, output end bearing and bearing block, shaft coupling and generator;
The cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine hide output end bearing and bearing block and gen-set In to the output end cylinder body of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;And to the output end cylinder body of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine The improvement of installation generator position is done, in order to be suitble to placement gen-set;
Preferably, the input terminal of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine Output end, be arranged in the cylinder body of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, with cryogenic fluid steam turbine or the cylinder of expanding machine Body height airtightness structure is sealed, and avoids expensive low-temperature electricity-generating working medium, from the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or swollen It is leaked at the axle envelope of the both ends of the shaft of swollen machine.
Because cost is relatively low for water, the leakage of traditional steam turbine equipment both ends of the shaft, for the shadow of water vapor system Sound is not very serious, but for the low-temperature electricity-generating working medium of cost costly, cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine are set The standby generating working medium of both ends of the shaft or the leakage of meson are exactly extremely have a headache the problem of.To solve cryogenic fluid steamer Machine or expander plant both ends of the shaft leak problem, and applicant is by years of researches discovery, by cryogenic fluid steam turbine or swollen The input terminal and output end of swollen machine equipment are hidden into cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expander plant cylinder body, closed with height of cylinder Property (up to 100% sealing), thoroughly to solve the leakage problem of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expander plant both ends of the shaft.It is right In other rotating machineries, high pressure gas input end and output end also can using with the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or swollen The identical sealing technique of swollen machine equipment and method, to realize and reach the nearly zero leakage of equipment gland seal system;These are also all Technical scope provided by the embodiment of the present invention.
Optionally, the working medium stored in the cryogenic fluid memory is natural gas, methane, ethane, air, the oxygen of liquid Gas, nitrogen, argon gas, hydrogen, any one or more combination of helium, gas refrigerant pure substance, gas refrigeration agent composition Cryogenic liquid working;
Further, the power generation pipeline, steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe and cryogenic fluid cooling line and corresponding connection Pipeline, preferably low temperature material, including it is not limited to austenitic cryogenic steel, ferritic steel for low temperature service and other low temperature resistant steel alloys Low temperature resistant material with other.
Further, the device external of the cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system is additionally provided with heat insulation layer, described exhausted The heat-insulating material of thermosphere has good heat-insulating property, including is not limited to vacuum insulation panel, aeroge, foam, undulation degree Material, mineral wool, high silica wool;
Optionally, the cryogenic fluid power generation and dynamical system further include having ice chest, and the Cryo Equipment is placed on In the ice chest;The ice chest is additionally provided with isolation;The ice chest is externally insulated by shell, and the isolation is again to different temperatures Cryo Equipment is isolated and is insulated.
Fourth aspect, the embodiment of the present invention are that can better illustrate the cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system tool There are practicability, novelty and creativeness, to better understand, also provides the work of a kind of room temperature working medium electricity generation system and dynamical system Skill is suitable for cryogenic fluid electricity generation system of any of claims 1-6 and dynamical system, includes the following steps:
The generating working medium stored in the cryogenic liquid working memory is water (about 20 DEG C), by cryogenic liquid pump plus Pressure, flows through the cryogenic pipe of steam exhaust regenerator, is delivered in the main heat exchanger (such as boiler plant) and is heated to 500 DEG C or more, Water absorbs heat to form high temperature and high pressure gas, inputs and drive the steam turbine or expander plant high speed rotation and acting;Output machine Tool can or drive generator high speed rotation to export electric energy;The steam turbine or the steam exhaust temperature of expander plant output, reach The critical-temperature (about 374 DEG C, latent heat 0, latent heat becomes sensible heat) of water, cold water (the about 20 DEG C of environment temperature exported with cryogenic liquid pump Degree), the cooling steam exhaust becomes water (close to 20 DEG C, metallic walls have 0.5 DEG C or more of heat transfer temperature difference), and returns to the low temperature It is spare in liquid working substance memory, complete a power generation process;
Water (about 20 DEG C, environment temperature) in the cryogenic liquid working memory, boosts to institute by cryogenic liquid pump In the cryogenic pipe for stating steam exhaust regenerator, continue to absorb steam turbine or expanding machine output exhaust steam heat energy (up to 374 DEG C, stagnation temperature Degree), coolant-temperature gage is thus lifted to close to critical-temperature (having 0.5 DEG C or more of metallic walls heat transfer temperature difference), and from steam exhaust regenerator Cryogenic pipe outlet is delivered in the main heat exchanger (such as boiler plant), and being heated to 500 DEG C or more becomes high temperature and high pressure gas, The steam turbine or expanding machine high speed rotation and acting, output mechanical energy or drive electrical power generators output are driven, so constantly Circulation, continuous power generation output;The operating condition area of the steam turbine or expander plant, always in (374 DEG C) critical-temperature of water More than, the steam exhaust temperature of the steam turbine or expanding machine discharge is the critical-temperature of water.
5th aspect, the embodiment of the present invention are that can better illustrate the cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system tool There are novelty, creativeness and practicability, additionally provides the technique of a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system, including as follows Step:
The cryogenic fluid stored in the cryogenic fluid memory is lower than -190 DEG C liquid airs below of normal boiling point (or liquid Nitrogen), it is pressurizeed by cryogenic liquid pump, flows through the cryogenic pipe of steam exhaust regenerator, be delivered to the main heat exchanger (such as waste heat pot Furnace) in heating;Low-temperature electricity-generating working medium absorbs heat to form high temperature and high pressure gas, inputs and drives the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expansion Machine high speed rotation and acting;Output mechanical energy drives generator high speed rotation to export electric energy;
The steam exhaust of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine output, temperature reach the critical of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium (air) Temperature (- 146 DEG C or more, the latent heat of vaporization 0, latent heat become sensible heat), with cryogenic liquid pump export cryogenic liquid, temperature down to- The cooling high temperature steam exhaust of 190 DEG C of liquid airs (or liquid nitrogen) below, enables the high temperature steam exhaust be condensed into the liquid air (liquid of extremely low temperature Nitrogen), it is back in the cryogenic fluid memory, it is spare, complete a power generation cycle process;
The low temperature liquid air (or liquid nitrogen, -190 DEG C or less) stored in the cryogenic fluid memory, passes through cryogenic liquid pump Pressurization, is delivered in the cryogenic pipe of the steam exhaust regenerator, and the high temperature for absorbing cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine output is weary Vapour heat (critical-temperature for reaching -146 DEG C), the temperature of cryogenic liquid generating working medium are thus lifted to close to critical-temperature (nearly -146 DEG C, have 0.5 DEG C or more of metal pipe-wall heat transfer temperature difference), and be delivered to the master from the outlet of the cryogenic pipe of steam exhaust regenerator and change Heating in hot device (such as waste heat boiler);The air for continuing to absorb heat into high temperature and pressure, inputs and drives the cryogenic fluid steamer Machine or the acting of expanding machine high speed rotation, output mechanical energy or drive generator rotation output electric energy;It so constantly recycles, constantly Power generation output;
The cryogenic fluid (liquid air or liquid nitrogen) stored in the cryogenic fluid memory, due to the steam exhaust regenerator There are the reasons such as heat transfer temperature difference for metal pipe-wall, cause the fluid temperature of the high temperature conduit delivery outlet of the steam exhaust regenerator higher, It returns in the cryogenic fluid memory, it is continuous to will cause the cryogenic liquid working temperature stored in the cryogenic fluid memory Raising, so that a part of cryogenic liquid working be caused to gasify and be lost, in turn result in stored in cryogenic fluid memory it is low Geothermal liquid is constantly reduced;
To avoid such case, the cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system, it is cooling to be additionally provided with cryogenic fluid Pipeline;The cryogenic gas in cryogenic fluid memory, evaporated is introduced by pipeline and is pressed by the cryogenic fluid cooling line In contracting machine;By compressor adherence pressure, it is delivered in heat exchanger (or main heat exchanger) and continues to absorb thermal energy, then through high pressure Pipeline drives the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine high to the input port of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine Speed rotation acting, output mechanical energy or drive generator rotation output electric energy;So continuous circulation, continuous power generation output;
The cryogenic liquid working stored in the cryogenic fluid memory absorbs a large amount of heat of vaporization, the pressure after gasification Contracting machine is constantly run, and a large amount of latent heat of vaporization energy that gas is carried are delivered to the defeated of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine Entrance drives the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine to do work, output mechanical energy or drive generator rotation output electric energy;It will The heat of vaporization energy conversion that liquid gasification in cryogenic fluid memory absorbs is power output, and stores the cryogenic fluid Cryogenic liquid working temperature in device reduces;Maintain its low temperature fluid state.
The present patent application, the steam exhaust temperature by improving steam turbine equipment output end reach critical-temperature, so that it may realize The liquid working substance of the extremely low temperature of cryogenic liquid pump output goes condensation steam exhaust, to can be achieved with the high temperature of " oneself cools down oneself " Steam exhaust, in this way it is no longer necessary to in environment air and water exchange heat, and there are problems that releasing energy to surrounding air.System remove from The external world obtains thermal energy and output electric energy, enables " oneself cools down oneself ", it is no longer necessary to which, to extraneous heat extraction, system cold end is completely independent.
Therefore, it is low to be more applicable for low-temperature electricity-generating working medium, such as carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquia air etc. for the present patent application The generating working medium of temperature.The only change of generating working medium, principle is same as mentioned above, by improving cryogenic fluid steam turbine equipment The steam exhaust temperature such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, air of output end, and reach its critical-temperature, the liquid of lower temperature can be used Carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid air condense the high temperature steam exhaust for reaching critical-temperature, and steam exhaust is condensed into principle and the front water vapour side of liquid Method is identical.Reach critical-temperature by improving steam exhaust temperature, so that cold end " oneself cools down oneself " can be enabled, does not need externally Boundary's heat extraction, the cold end of system are completely independent.
Steam turbine equipment output end steam exhaust reaches the critical-temperature of generating working medium, and steam exhaust latent heat is 0, and latent heat becomes sensible heat, benefit The cryogenic liquid working exported with cryogenic liquid pump, can enable steam exhaust condense.Compared to traditional steam turbine equipment, body is not only simplified Product, but also reduce traditional turbine blade it is too long caused by flutter and fracture probability, reduce failure, improve steam turbine equipment Reliability, and the manufacturing cost of steam turbine can also be reduced.Pass through steam turbine equipment, steam exhaust regenerator, cryogenic liquid pump A kind of high efficiency electricity generation system and dynamical system are realized in equal equipment collaborations effect.It is bright not needed tradition for the electricity generation system Agree the cooling tower systems in cycle generating system, not only improves efficiency, moreover it is possible to reduce steam turbine equipment and power station, cogeneration are set Standby cost of investment.Oneself cooling critical-temperature high temperature steam exhaust of the extremely cryogenic liquid exported with cryogenic liquid pump, system it is cold End is completely independent, therefore can solve the condensation problem of the steam exhaust such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, air, is also realization low-grade energy Gate is opened in power generation, hot water power generation, the low grade residual heat utilization of resources.
The beneficial effect of the embodiment of the present invention is:
The embodiment of the present invention provides a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system, the cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and Dynamical system is made of power generation pipeline, steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe and cryogenic fluid cooling line, the power generation pipeline with it is described Steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe head and the tail are connected to, and form closed loop;The power generation pipeline includes the cryogenic fluid memory being sequentially communicated, institute State cryogenic liquid pump, the cryogenic pipe of the steam exhaust regenerator, the main heat exchanger, the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expansion Machine;The steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe includes the steam exhaust outlet of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, connection steam exhaust regenerator High temperature conduit;The high temperature conduit of the steam exhaust regenerator exports, and connects cryogenic fluid memory entrance;Form closed loop.
In the present invention program, by improve steam turbine equipment output end steam exhaust temperature reach critical-temperature (latent heat 0, Latent heat becomes sensible heat), so that it may realize that the cryogenic liquid working of cryogenic liquid pump output goes the high temperature steam exhaust of condensation critical-temperature, from And extremely cryogenic liquid working " oneself cools down oneself " can be enabled, be no longer needed in this way in environment air and water changed Heat and there are problems that releasing energy to surrounding air.System is in addition to obtaining thermal energy and output electric energy from the external world, it is no longer necessary to right Outside air heat extraction, electricity generation system cold end are completely independent.By improving the steam exhaust temperature of steam turbine discharge, to realize Low Temperature Liquid The extremely cryogenic liquid of body pump output, the high temperature steam exhaust condensation for enabling steam turbine be discharged.
Traditional thermal power generation, biomass power generation, afterheat generating system, cold end are equipped with the cooling system of off-energy, cause Decrease of power generation.This electricity generation system and dynamical system by improve steam turbine or expanding machine steam exhaust temperature (reach it is critical or It is overcritical), it enables heat of vaporization be turned into 0, backheat is carried out to the liquid generating working medium of low temperature to can realize, is utilized in other words The cryogenic liquid of cryogenic liquid pump output, goes condensation temperature to reach the high temperature steam exhaust of critical-temperature.Enabling system, " oneself cooling is certainly Oneself ", cooling tower systems are not only saved, while also avoiding the waste of energy, greatly improves the power generation effect of the electricity generation system Rate.
Certainly, the power output that can reduce cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expander plant is done so, which passes through increase The output flow of cryogenic liquid pump exports to realize with original identical power generation;Certainly, increase the output flow of cryogenic liquid pump It will increase the power consumption of cryogenic liquid pump, but the power output of steam turbine or expanding machine, the electricity of the far Covering Liguid pump of energy It can consumption.
Traditional thermal power generation, biomass power generation, low-temperature waste heat power generation system, cooling tower systems account for about overall cost of ownership One third, since the cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system do not have cooling tower systems, cryogenic fluid power generation system System and dynamical system not only have high-efficient, while also having the advantages that construction cost is low.
Detailed description of the invention
It, below will be to needed in the embodiment more clearly to illustrate the technical solution for illustrating the embodiment of the present invention Attached drawing is briefly described, it should be understood that the following drawings illustrates only certain embodiments of the present invention, therefore is not construed as Restriction to range for those of ordinary skill in the art without creative efforts, can also basis These attached drawings obtain other relevant attached drawings;
In industrial application and generation, possess a large amount of low-grade energy, in order to more describe the problem, emphasis of the present invention is retouched A kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system are stated, this is the difficult point of existing generation technology.It can solve the hair of low-grade energy Electricity, solving high-grade energy will become to be more easier, and for those of ordinary skill in the art, this is to be easily done 's;
Fig. 1 is the basic structure signal of a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system provided in an embodiment of the present invention Figure;
Fig. 2 is a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system provided in an embodiment of the present invention, and band cryogenic fluid is cooling The first structural schematic diagram of pipeline;
Fig. 3 is a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system provided in an embodiment of the present invention, and band cryogenic fluid is cooling Second of structural schematic diagram of pipeline;
Fig. 4 is a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system provided in an embodiment of the present invention, and band cryogenic fluid is cooling The third structural schematic diagram of pipeline;
Fig. 5 is traditional condensed steam type turbine equipment structural schematic diagram;Traditional condensed steam type turbine equipment be provided be in order to It is preferably compared in structure;
Fig. 6 is a kind of steam turbine structure schematic diagram that shaft end seal is carried out using outer cylinder body provided in an embodiment of the present invention;
For Fig. 7 to be provided in an embodiment of the present invention a kind of using outer cylinder body progress shaft end seal, it is critical that steam exhaust temperature reaches water The steam turbine structure schematic diagram of temperature (374 DEG C, latent heat 0);
Fig. 8 be it is provided in an embodiment of the present invention it is a kind of using outer cylinder body carry out shaft end seal, steam exhaust temperature reach liquid nitrogen (or Liquid air) critical-temperature (- 146 DEG C, latent heat 0) a kind of cryogenic fluid steam turbine structure schematic diagram;
Icon: 1- cryogenic fluid memory;2- cryogenic liquid pump;3- steam exhaust regenerator;4- main heat exchanger;5- cryogenic fluid Steam turbine or expanding machine;6- generator;7- heat exchanger;8- compressor;The cryogenic pipe of 301- steam exhaust regenerator;302- steam exhaust The high temperature conduit of regenerator;Second cryogenic pipe of 303- steam exhaust regenerator;
The icon of steam turbine part:
101- rotating shaft of steam turbine;102- insulated case;103- inputs end bearing and bearing block;104- axle envelope;105- steamer Machine equipment cylinder body;106- impeller of rotor;107- partition board of steam turbine;108- output end axle envelope;9- output end insulated case;10- is defeated End bearing and bearing block out;11- shaft coupling;12- generator;13- third pipeline valve;14- third pipe outlet;15- second Pipe outlet;16- second pipe valve;17- output end reserved space or pipeline;18- output end reserves thermal insulation areas;19- input Hold reserved thermal insulation areas;
20- high pressure admission mouth;21- steam exhaust outlet;The sealing of 22- insulated case;23- input terminal reserved space or pipeline;24- First pipe valve;The outlet of 25- first pipe;26- lubricating oil output channel;27- lubrication oil reservoir;28- lubrication oil filtration Device;29- lube oil cooler;30- grease pump;31- lubricating oil high input voltage pipeline;The sealing of 32- output end insulated case;
Specific embodiment
In order to make the object, technical scheme and advantages of the embodiment of the invention clearer, below in conjunction with the embodiment of the present invention In attached drawing, technical scheme in the embodiment of the invention is clearly and completely described, it is clear that described embodiment is A part of the embodiment of the present invention, instead of all the embodiments.The present invention being usually described and illustrated herein in the accompanying drawings is implemented The component of example can be arranged and be designed with a variety of different configurations.
Therefore, the detailed description of the embodiment of the present invention provided in the accompanying drawings is not intended to limit below claimed The scope of the present invention, but be merely representative of selected embodiment of the invention.Based on the embodiments of the present invention, this field is common Technical staff's every other embodiment obtained without creative efforts belongs to the model that the present invention protects It encloses.
It should also be noted that similar label and letter indicate similar terms in following attached drawing, therefore, once a certain Xiang Yi It is defined in a attached drawing, does not then need that it is further defined and explained in subsequent attached drawing.
In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that term " center ", "upper", "lower", "left", "right", "vertical", The orientation or positional relationship of the instructions such as "horizontal", "inner", "outside" is to be based on the orientation or positional relationship shown in the drawings, or be somebody's turn to do Invention product using when the orientation or positional relationship usually put, be merely for convenience of description of the present invention and simplification of the description, without It is that the device of indication or suggestion meaning or element must have a particular orientation, be constructed and operated in a specific orientation, therefore not It can be interpreted as limitation of the present invention.In addition, term " first ", " second ", " third " etc. are only used for distinguishing description, and cannot manage Solution is indication or suggestion relative importance.
In addition, the terms such as term "horizontal", "vertical", " pendency " are not offered as requiring component abswolute level or pendency, and It is that can be slightly tilted.It is not to indicate the structure if "horizontal" only refers to that its direction is more horizontal with respect to for "vertical" It has to fully horizontally, but can be slightly tilted.
In the description of the present invention, it is also necessary to which explanation is unless specifically defined or limited otherwise, term " setting ", " installation ", " connected ", " connection " shall be understood in a broad sense, for example, it may be fixedly connected, may be a detachable connection or one Connect to body;It can be mechanical connection, be also possible to be electrically connected;It can be directly connected, it can also be indirect by intermediary It is connected, can be the connection inside two elements.For the ordinary skill in the art, on being understood with concrete condition State the concrete meaning of term in the present invention.
In industrial application and generation, possess a large amount of low-grade energy, in order to more describe the problem, emphasis of the present invention is retouched A kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system are stated, this is the difficult point of existing generation technology.It is able to solve low-grade energy Power generation, solving high-grade energy will become to be more easier, and for those of ordinary skill in the art, this is to be easily done 's;
Other features and advantages of the present invention will be illustrated in subsequent specification, also, partly be become from specification It is clear that being understood by implementing the embodiment of the present invention.The objectives and other advantages of the invention can be by written Specifically noted structure is achieved and obtained in specification, claims and attached drawing.
Fig. 1 is please referred to, understands for convenience, is illustrated first with room temperature generating working medium water, Fig. 1 is the embodiment of the present invention The basic structure schematic diagram of a kind of room temperature working medium electricity generation system and dynamical system that provide;The electricity generation system and dynamical system by Generate electricity pipeline, steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe, and the power generation pipeline joins end to end with the steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe, and formation is closed Ring;
The generating working medium stored in the cryogenic liquid working memory 1 is water (about 20 DEG C), is added by cryogenic liquid pump 2 Pressure, flows through the cryogenic pipe 301 of steam exhaust regenerator 3, is delivered in the main heat exchanger 4 (such as boiler plant) and is heated to 500 DEG C More than, water absorbs heat to form high temperature and high pressure gas, inputs simultaneously driving steam turbine or 5 high speed rotation of expander plant and acting;Output Mechanical energy drives 6 high speed rotation of generator to export electric energy;The steam exhaust temperature that the steam turbine or expander plant 5 export, Reach the critical-temperature (about 374 DEG C, latent heat 0, latent heat becomes sensible heat) of water, cold water (the about 20 DEG C of rings exported with cryogenic liquid pump 2 Border temperature), the cooling steam exhaust becomes water (close to 20 DEG C, metallic walls have 0.5 DEG C or more of heat transfer temperature difference), and described in It is spare in cryogenic liquid working memory 1, complete a power generation process;
Water (about 20 DEG C of environment temperatures) in the cryogenic liquid working memory 1, boosts to institute by cryogenic liquid pump 2 It states in the cryogenic pipe 301 of steam exhaust regenerator, it is (critical up to 374 DEG C to absorb the high temperature exhaust steam heat energy that steam turbine or expanding machine 5 export Temperature), coolant-temperature gage is thus lifted to close to critical-temperature (about 372 DEG C, there is 0.5 DEG C or more of metallic walls heat transfer temperature difference), and from weary Vapour regenerator cryogenic pipe 301 outlet be delivered in the main heat exchanger 4 (such as boiler plant), be heated to 500 DEG C or more at For high temperature and high pressure gas, the steam turbine or 5 high speed rotation of expanding machine and acting, output mechanical energy or drive generator are driven 6 power generation outputs, so constantly recycle, continuous power generation output;The operating condition area of the steam turbine or expander plant, always in water (374 DEG C) critical-temperature more than, the steam exhaust temperature that the steam turbine or expanding machine 5 are discharged is the critical-temperature of water.
Fig. 1 is please referred to, the embodiment of the present invention is also applied to low temperature field, and provides a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system And the basic structure schematic diagram and elaboration of dynamical system;The electricity generation system and dynamical system are by power generation pipeline, steam exhaust backheat Condenser pipe, the power generation pipeline join end to end with the steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe, form closed loop;
The working medium (liquid nitrogen or liquid air, -196 DEG C or less) stored in the cryogenic fluid memory 1, passes through cryogenic liquid pump 2 pressurizations, flow through the cryogenic pipe 301 of steam exhaust regenerator 3, are delivered in main heat exchanger 4 (such as waste heat boiler) and absorb external heat source Energy, form the air of high temperature and pressure, input and drive cryogenic fluid steam turbine or 5 high speed rotation of expanding machine and acting;It is defeated Mechanical energy or drive generator 6 export electric energy out;
(temperature reaches -146 DEG C of critical-temperatures, latent heat 0, and latent heat becomes for the steam exhaust that cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine 5 are discharged Sensible heat), it is input in the high temperature conduit 302 of steam exhaust regenerator 3, the liquid nitrogen of the extremely low temperature exported with cryogenic liquid pump 2 exchanges heat (- 196 DEG C of liquid nitrogen temperature or less), condensation becomes liquid after steam exhaust loses thermal energy, and temperature is reduced to close to (- 196 DEG C) liquid nitrogen temperature It spends (there are 0.5 DEG C or more of tube wall metal heat transfer temperature differences for heat exchanger), flows through cryogenic piping back to cryogenic fluid memory 1 In, it is spare, complete a power generation cycle.
As shown in Figure 1, the low-temperature electricity-generating worker quality liquid (liquid nitrogen or liquid air, the temperature that are stored in the cryogenic fluid memory 1 Degree is -196 DEG C or less), it is pressurized in the cryogenic pipe 301 of steam exhaust regenerator by cryogenic liquid pump 2, absorbs steam exhaust regenerator High temperature conduit 302 thermal energy (301 outlet temperatures close to -146 DEG C, heat exchanger has 0.5 DEG C or more tube wall metal heat transfer temperature difference), It is delivered in main heat exchanger 4 (waste heat boiler) again to continue to absorb external heat, gasification forms high temperature and pressure air, inputs and drive Cryogenic fluid steam turbine or the acting of 5 high speed rotation of expanding machine, output mechanical energy or the drive power generation output of generator 6;
The steam exhaust (- 146 DEG C with upper critical temperature, latent heat 0) that cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine 5 are discharged after doing work, It is delivered in the high temperature conduit 302 of steam exhaust regenerator 3, liquid nitrogen heat exchange (the liquid nitrogen temperature of the extremely low temperature exported with cryogenic liquid pump 2 - 196 DEG C of degree or less), condensation becomes liquid after steam exhaust loses thermal energy, and temperature is reduced to close to (the heat exchange of (- 196 DEG C) liquid nitrogen temperature Device has 0.5 DEG C or more metal pipe-wall heat transfer temperature difference), back in cryogenic fluid memory 1, so constantly recycle, constantly Power generation output electric energy.
(for convenience of describing, temperature takes approximate integer) steam exhaust regenerator: the input of the cryogenic pipe 301 of steam exhaust regenerator Temperature is about -196 DEG C of liquid nitrogen, and output temperature is -146 DEG C (there are 0.5 DEG C or more of the metal pipe-wall temperature difference with steam exhaust) nearly;Steam exhaust The high temperature conduit 302 of regenerator, input temp are the critical-temperature (- 146 DEG C) of nitrogen working medium, and 302 outlet temperatures are close to low temperature The liquid nitrogen temperature (- 196 DEG C, there is 0.5 DEG C or more of the metal pipe-wall temperature difference) of liquid pump output.
Referring to figure 2., Fig. 2 is a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system provided in an embodiment of the present invention, with low The first structural schematic diagram of warm working medium cooling line;
As shown in Figure 1, steam exhaust regenerator is there are reasons such as 0.5 DEG C or more of the metal pipe-wall temperature difference, therefore steam exhaust regenerator High temperature conduit 302 outlet temperature, it is higher than cryogenic liquid (- 196 DEG C of liquid nitrogen or less) temperature in cryogenic fluid memory 1 0.5 DEG C or more out;It eventually leads to cryogenic liquid in cryogenic fluid memory 1 constantly to heat up and evaporate, cryogenic liquid evaporation is inhaled Receive a large amount of heats of vaporization;Therefore, evaporation capacity is not very big, but without recycling the low temperature also led in cryogenic fluid memory 1 Liquid is fewer and fewer, and addition cryogenic liquid is cumbersome and there are cost, therefore to be also provided with cryogenic fluid cold for the embodiment of the present invention But pipeline, specific as follows:
As shown in Fig. 2, the cryogenic gas (about -196 DEG C) evaporated in cryogenic fluid memory 1, after being collected by pipeline, input In second cryogenic pipe 303 of steam exhaust regenerator, thermal energy in the high temperature conduit 302 of steam exhaust regenerator is absorbed, steam exhaust regenerator is made 302 outlet temperature of high temperature conduit reduce.After the second cryogenic pipe 303 heat absorption of steam exhaust regenerator, outlet temperature is promoted to connecing It closely -146 DEG C (the metal pipe-wall temperature difference for having 0.5 DEG C or more with exhaust steam pipeline), is delivered to heat exchanger 7 and continues to absorb external heat (heat exchanger 7 can be made into an equipment with main heat exchange 4);After Temperature of Working reaches environment temperature in heat exchanger 7, input pressure 8 adherence pressure of contracting machine, formed high pressure gas input and drives cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine 5 acting, output mechanical energy or Generator 6 is driven to export electric energy;The steam exhaust that cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine 5 are discharged returns to cryogenic fluid memory through condensation In 1, a cooling procedure is thus completed.
Liquid evaporation in cryogenic fluid memory 1, vaporescence will absorb a large amount of heats of vaporization, while will also make low temperature Low Temperature Liquid temperature reduction in working medium memory 1;Due to the outlet temperature of the high temperature conduit 302 of steam exhaust regenerator, already close to Liquid nitrogen temperature (- 196 DEG C, there is 0.5 DEG C or more of the metal pipe-wall temperature difference), while cryogenic liquid vaporizer process will absorb a large amount of vaporizations Heat absorbs heat in addition to the heat of vaporization of liquid working substance, while by heat exchanger tube 303, exhaust steam pipeline 302 is on the one hand enabled to lose more Thermal energy keeps its outlet temperature lower, while temperature reaches near critical temperature (- 146 DEG C) after 303 heat absorptions, then inputs heat exchanger 7 Continue to absorb external heat, input compressor 8 is compressed, and the pressure and energy of generation also enter in system, input and drive Dynamic cryogenic fluid steam turbine or 5 output mechanical energy of expanding machine drive the power generation output of generator 6.
Referring to figure 3., Fig. 3 is a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system provided in an embodiment of the present invention, with low Second of structural schematic diagram of warm working medium cooling line;
In Fig. 3, the cryogenic gas (about -196 DEG C) evaporated in cryogenic fluid memory 1 is collected into pipeline, and input In second cryogenic pipe 303 of steam exhaust regenerator, the thermal energy in the high temperature conduit 302 of steam exhaust regenerator is absorbed, steam exhaust backheat is made 302 outlet temperature of high temperature conduit of device reduces, and then the temperature for making 302 outlets return to cryogenic fluid memory is lower;
Steam exhaust regenerator the second cryogenic pipe 303 heat absorption after, outlet temperature be lifted approximately critical-temperature (- 146 DEG C, Have 0.5 DEG C or more of the metal pipe-wall temperature difference with exhaust steam pipeline), it then inputs compressor 8 and compresses, and input the relaying of main heat exchanger 4 Continuous heat absorption drives cryogenic fluid steam turbine or 5 high speed rotation of expanding machine, and output mechanical energy or drive generator 6 export electric energy, It is returned in cryogenic fluid memory 1 after steam exhaust condensation;So continuous circulation, will constantly evaporate in cryogenic fluid memory 1 Cryogenic gas compression and power generation output;
In addition, input terminal will will form low pressure or semi-vacuum state due to the operation of compressor 8, cryogenic fluid will lead to Liquid is just evaporated lower than boiling point in memory 1, so that liquid in cryogenic fluid memory 1 be made to be below boiling point (such as environment always In water it is the same).It would be more advantageous in the condensation of 302 high temperature steam exhaust, and keep the low temperature stored in cryogenic fluid memory 1 Liquid is below boiling point always, is more conducive to the preservation and system circulation of cryogenic liquid working.
Referring to figure 4., Fig. 4 is a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system provided in an embodiment of the present invention, with low The third structural schematic diagram of warm working medium cooling line;
In Fig. 4, the cryogenic gas (about -196 DEG C) evaporated in cryogenic fluid memory 1 is collected into pipeline, and input It is compressed in compressor 8, then is input in main heat exchanger 4 and continues to absorb heat, drive 5 high speed of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine Rotation, output mechanical energy or drive generator 6 export electric energy, return in cryogenic fluid memory 1 after steam exhaust condensation;So not Disconnected circulation, continuous power generation output.
It is (therefore low to absorb a large amount of heat of vaporization for the cryogenic liquid working stored in the cryogenic fluid memory 1 after gasification The scale of construction of geothermal liquid evaporation is little), the constantly operation of compressor 8, a large amount of latent heat of vaporization energy that gas is carried are delivered to The input port of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine 5 drives the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine 5 to do work, and output is mechanical It can or drive the rotation output electric energy of generator 6;The heat of vaporization energy conversion that liquid gasification in cryogenic fluid memory 1 is absorbed For power output, while more external energies are also absorbed by the heat exchanger (and/or described main heat exchanger), inputted together Do work and realize that power generation output, the power generation of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine are defeated in the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine Out, to be greater than electric energy consumed by compressor from far away, therefore it is worth for doing so.
Since compressor 8 is run, input terminal forms low pressure or partial vacuum, and liquid in cryogenic fluid memory 1 is caused to be lower than Boiling point evaporation is more advantageous to the condensation of 302 high temperature steam exhaust, low temperature so that liquid in cryogenic fluid memory 1 be made to be lower than boiling point The cryogenic liquid stored in working medium memory 1 is lower than boiling point, is more favorable to the preservation and system circulation of cryogenic liquid working.
Fig. 5 is a kind of traditional condensed steam type turbine equipment structural schematic diagram;Traditional condensed steam type turbine equipment knot is provided Structure schematic diagram is preferably to compare in structure;
As shown in figure 5, traditional steam turbine (or expanding machine, only say steam turbine for convenience of narration) equipment, rotating shaft of steam turbine 101 The bearing at both ends, including input end bearing and bearing block 103, and output end bearing and bearing block 10 and shaft coupling 11 and hair Motor 12 is generally all disposed within the outside of steam turbine equipment cylinder body 105;The sealing at 101 both ends of rotating shaft of steam turbine is to pass through input End axle envelope 104 and output end axle envelope 108 realize, the large-size steam turbine axle envelope in power plant, the leakage rate of steam up to 10 tons/it is small When more than, since steam cost is lower, the steam of leakage does not have destruction to environment yet, meanwhile, power plant also allows that there are one A little leakages.
For acquisition enthalpy drop as much as possible, electricity as multiple as possible, power plant, which can generally be taken, improves input temp (because of material Deng limitation, it is impossible to continue to improve);Therefore, power plant just constantly reduces the output temperature of steam turbine equipment, and steam turbine is allowed to set Standby actings more as far as possible.
As shown in figure 5, turbine high-pressure air inlet 20, the temperature of the generating working medium (steam) of input be 535 DEG C (citing, And it is also common parameter), steam does work in steam turbine equipment, and temperature also constantly reduces, when temperature is reduced in Fig. 5 (latent heat 0, latent heat is all 0), when vapor (steam) temperature is lower than stagnation temperature on critical-temperature for the 374 DEG C of critical-temperature positions marked Degree, just initially forms the latent heat of vaporization in steam, and with the reduction of steam exhaust temperature, the latent heat of vaporization value contained in steam Will be increasing, traditional steam turbine equipment reduces pressure at expulsion in order to obtain enthalpy drop and temperature difference as far as possible as far as possible, The terminal pressure of steam turbine equipment steam exhaust outlet 21 has been introduced into vacuum area, the end of large-scale steamer machine equipment, vacuum degree About 90% (nearly 100% vacuum fastly) is had reached, steam turbine end needs vacuum pump to maintain the height of steam turbine equipment end Spend vacuum.Since steam turbine equipment end is high vacuum, steam exhaust temperature is very low, 50 DEG C of (large-scale vapour as shown in Figure 5 Turbine steam exhaust temperature have been reduced to about 30 DEG C it is even lower), although have dropped down to 100 DEG C of normal boiling points hereinafter, due to steam turbine end High vacuum is held, so remaining as gas.But the latent heat of vaporization that this steam exhaust is contained is very huge, has about utilized heat 2~3 times of (power generation output), about 5 times of 0 DEG C of water are heated to the energy that 100 DEG C of hot water are absorbed;This is a very huge loss And energy dissipation.
Because steam exhaust temperature is very low, backheat can not be carried out to water, huge low-grade latent heat energy is merely able to pass through Cooling tower systems discharge, and most energy that power plant generates boiler combustion can be discharged into environment by cooling tower.This And we are when passing by power plant, it can be seen that there is the reason of many very coarse huge cooling towers in power plant, and power plant will Thermal energy caused by 60~70% boiler combustion coals discharges.Some residual heat generating efficiencies 8~10% or so, about 90% Energy is all discharged by cooling tower systems, very unfortunately.The embodiment of the present invention turns round above data aiming at the above drawback Turn, realizes that most energy switch to power output, very small part energy loss.Want to realize this purpose, from steam turbine Device structure will change, and to reach the requirement of Novel power generation technique process, the improvement of steam turbine or expander plant is real Under applying for example.
Fig. 6 show a kind of steam turbine structure for carrying out shaft end seal using outer cylinder body provided in an embodiment of the present invention and illustrates Figure;
The leakage of traditional steam turbine equipment both ends of the shaft, the influence for water vapor system are not very serious, but for For expensive low-temperature electricity-generating working medium, the generating working medium of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expander plant both ends of the shaft is leaked, It will be an extremely pain in the neck feelings.Problem, application are leaked to solve cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expander plant both ends of the shaft People has found by nearly 20 years of researches, and cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expander plant input terminal and output end are hidden into steamer In machine cylinder body, with the height of cylinder airtightness structure (up to 100% sealing) of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, it can solve low The leakage problem of warm working medium steam turbine or expander plant both ends of the shaft.
Rotating shaft sealing system provided in an embodiment of the present invention for other rotating machineries, high pressure gas input end and Output end, also can use sealing technique identical with the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine and method, thus realize and Reach the nearly zero leakage of rotating shaft sealing system.
As shown in fig. 6, being turned left the input terminal of be illustrated as steam turbine equipment with high pressure admission mouth 20 and top A line;With height Being pressed between port 20 and steam exhaust outlet 21 is steam turbine equipment ontology, as shown in A line in figure and the part B among C line;Steam exhaust Outlet 21 and top C line turn right illustrated be steam turbine equipment output end;
Cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine as shown in FIG. 6, insulated case 102 divide for upper insulated case and lower insulated shell Body (the lower insulated case that Fig. 6 show steam turbine equipment);The end position of bearings of rotating shaft of steam turbine 101 is set, under described Insulated case is located in lower cylinder body, and is combined closely with the lower cylinder body of steam turbine cylinder 105;The input end bearing and bearing block 103 are arranged in the lower insulated case of the insulated case 102, support the weight of rotating shaft of steam turbine 101, and are additionally provided with and push away Power bearing limits the axial movement of rotating shaft of steam turbine 101;The contact position of insulated case 102 and rotating shaft of steam turbine 101, is equipped with Insulated case sealing 22, the insulated case sealing 22 prevent the bearing oil in insulated case 102 from sealing from insulated case Leakage is externally generated at 22;
Optionally, axle envelope 104 is additionally provided between high pressure admission mouth 20 and input terminal, it is therefore an objective to prevent high pressure admission mouth 20 defeated The high temperature and high pressure gas entered enters insulated case 102;Optionally, it between the axle envelope 104 and insulated case 102, is additionally provided with defeated Enter to hold reserved thermal insulation areas 19, it is therefore an objective to isolation and reduce the high temperature that high pressure admission mouth 20 inputs, influence insulated case 102 and in The input end bearing and bearing block 103 in face, since the upper insulated case of insulated case 102 and lower insulated case are closed structures, Internal pressure is identical as 20 input pressure of high pressure admission mouth, therefore the high pressure gas that high pressure admission mouth 20 inputs, and is difficult to enter into Inside insulated case 102.There are also axle envelopes 104 and insulated case sealing 22 simultaneously;The insulated case sealing 22 settable two Or it is multiple, the high temperature and high pressure gas that setting can be such that high pressure admission mouth 20 inputs in this way hardly enters, while also can avoid insulated shell Lubricating oil in body 102 is difficult to leak out;
Optionally, it is reserved between thermal insulation areas 19 in insulated case sealing 22 and input terminal, is additionally provided with input terminal reserved space Or pipeline 23, the input terminal reserved space or pipeline 23 are isolation, while storing and leaking out from insulated case sealing 22 Lubricating oil, and the lubricating oil of the leakage is discharged by first pipe valve 24 and first pipe outlet 25;
Preferably, as shown in fig. 6, the outside of the insulated case 102 and lower cylinder body 105, is additionally provided with and the insulated shell The connected lubricating oil output channel 26 of body, lubrication oil reservoir 27, lubricating oil filter 28, lube oil cooler 29 and lubrication Oil pump 30 and lubricating oil high input voltage pipeline 31, by the lubricating oil high input voltage pipeline 31 by abundance, completely, low temperature (controllable temperature) lubricating oil, be delivered in the insulated case 102, be supplied to input end bearing and bearing block 103, it is sufficient , clean, the lubricating oil guarantee of low temperature;Ensure to input the operation that end bearing and bearing block 103 can be safe and stable.
The lubrication oil reservoir 27, lubricating oil filter 28, lube oil cooler 29 can carry out unlimited number of group It closes, by grease pump 30 and lubricating oil high input voltage pipeline 31, lubricating oil is delivered to the bearing in the insulated case 102 With bearing block 103;
The lubricating oil filter 28, lube oil cooler 29 and grease pump 30 may be provided in the cylinder body of steam turbine equipment Outside, it may be alternatively provided at the cylinder interior of steam turbine equipment.
When lube oil cooler 29 be arranged in cylinder interior, there is pipeline to contact with the external world in the lube oil cooler, By the meson flowing inside pipeline, outside the heat transfer to cylinder body of lubricating oil in cylinder body, by being returned after heat exchanger cooling Return to cylinder interior.
As shown in fig. 6, being the sheet of steam turbine equipment (or expander plant) between high pressure admission mouth 20 and steam exhaust outlet 21 Body is partition board of steam turbine 7 and impeller of rotor 6 shown in Fig. 6, can also be the impeller of expanding machine, the embodiment of the present invention is to ontology Structure and working principle are not specifically limited, and provided in an embodiment of the present invention is a kind of the weary of 21 output of output end steam exhaust outlet Vapour, temperature reach the steam turbine equipment or expander plant of working medium critical-temperature.For example, the input of high pressure admission mouth 20 is about 20 ~100 DEG C or more of pressure-air (critical-temperature of remote super air), cryogenic fluid steam turbine equipment output end steam exhaust outlet 21 The steam exhaust temperature of output just has to the critical-temperature (about -146 DEG C) for reaching air, the operating condition of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine Area is in the critical-temperature of the generating working medium (air) or more always.
Optionally, as shown in fig. 6, the embodiment of the present invention also provides a kind of output by cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine End is also provided in the technical em- bodiments of cylinder interior;Since the cost is relatively high for low-temperature electricity-generating working medium, to the low temperature work The leakage of matter steam turbine or expanding machine requires harsh;The embodiment of the present invention provides a kind of that cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine is defeated The technical method of the progress cylinder body sealing of outlet, which is characterized in that the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine are by output end axis Hold with 11 generator 12 of bearing block 10 and shaft coupling, be put into the output end cylinder body 105 of steam turbine equipment, and to steam turbine Or the output end cylinder body 105 of expanding machine does the improvement of installation 12 position of generator, to be adapted to fit gen-set 12;
The input terminal and output end of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine are put into the cylinder interior of equipment, with low temperature work The height airtightness structure (nearly 100% sealing) of matter steam turbine or expanding machine cylinder body carries out the shaft end seal of rotating shaft of steam turbine 101, Expensive low-temperature electricity-generating working medium is avoided to leak from the axle envelope of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or the both ends of the shaft of expander plant.
The output end embodiment of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine is as follows: output end bearing and bearing block 10 are located at Position far from output end axle envelope 108;Optionally, setting output end reserves thermal insulation areas 18;Output end bearing and bearing block 10 are set In output end insulated case 9, output end insulated case 9 is identical as input end structure, insulated case and upper insulated case under point, The lower cylinder body of the lower insulated case and steam turbine equipment cylinder body 105 is combined closely, insulated case and lower insulated shell on output end Body forms a closed adiabatic space by flange and bolt fastening, inside;Optionally, profit is set at the top of the upper insulated case Lubricating oil injection hole enables and injects lubricating oil in the adiabatic space of the bearing and bearing block;
Optionally, the output end insulated case 9 further includes having the lubricating oil being connected with the output end insulated case 9 defeated Pipeline, lubricating oil filter, lube oil cooler and grease pump out;The cryogenic high pressure lubricating oil warp of the grease pump output Lubricating oil input duct is sent to the output end insulated case 9, provides abundance for output end bearing and bearing block 10, completely , the lubricating oil of low temperature, it is ensured that the operation that output end bearing and bearing block 10 can be safe and stable, specific implementation content with it is defeated Enter to hold identical, does not repeat excessively herein;
It should be noted that output end insulated case 9 and shaft 101 are gathered around, there are two contact positions, therefore output end is insulated There are two housing seals 32, is separately positioned on two contact positions being in contact with shaft 101 as shown in Figure 6;The output end Bearing oil in 32 prevention output end insulated cases 9 of insulated case sealing is from output end insulated case sealing 32 to leaking Leakage;The shaft end of output end rotating shaft of steam turbine 101, the shaft for being additionally provided with shaft coupling 11 and generator 12 carry out shaft coupling, facilitate hair The maintenance and replacement of motor 12;Optionally, output end reserved space or pipeline 17 are separately positioned on 9 two sides of output end insulated case Lower cylinder body 105 in, store from the lubricating oil that leaks out from output end insulated case sealing 32, and pass through second pipe valve 16 and third pipeline valve 13 by the lubricating oil leaked out be discharged;It should be noted that output end generator 12 produces electricl energy, pass through The connecting terminal being located on steam turbine equipment cylinder body 105 is drawn, and does not interfere with the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine is set Standby sealing performance.
The high pressure admission mouth 20 and steam exhaust outlet 21 of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expander plant, are all using airtight performance Excellent flange and fastened by screw is not in leakage, therefore cryogenic fluid steam turbine or swollen provided by the embodiment of the present invention Swollen machine equipment possesses multi-sealed measure;The cryogenic fluid of cost costly can be met to set cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine The challenging needs of standby anti-leak.It is worth noting that, the technology is relatively independent, technical side provided by the embodiment of the present invention Case is also applied to other slewings and need to prevent on the product leaked, therefore also belongs to provided by the embodiment of the present invention, With individual technical method scheme feature.When quoting these technical characteristics, the approval of applicant is also obtained.
Fig. 7 provides a kind of use outer cylinder body progress shaft end seal for the embodiment of the present invention, and exhaust steam in steam turbine temperature reaches water The steam turbine structure schematic diagram of critical-temperature (374 DEG C of latent heat are 0);
In Fig. 7, shaft end seal is carried out using steam turbine (or expanding machine) equipment cylinder body, the sealing performance of the system is (reachable It 100%) identical as Fig. 6 can achieve to nearly close to zero leakage;Electricity generation system working medium can not only reduce this power generation close to zero leakage The loss of generating working medium in system, while the whole generating efficiency of the electricity generation system and dynamical system can also be improved;
In addition to this, it is compared by Fig. 5 and Fig. 7, in 535 DEG C of steam that Fig. 5 mesohigh air inlet 20 inputs, steam acting Temperature reduces;After temperature drops to 374 DEG C of water critical temperature, traditional steam turbine (or expanding machine) equipment continues to do work, and steams Stripping temperature is reduced to 100 DEG C of water vapour normal boiling point and is discharged hereinafter, just exporting 21 from exhaust steam in steam turbine after 50 DEG C in such as Fig. 5, weary Contain a large amount of latent heat of vaporization in vapour, need to be discharged by equipment such as cooling towers and to cold air in environment or cold water huge low Grade latent heat energy, to cause the reduction of electricity generation system efficiency.
Steam turbine equipment provided in an embodiment of the present invention and traditional steam turbine equipment, there is huge differences, such as Fig. 7 institute Show, steam turbine provided in an embodiment of the present invention, when vapor (steam) temperature be reduced to generating working medium water critical-temperature (about 374 DEG C, latent heat It is not latent in steam exhaust at this time 0), just not continue to do work, but directly by 21 discharge of steam turbine or expanding machine steam exhaust outlet Heat, latent heat is 0 in other words, and latent heat becomes sensible heat;The steam exhaust for reaching critical-temperature (374 DEG C) high temperature in this way, completely can be by weary Vapour regenerator 3 to the low-temperature cold water backheat of water pump output (about 20 DEG C, environment temperature), arrive by the cold water temperature promotion for enabling water pump export Close to critical-temperature (nearly 374 DEG C, there is 0.5 DEG C or more of metal pipe-wall heat transfer temperature difference), inputs in main heat exchanger 4 (such as boiler) and add Heat can save a large amount of energy (about saving 2/3 energy);Meanwhile (about 20 DEG C) cold water of water pump output, for temperature Reaching is the equal of cooling water for the steam exhaust of critical-temperature (374 DEG C), and steam exhaust regenerator 3 is also the condensing of high temperature steam exhaust herein Device;Such as the water that cryogenic liquid pump 2 exports is 20 DEG C, is exchanged heat with 374 DEG C of critical-temperature high temperature steam exhaust, temperature is thus lifted to 370 DEG C (there are about 4 DEG C of metal pipe-wall heat transfer temperature differences for heat exchanger) will absorb about 2900kj/kg thermal energy, and 374 DEG C of high temperature steam exhaust are changed with cold water After heat loss 2900kj/kg thermal energy, temperature is reduced to about 30 DEG C, becomes 20 DEG C of water after heat exchanger is cooling, back to 20 DEG C In the water tank of environment temperature, standby next time is recycled;
Since steam exhaust is discharged from 374 DEG C of critical-temperatures, the acting of steam turbine or expander plant is substantially reduced, high-temperature steam 374 DEG C are reduced to from 535 DEG C, only about 535 DEG C of Rankine cycle 1/3, about 2/3 thermal energy for being reduced to 50 DEG C are logical for acting output Steam exhaust regenerator 3 (first half for being equivalent to boiler) return is crossed, the output power of steam turbine is substantially reduced;Think acquisition and Rankine Identical output power is recycled, cryogenic liquid pump 2 just needs to be further added by the flow of about twice, and cryogenic liquid pump 2 increases flow, water The power consumption of pump 2 also will increase, but the energy that steam turbine 5 exports, and much cover the power consumption of water pump 2, therefore leave no room for manoeuvre in this way To worth;
Doing so maximum benefit is, the steam exhaust temperature that steam turbine 5 is discharged is very high, and (about 374 DEG C, latent heat 0, latent heat becomes aobvious Heat), it can be achieved with the 20 DEG C of water at low temperature backheats exported to water pump 2, the generating working medium (20 DEG C of low-temperature cold waters) of water pump output is realized The high temperature steam exhaust of 374 DEG C of " oneself cools down oneself " (critical-temperature), does not need the cooling tower systems of off-energy in Rankine cycle; Because not having cooling tower systems to lose huge energy in the electricity generation system, so generating efficiency is very high, thus can realize reverse, The equipment such as boiler absorb most of energy and all switch to power output, the only energy loss of sub-fraction;The market of this change Meaning is that power plant can more generate electricity and export energy, while also minimum to the destruction of environment.
It is the change of electrification technique above, steam turbine equipment is also required to carry out some changes, traditional rankine cycle steam turbine Equipment, the vacuum pressure that pressure at expulsion is negative, final stage and second last stage blade are very long, and comparatively material and manufacturing cost are higher, vapour Turbine is bulky, and blade is too long also to will cause flutter and fracture, and steam turbine end needs vacuum pump to go to maintain vacuum.While because Steam moisture is big, and blade is easily subject to condensation water erosion;In addition in addition, the recirculated water of cooling tower has sediment and corrosion Property, a series of problems, such as heat exchange efficiency reduces can be will cause to corrosion condenser, precipitate.
Steam turbine provided in an embodiment of the present invention cuts down traditional steam turbine all exhaust stage blade and second last stage blade.It enables The steam exhaust temperature of steam turbine discharge reaches the critical-temperature (water is 374 DEG C, and steam exhaust latent heat is 0, and latent heat becomes sensible heat) of working medium, and use is low The cryogenic liquid working water of geothermal liquid pump output, realizes the condensation to high temperature steam exhaust.Compared to traditional steam turbine, body is not only simplified Product reduces the excessive probability for causing flutter and fracture of traditional turbine blade, improves the reliability of steam turbine equipment, moreover it is possible to reduce Steam turbine equipment cost, and also save cooling system cost.
Fig. 8 is provided in an embodiment of the present invention a kind of using outer cylinder body progress shaft end seal, cryogenic fluid steam turbine or swollen The steam exhaust of swollen machine discharge, temperature reach a kind of cryogenic fluid steamer of liquid nitrogen (or liquid air) critical-temperature (- 146 DEG C, latent heat 0) Machine structural schematic diagram;
In Fig. 8, shaft end seal, the sealing performance of the system are carried out using the cylinder body of cryogenic fluid steam turbine (or expanding machine) (it can reach that nearly 100%) is identical as Fig. 6 to may be implemented nearly zero leakage;The nearly zero leakage of electricity generation system working medium can not only reduce this hair The loss of generating working medium in electric system, while the whole generating efficiency of the electricity generation system and dynamical system can also be improved;
There is huge with traditional steam turbine equipment for cryogenic fluid steam turbine provided in an embodiment of the present invention or expander plant Big difference, the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine select low temperature material, including are not limited to austenitic cryogenic steel, iron Ferritic low-temperature steel, other low temperature resistant steel alloys and other low temperature materials.
The device external of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine is additionally provided with heat insulation layer, the heat insulating material of the heat insulation layer Material has good heat-insulating property, including is not limited to vacuum insulation panel, aeroge, foamed material, fibrous material, glass Cotton, high silica wool;It further include having ice chest, and cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expander plant are placed in the ice chest;
As shown in figure 8, cryogenic fluid steam turbine provided in an embodiment of the present invention or expanding machine, what high pressure admission mouth 20 inputted High pressure nitrogen, temperature be more than critical-temperature (up to 30 DEG C or more), when steam exhaust temperature drop to the critical-temperature of generating working medium nitrogen (about- 146 DEG C, heat of vaporization 0), do not continue to do work, but directly pass through the steam exhaust outlet 21 of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine Steam turbine is discharged, not having latent heat in steam exhaust at this time, latent heat is 0 in other words;Latent heat becomes sensible heat, reaches nitrogen critical-temperature (- 146 DEG C) steam exhaust, completely can be by steam exhaust regenerator 3 to the extremely low temperature of the output of cryogenic liquid pump 2 (temperature reach -190 DEG C or less) Liquid nitrogen (liquid air) backheat.The liquid nitrogen temperature for enabling cryogenic liquid pump 2 export is lifted approximately critical-temperature, and (closely -146 DEG C, there is 0.5 DEG C Above metal pipe-wall heat transfer temperature difference), the middle heating of input main heat exchanger 4 (such as waste heat boiler) can save a large amount of energy;Together When, the pole low temperature liquid nitrogen (reaching -190 DEG C or less) that cryogenic liquid pump 2 exports enables temperature reach critical-temperature (- 146 DEG C or more) Steam exhaust condensation.
The steam exhaust regenerator 3, herein and the condenser of critical-temperature steam exhaust;For example, the output of cryogenic liquid pump 2 is low Warm liquid nitrogen is -190 DEG C hereinafter, exchanging heat with -146 DEG C or more of high temperature steam exhaust, temperature be thus lifted to about -147 DEG C (heat exchanger there are about 1 DEG C of metal pipe-wall heat transfer temperature difference) about 216kj/kg thermal energy will be absorbed, reach -146 DEG C of high temperature steam exhaust and the liquid nitrogen of extremely low temperature changes Heat, after losing the thermal energy of 216kj/kg, temperature is reduced to about -189 DEG C hereinafter, returning in cryogenic fluid memory, under standby Secondary recycling;
As shown in figure 8, the high pressure admission mouth 20 of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, the high pressure gas of input is more than power generation The critical-temperature (as shown, about 30 DEG C or more) of working medium, the steam exhaust temperature for enabling cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine be discharged reach It is defeated using cryogenic liquid pump to generating working medium critical-temperature (nitrogen is -146 DEG C or more, and steam exhaust latent heat is 0, and latent heat becomes sensible heat) The liquid nitrogen of extremely low temperature out realizes the condensation to high temperature steam exhaust.Compared to traditional steam turbine, volume is not only simplified, reduces low temperature The excessive probability for causing flutter to be broken of working medium turbine blade, improves the reliability of cryogenic fluid steam turbine equipment;
It is acted on by equipment collaborations such as steam exhaust regenerator, cryogenic liquid pumps, a kind of low temperature is realized, without cooling tower systems , efficient, electricity generation system and dynamical system.With the stagnation temperature for the extremely cryogenic liquid cooling oneself that cryogenic liquid pump exports High temperature steam exhaust is spent, the cold end of system is completely independent, therefore can solve the cold of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, air etc. low-temperature steam exhaust Solidifying problem also opens gate for the power generation of realization low-grade energy, hot water power generation, the low grade residual heat utilization of resources.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system, which is characterized in that the system is cold by power generation pipeline, steam exhaust backheat Solidifying pipeline and cryogenic fluid cooling line are constituted;
The power generation pipeline, including sequentially connected cryogenic fluid memory, cryogenic liquid pump, main heat exchanger, cryogenic fluid vapour Turbine or expanding machine and generator are constituted;
The steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe, including steam exhaust regenerator;
The cryogenic fluid cooling line, including compressor, cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;
The cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, are made of stationary part and rotating part;The cryogenic fluid steam turbine or The stationary part of expanding machine and/or the material of rotating part are low temperature material, including austenitic cryogenic steel, ferritic steel for low temperature service And other low temperature resistant steel alloys;
The cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine are divided into from output is input to, the input of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine End;The apparatus body of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;With the output end of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;
The high pressure gas Temperature of Working for enabling the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine input terminal be inputted necessarily is greater than the hair The critical-temperature of electrician's matter;
The steam exhaust Temperature of Working for enabling the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine output end are discharged has to reach the power generation The critical-temperature of working medium;The steam exhaust latent heat for enabling the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine output end is zero;
The operating condition area for enabling the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, is in the critical-temperature of the generating working medium or more always;
The cryogenic fluid steam turbine or the output end of expander plant connect steam exhaust regenerator, the steam exhaust regenerator and low temperature The cryogenic liquid generating working medium heat exchange of liquid pump output;The cryogenic liquid working for enabling the cryogenic liquid pump output, condenses low temperature What working medium steam turbine or expander plant exported, temperature reaches the high temperature steam exhaust of generating working medium critical-temperature.
2. cryogenic fluid electricity generation system according to claim 1 and dynamical system, which is characterized in that the power generation pipeline with The steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe joins end to end, and forms closed loop;
The power generation pipeline further includes the cryogenic pipe of steam exhaust regenerator, and the cryogenic pipe of the steam exhaust regenerator is arranged in low temperature Between liquid pump and main heat exchanger;
The steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe further includes the steam exhaust outlet and cryogenic fluid storage of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine Device;The high temperature conduit of the steam exhaust regenerator be arranged in the steam exhaust outlet of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine with it is described low Between warm working medium memory;
The cryogenic fluid memory, the cryogenic liquid pump, the cryogenic pipe of the steam exhaust regenerator, the main heat exchanger, The cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine are sequentially communicated;The steam exhaust of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine exports, connection The high temperature conduit of steam exhaust regenerator;The high temperature conduit of the steam exhaust regenerator exports, and connects the cryogenic fluid memory entrance;
The main heat exchanger include boiler, waste heat boiler, high-temperature flue gas heat exchanger, hot water waste liquid heat exchanger, waste-heat recoverer, Air heat exchanger, condenser, any one or more combination in device cooling system.
3. cryogenic fluid electricity generation system according to claim 1 and dynamical system, which is characterized in that the cryogenic fluid is cold But pipeline, by the cryogenic fluid memory, the second cryogenic pipe of steam exhaust regenerator, the main heat exchanger, heat exchanger, pressure Contracting machine, the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expansion mechanism at;
The cryogenic fluid memory, the second cryogenic pipe of the steam exhaust regenerator, the heat exchanger, the compressor, The cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine are sequentially communicated;
Or the cryogenic fluid memory, the second cryogenic pipe of the steam exhaust regenerator, the compressor, the main heat exchange Device, the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine are sequentially communicated;
Or the cryogenic fluid memory, the compressor, the main heat exchanger, the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine It is sequentially communicated.
4. cryogenic fluid electricity generation system according to claim 1 and dynamical system, which is characterized in that the cryogenic fluid vapour Turbine or expanding machine are made of stationary part and rotating part;The cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine are from being input to output again It is divided into, the input terminal of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;The ontology of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;With cryogenic fluid vapour The output end of turbine or expanding machine;
The input terminal of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, including input terminal cylinder body, input end bearing and bearing block, input Hold shaft, high pressure admission mouth;The input end bearing and bearing block include spring bearing and thrust bearing;In the input terminal The outside of bearing and bearing block, is additionally provided with insulated case;
The upper insulated case of the insulated case point and lower insulated case;The lower insulated case is located at input end bearing and bearing block In the lower cylinder of position, and combine closely with lower cylinder;The input end bearing and bearing block are mounted on described in lower cylinder In lower insulated case;
The lower insulated case and the upper insulated case are equipped with flange, by the flange and bolt fastening, the lower insulation The inner cavity of shell and the upper insulated case forms a closed adiabatic space;The input terminal shaft, the input terminal axis It holds and bearing block and lubricating oil, is sealed in inside the adiabatic space of the insulated case;
The insulated case wraps up the contact position of the input terminal shaft, is provided with insulated case sealing, the insulated case Sealing prevents the intracorporal bearing oil of insulated shell from insulated case sealing place to external leakage.
5. cryogenic fluid electricity generation system according to claim 4 and dynamical system, which is characterized in that the insulated case Upper insulated case and lower insulated case are by the flange and bolt fastening, one closed adiabatic space of internal formation, and Lubricating oil injection hole is set at the top of the upper insulated case, enables and injects lubricating oil in the adiabatic space of the bearing and bearing block;
The insulated case further includes having the lubricating oil output channel being connected with the insulated case, lubricating oil filter, lubrication Oil cooler and grease pump;The cryogenic high pressure lubricating oil of the grease pump output is sent through lubricating oil input duct to described exhausted The intracorporal bearing of hot shell and bearing block;
The lubricating oil filter, the lube oil cooler and the grease pump are arranged in cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expansion The cylinder interior of machine, and/or be arranged in outside the cylinder body of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;
In the cylinder body of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, be additionally provided with lubricating oil temperature probe, lubricating oil pressure probe, The cylinder interior pressure probe of lubricants capacity probe and cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine;
Between the high pressure admission mouth and the insulated case, it is additionally provided with axle envelope, between the insulated case and the axle envelope, Being additionally provided with input terminal reserved space, perhaps the pipeline input terminal reserved space or pipeline are located in lower cylinder, are stored from exhausted The lubricating oil leaked out at hot housing seal, and the lubricating oil leaked out is discharged by first pipe valve.
6. according to cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system described in claim 4-5, which is characterized in that the cryogenic fluid The output end of steam turbine or expanding machine, include steam exhaust outlet, output end cylinder body, output end bearing and bearing block, shaft coupling and Generator;
Output end bearing and bearing block and gen-set are hidden into low by the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine In the output end cylinder body of warm working medium steam turbine or expanding machine;
The input terminal of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, the output end of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, It is arranged in the cylinder body of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, with cryogenic fluid steam turbine or the height of cylinder airtightness of expanding machine Structure is sealed, and avoids expensive low-temperature electricity-generating working medium, from the shaft two of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine It is leaked at the axle envelope at end.
7. cryogenic fluid electricity generation system according to claim 1 and dynamical system, which is characterized in that the cryogenic fluid is deposited The working medium stored in reservoir is natural gas, methane, ethane, air, oxygen, nitrogen, argon gas, the hydrogen of liquid, helium, hydro carbons gas The cryogenic liquid working of any one or more combination of body, gas refrigerant pure substance, gas refrigeration agent composition;
The power generation pipeline, steam exhaust backheat condenser pipe and cryogenic fluid cooling line and corresponding connecting pipe are low temperature resistant Material, including it is not limited to austenitic cryogenic steel, ferritic steel for low temperature service, other low temperature resistant steel alloys and other low temperature resistant materials Material.
8. cryogenic fluid electricity generation system according to claim 7 and dynamical system, which is characterized in that the cryogenic fluid hair The device external of electric system and dynamical system, is additionally provided with heat insulation layer, and the heat-insulating material of the heat insulation layer has good thermal insulation Can, including it is not limited to vacuum insulation panel, aeroge, foamed material, fibrous material, mineral wool, high silica wool;
The cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system further include having ice chest, and Cryo Equipment is placed in the ice chest; The ice chest is additionally provided with isolation;The ice chest is externally insulated by lagging casing, and the isolation again sets the low temperature of different temperatures It is standby to be isolated and be insulated.
9. the technique of a kind of room temperature working medium electricity generation system and dynamical system is suitable for of any of claims 1-6 low Warm working medium electricity generation system and dynamical system, include the following steps:
The generating working medium stored in the cryogenic liquid working memory is water (about 20 DEG C), is pressurizeed by cryogenic liquid pump, is flowed Cryogenic pipe through steam exhaust regenerator is delivered in the main heat exchanger (such as boiler plant) and is heated to 500 DEG C or more, water heat absorption High temperature and high pressure gas is formed, the steam turbine or expander plant high speed rotation and acting are inputted and drive;Output mechanical energy or Person drives generator high speed rotation to export electric energy;The steam turbine or the steam exhaust temperature of expander plant output, reach facing for water Boundary's temperature (about 374 DEG C, latent heat 0, latent heat becomes sensible heat), the cold water (about 20 DEG C of environment temperatures) exported with cryogenic liquid pump is cold The steam exhaust becomes water (close to 20 DEG C, metallic walls have 0.5 DEG C or more of heat transfer temperature difference), and returns to the cryogenic liquid work It is spare in matter memory, complete a power generation process;
Water (about 20 DEG C, environment temperature) in the cryogenic liquid working memory, is boosted to described weary by cryogenic liquid pump In the cryogenic pipe of vapour regenerator, continue the exhaust steam heat energy (up to 374 DEG C, critical-temperature) for absorbing steam turbine or expanding machine output, Coolant-temperature gage is thus lifted to close to critical-temperature (having 0.5 DEG C or more of metallic walls heat transfer temperature difference), and from the low temperature of steam exhaust regenerator Tube outlet is delivered in the main heat exchanger (such as boiler plant), and being heated to 500 DEG C or more becomes high temperature and high pressure gas, driving The steam turbine or expanding machine high speed rotation and acting, output mechanical energy or drive electrical power generators output, so constantly recycle, Continuous power generation output;The operating condition area of the steam turbine or expander plant, always more than (374 DEG C) critical-temperature of water, The steam turbine or the steam exhaust temperature of expanding machine discharge are the critical-temperature of water.
10. the technique of a kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system is suitable for of any of claims 1-8 low Warm working medium electricity generation system and dynamical system, include the following steps:
The cryogenic fluid stored in the cryogenic fluid memory is that normal boiling point is lower than -190 DEG C of liquid airs (or liquid nitrogen) below, It is pressurizeed by cryogenic liquid pump, flows through the cryogenic pipe of steam exhaust regenerator, be delivered in the main heat exchanger (such as waste heat boiler) Heating;Low-temperature electricity-generating working medium absorbs heat to form high temperature and high pressure gas, inputs and drive the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine high Speed rotation and acting;Output mechanical energy drives generator high speed rotation to export electric energy;
The steam exhaust of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine output, temperature reach the critical-temperature of low-temperature electricity-generating working medium (air) (- 146 DEG C or more, the latent heat of vaporization 0, latent heat becomes sensible heat), the cryogenic liquid exported with cryogenic liquid pump, temperature is down to -190 DEG C The cooling high temperature steam exhaust of liquid air (or liquid nitrogen) below, enables the high temperature steam exhaust be condensed into the liquid air (liquid nitrogen) of extremely low temperature, It is back in the cryogenic fluid memory, it is spare, complete a power generation cycle process;
The low temperature liquid air (or liquid nitrogen, -190 DEG C or less) stored in the cryogenic fluid memory, is pressurizeed by cryogenic liquid pump, It is delivered in the cryogenic pipe of the steam exhaust regenerator, absorbs the high temperature steam exhaust heat of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine output (critical-temperature for reaching -146 DEG C), the temperature of cryogenic liquid generating working medium are thus lifted to that (nearly -146 DEG C, have close to critical-temperature 0.5 DEG C or more of metal pipe-wall heat transfer temperature difference), and the main heat exchanger is delivered to from the outlet of the cryogenic pipe of steam exhaust regenerator Heating in (such as waste heat boiler);The air for continuing to absorb heat into high temperature and pressure, input and drive the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or The acting of expanding machine high speed rotation, output mechanical energy or drive generator rotation output electric energy;So constantly recycle, it is continuous to generate electricity Output;
The cryogenic fluid (liquid air or liquid nitrogen) stored in the cryogenic fluid memory, due to the metal of the steam exhaust regenerator There are the reasons such as heat transfer temperature difference for tube wall, cause the fluid temperature of the high temperature conduit delivery outlet of the steam exhaust regenerator higher, return Into the cryogenic fluid memory, it will cause the cryogenic liquid temperature stored in the cryogenic fluid memory and constantly rise Height in turn results in the Low Temperature Liquid stored in cryogenic fluid memory so that a part of cryogenic liquid working be caused to gasify and be lost Body is constantly reduced;
To avoid such case, the cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system, it is additionally provided with cryogenic fluid cooling line; For the cryogenic fluid cooling line by cryogenic fluid memory, the cryogenic gas evaporated introduces compressor by pipeline In;By compressor adherence pressure, it is delivered in heat exchanger (or main heat exchanger) and continues to absorb thermal energy, then through pressure piping It is delivered to the input port of the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, the cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine high speed is driven to revolve Turn acting, output mechanical energy or drive generator rotation output electric energy;So continuous circulation, continuous power generation output;
The cryogenic liquid working stored in the cryogenic fluid memory absorbs a large amount of heat of vaporization, the compressor after gasification Continuous operation, a large amount of latent heat of vaporization energy that gas is carried are delivered to the input port of cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine, The cryogenic fluid steam turbine or expanding machine is driven to do work, output mechanical energy or drive generator rotation output electric energy;By low temperature The heat of vaporization energy conversion that liquid gasification in working medium memory absorbs is power output, and is made in the cryogenic fluid memory Cryogenic liquid working temperature reduce;Maintain its low temperature fluid state.
CN201910052868.9A 2019-01-21 2019-01-21 A kind of cryogenic fluid electricity generation system and dynamical system Withdrawn CN109538318A (en)

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