CN109526506B - Cultivation management method for interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut forest in stony desertification region - Google Patents

Cultivation management method for interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut forest in stony desertification region Download PDF

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CN109526506B
CN109526506B CN201811353766.2A CN201811353766A CN109526506B CN 109526506 B CN109526506 B CN 109526506B CN 201811353766 A CN201811353766 A CN 201811353766A CN 109526506 B CN109526506 B CN 109526506B
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walnut
chinese mahonia
planting
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CN109526506A (en
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刘宇锋
骆相华
张武贵
安永发
苏天明
苏利荣
秦芳
李琴
曾成城
梁芷姮
牙韩良
李慈代
罗荣标
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Agricultural Resource and Environment Research Institute of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention discloses a cultivation and management method for interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut trees in a stony desertification region, which comprises the following steps: (1) selecting walnut interplanting forest land and arranging the interplanting forest land; (2) accelerating germination of walnut and Chinese mahonia; (3) walnut and Chinese mahonia seedling raising method; (4) domestication and thinning of walnuts and Chinese mahonia; (5) planting and interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut trees; (6) intertillage weeding and irrigation; (7) fertilizing walnuts and Chinese mahonia under the interplanting condition; (8) pest control; (9) fruit harvesting and seed preparation. According to the invention, mahonia is interplanted under the walnut forest, the spatial distribution characteristics of different plants and nutrients in different levels in soil are fully utilized, the land utilization efficiency of the walnut forest land is improved, and the stony desertification hazard is reduced; meanwhile, the economic income of walnut planting farmers is increased by harvesting Chinese mahonia, and the walnut planting is ensured to play a long-term role in stony desertification control.

Description

Cultivation management method for interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut forest in stony desertification region
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of economic forest cultivation, and particularly relates to a cultivation management method for interplanting mahonia under walnut trees in a stony desertification region.
Background
The stony desertification is the phenomenon that in tropical and subtropical monsoon climatic conditions, karst is extremely developed, surface vegetation is artificially damaged, soil is seriously lost due to rain wash, large-area bedrock is exposed, and the rocky desertification is an extreme form of land degradation in karst regions. Internationally defined as: the land degeneration and the change to the desert landscape in arid, semiarid and semihumid areas caused by climate factors and human activities. Stony desertification and karst fragile ecological management are one of the focuses of current global sustainable development strategy research.
At present, land utilization in Guangxi rocky desertification areas is mainly characterized by the following 3 characteristics: 1. the ecological safety position is important. For a long time, the stony desertification causes the function degradation of the regional ecological system, the abilities of intercepting, storing and reducing water and regulating runoff in a drainage basin are weakened, and the water and soil loss is serious, thereby not only directly influencing the development and utilization of local water and electricity resources, but also threatening the ecological safety of middle and lower reaches of the west river. 2. The cultivated land resources are scarce, and the land productivity level is low. According to statistics, the per capita area in Guangxi in 2015 is only 1.19 mu, and the per capita area in a part of regions with serious stony desertification is lower than the level of the whole region, so that the land-to-land relationship is tense. And most of stony desertification areas belong to dry land, belong to slope croplands without effective irrigation, and due to the topographic conditions of high mountains and steep slopes, the unique karst double-layer geological structure and the climate characteristics of abundant and concentrated rainfall, limited land resources are easily lost by surface runoff washing and are also easily leaked from pores to the underground, the soil is difficult to store water and preserve water, the nutrients are lost, and the land productivity level is low. 3. Poor population is concentrated, and economic development ability is weak. According to statistics, in 2014, 28 national poverty relief development major counties, 21 autonomous region poverty relief development major counties and 538 ten thousand of poverty relief population are contained in Guangxi, wherein 90% of the 28 national poverty relief counties belong to rocky desertification regions, 80% of the poverty relief population are distributed in the rocky desertification regions, and the poverty relief population in the rocky desertification regions is large. Most of stony desertification areas are located in 'old, few, marginal, mountain and poor' areas in Guangxi, the total value of local production mostly comes from planting, breeding and part of low-end service industries, farmers can only grow on low-value dry land crops such as corn and the like in stone cracks, the method belongs to a typical planting mode of wide variety and thin harvest, and the difficulty of poverty removal and hardness attack is large. In short, the stony desertification problem has become a major ecological environment problem in Guangxi, and has become a source of disasters and a cause of poverty. Therefore, the exploration and development of comprehensive ecological environment improvement in Guangxi rocky desertification areas are very important for strengthening and protecting the ecological construction of the land and promoting the ecological civilized construction.
Human intervention remains an important approach for the reconstruction and restoration of the karst vulnerable ecosystem. For the control of stony desertification, artificial afforestation is still a shortcut for rapidly recovering the functions of an ecosystem. Whether the selection of the afforestation tree species is correct or not is one of the key factors for controlling the success or failure of the stony desertification. Walnut (Juglans regia Linn), a woody oil plant, an economic plant of the genus Juglans of the family Juglandaceae of the subclass Hamamelis, is also a precious tree species. The walnut has the characteristics of developed underground root system, strong water conservation effect, vigorous branch and leaf growth, strong drought resistance, low requirement on soil environment and the like in ecology, has larger water and soil conservation and water conservation capability, can adapt to the ecological environment of a stony desertification area, and is one of the advantages of stony desertification control and pioneer tree species. Guangxi as one of the suitable areas of walnuts in China, the area of the existing walnut forest is 1 ten thousand more hm2The walnut trees account for 0.5 percent of the total area of the walnut forest in China, and are mainly distributed in 21 counties of 4 cities of river ponds, Bai-Sha, Liuzhou and Hezhou, wherein walnut planting in the northwest of the Guizhou is more centralized. The walnut industry is gradually becoming a dominant industry, a leading industry and a sunrise industry for Guangxi stony desertification comprehensive treatment, regional economic development promotion and farmer income increase.
Mahonia fortunei (Lindl.) Fedde is medicinal shrub of Mahonia of berberidaceae, and is grown under hillside forests with elevation of 350-2000 m and shrubbery or in the relatively shady and humid place. As a temperate plant, the plant has strong cold resistance and is not resistant to summer heat. Mahonia fortunei prefers warm and humid climate, is strong in nature, resistant to shade, resistant to burning sun and solarization, has certain cold resistance, and is also relatively drought-resistant. The origin of the plant grows below the canyon and forest, and belongs to a negative plant. The acid humus soil which is favorable for draining water is not alkali-resistant and is afraid of waterlogging. The flowering period is 7-9 months, and the fruit period is 9-11 months. Through seed propagation, roots, stems and leaves can be used as the medicine, has the effects of clearing heat and removing toxicity, reducing swelling, stopping diarrhea and diarrhea, and is one of the raw materials for treating dysentery, icterohepatitis, burns, scalds and sore toxins.
In the aspect of planting three-dimensional spatial distribution, the Chinese mahonia is a perennial herb medicinal plant which is warm, barren-resistant, shade-resistant, frost-resistant and direct sunlight-resistant. The walnut belongs to the tree species of tall trees, and the spatial distribution of the two interplanting plants complement each other and complement each other. In the growth period, the walnuts have the characteristics of long growth period (the period of entering the mature bearing fruit is generally 5-8 years), large investment in the early stage and slow income increasing effect, the income increasing effect on walnut planting farmers in the stony desertification area is slow, the sustainable development of walnut planting in the stony desertification control is not facilitated, and the Chinese mahonia has the characteristics of relatively short growth period, less investment and relatively fast income increasing. How to standardize and systematize the walnut and Chinese mahonia interplanting technology, improve the comprehensive economic benefit of walnut planting, enhance the enthusiasm of walnut planting farmers in stony desertification areas, and ensure the sustainable development of walnut planting in the stony desertification control process is a problem which is urgently needed to be solved at present.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the technical problem of providing a cultivation and management method for interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut forests in a stony desertification region, so as to improve the utilization rate of walnut forest land in the stony desertification region, continuously play the role of walnuts in stony desertification control, promote the improvement of the ecological environment of the stony desertification region and increase the economic income of walnut planting farmers.
The invention solves the technical problems by the following technical scheme:
the invention relates to a cultivation and management method for interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut trees in a stony desertification area, which comprises the following operation steps:
(1) selecting and preparing land
Selecting walnut forests in stony desertification areas as areas for interplanting Chinese mahonia, wherein the spacing between planting lines of the selected walnut forests is more than or equal to 5m, the growth is less than 8 years, the canopy density is 0.3-0.5, and the growth vigor is moderate; deeply ploughing the selected walnut forest land by 25-30 cm in the middle and last ten days of 3 months in spring, finely raking, leveling, applying 45000kg/hm of decomposed organic fertilizer in combination with soil preparation2~50000kg/hm2And calcium superphosphate 225kg/hm2~300kg/hm2
(2) Accelerating germination
When the walnuts are planted, green husks of collected fresh dry walnuts are removed, and seeds are soaked, and sowing and planting can be carried out after the walnuts crack;
when the Chinese mahonia is planted, seeds of the Chinese mahonia leaves are selected for soaking and germination acceleration, the soaked seeds are uniformly sown on a seedbed and covered by wet fine sand with the thickness of 0.3 cm-0.5 cm, and seedlings can emerge after 4-5 days;
(3) seedling raising
When walnut seedlings are raised, walnut seeds are directly sown in a seedling raising bed for raising the seedlings, and the walnut seeds are directly planted in terrains such as flat ground, sloping ground or rocky mountain ground in a rocky desertification area after the seedlings are successfully raised;
when the Chinese mahonia is cultured, seedling is cultured by adopting a seedling bare-rooted seedling culture method or a non-woven fabric environment-friendly cup seedling culture method;
(4) domestication and thinning
When 4-5 true leaves of the Chinese mahonia seedling plant are unfolded, the seedling is set according to the row spacing of 70-80 cm × 70-100 cm with the plant spacing of ×, and the planting density is 300 plants/667 m2(ii) a When thinning out, timely removing dysplastic and abnormal plants; conveying the Chinese mahonia seedlings to the position near a cultivation place to adapt to the local environment within the first 20 days of field planting of the Chinese mahonia seedlings, and strictly controlling the watering frequency and dosage to prevent the seedlings from growing steeply, promoting the seedlings to root downwards, increasing the stress resistance of the seedlings and improving the transplanting survival rate;
(5) planting
The interplanting of mahonia under walnut trees is generally carried out in the middle and last ten days of 4 months in the year, and the planting mode specification is respectively carried out according to 3 modes of flat land, sloping land and rocky mountain land:
on the flat ground, transplanting seedlings of Chinese mahonia into walnut plants 2.5m away, planting in holes with plant spacing of × and row spacing of 1m × 1.2.2 m, each 667m2Planting 350-400 plants;
planting Chinese mahonia seedling in the sloping field at a distance of 1.0-1.5 m from walnut plant, wherein the plant spacing of × lines is 0.5m × 0.8.8-1.0 m, and each 667m2The planting density is 600-700 plants;
stone mountain area: planting Chinese mahonia seedlings 0.5-0.8 m away from walnut plants, wherein the plant-row spacing is determined according to terrain, and each 667m2The planting density is 300-500 plants.
(6) Intertillage weeding and irrigation
After the Chinese mahonia is planted and survived, cultivating and weeding for 1 time respectively in 4 months, 7 months and 11 months every year, avoiding damaging roots during cultivating, watering and loosening soil in due time after rainfall, and performing effective irrigation for 3 times in the middle ten days of 4 months, 7-8 months and 10-11 months every year; draining water in time in rainy season;
(7) fertilizing
And (3) fertilizing the walnuts:
fertilizing walnuts in 2 forms of base fertilizer and additional fertilizer, wherein when the base fertilizer is applied, decomposed livestock and poultry fermented organic fertilizer is used as the base fertilizer, the base fertilizer is applied to the bottom of a planting hole according to the application amount of 15-20 kg/hole, and walnut seedling transplanting is carried out after crushed soil is covered for 8-10 cm;
after planting for 45 days, applying additional fertilizer for 1 time to promote the growth of seedlings, wherein the total nutrient content of the additional fertilizer is more than or equal to 45 percent, walnut seedlings within half a tree age are applied according to 150 g/plant, and walnut seedlings beyond half a tree age are applied according to 300 g/plant; when in fertilization, the fertilizer is applied in a ring-shaped fertilization ditch excavated along the water drop line of the tree crown in a ring-shaped fertilization mode; when the walnuts with the tree age within half a year are fertilized, the annular fertilization ditch is excavated with the width multiplied by the depth of 10cm multiplied by 10 cm; when the walnuts with the tree age of more than half a year are fertilized, the annular fertilizing ditch is excavated with the width multiplied by the depth of 20cm multiplied by 20 cm.
And (3) topdressing for 1-2 times every year from the 2 nd year of field planting, wherein the topdressing time is as follows: the spring is 2-3 months, summer is 5-6 months, the fertilizer is applied along the water drop line of the tree crown in an annular fertilizing ditch excavating mode, the excavating specification is that the width multiplied by the depth is 20cm multiplied by 20cm, the total nutrient content of the applied fertilizer is more than or equal to 45 percent, the fertilizing amount is gradually increased along with the increase of the tree age, and the fertilizing amount is increased and decreased within the range of 0.5-2.0 kg according to the conditions.
And (3) fertilizing the Chinese mahonia, according to the planting time of interplanting the Chinese mahonia under the walnut forest:
interplanting in the 1 st year: and (5) fertilizing for 3 times. 1, time: applying compound fertilizer with total nutrient content more than or equal to 45% for 1 time in 5-6 months, applying the compound fertilizer 10cm away from the Chinese mahonia plants, and applying 15g of the compound fertilizer to each plant; applying organic fertilizer 1 time in the last ten days of 6 months, each 667m2Applying 1000 kg of fermented and decomposed cattle and sheep manure or 2000 kg of stable manure, and then mixing 20 kg-30 kg of common calcium superphosphate for broadcasting; applying compound fertilizer with total nutrient content more than or equal to 45% for 1 time in 8-9 months, and applying 18g of compound fertilizer to each Chinese mahonia;
and (3) interplanting in the 2 nd year: and (5) fertilizing for 2 times. 1, time: applying compound fertilizer with total nutrient content more than or equal to 45% for 1 time within 2-4 months, applying the compound fertilizer 10cm away from the Chinese mahonia plants, and applying 20g of the compound fertilizer to each plant; and 2, time: in the period of 6-7 months, applying compound fertilizers with the same content at a distance of 15cm from the Chinese mahonia plants, wherein each plant is applied with 25g of the compound fertilizers;
and (3) interplanting: and (5) fertilizing for 2 times. 1, time: during 2-4 months, digging an annular fertilizing ditch with the depth of 15cm and the width of 20cm at a position 30cm away from the plants, applying fermented and decomposed cattle and sheep manure or stable manure, and applying 3kg of the fertilizer to each Chinese mahonia stem; and 2, time: excavating planting furrows with the same specification at a distance of 50cm from the plants in a 6-7 month period, applying 4.5kg of organic fertilizer with the same type in the 1 st fertilization to each plant, applying the 2 nd fertilization to the outer side below a dripping line of the crown of the Chinese mahonia tree, excavating an annular fertilization furrow with the depth of 15cm and the width of 20cm, and applying fertilizers;
and (4) interplanting: and (5) fertilizing for 1 time. During 2-4 months, digging an annular fertilizing ditch with the depth of 15cm and the width of 20cm below the dripping line of the crown of the Chinese mahonia, applying fermented and decomposed cattle and sheep manure or stable manure, and applying 6-8 kg of the fertilizer to each plant;
and (5) interplanting: the Chinese mahonia planting enters a harvesting period in 5 th year without fertilizing;
(8) pest control
The insect pest control of walnut forests mainly controls the longicorn beetles and walnut leaf beetles, and comprises the following specific operations:
and (3) preventing and treating the Yunnan longicorn: the preventive measures are as follows: and applying autumn white. Coating once every 4 months and 9 months, according to the weight ratio of quicklime: sulfur powder: salt: the water is prepared according to the mass ratio of 20:2:1:80, and the mixture is coated on the base of a walnut tree trunk to prevent longicorn from ovipositing; mating and oviposition period of adults: intensively spraying 1000-time liquid of 90% trichlorfon raw pesticide or 100-300-time liquid of green Weilei to the trunk part of the walnut forest harmed by the connected pieces to kill imagoes; and (3) in the longicorn larva harm period: the walnut forest is checked plant by plant in 5-8 months every year, and after the wormholes are found, longicorn poison cleaning sticks are inserted into the wormholes for 3-7 days, the larval fatality rate is more than 98%, the effective period is long, the use is safe and convenient, and the investment is saved;
and (3) prevention and treatment of walnut leaf beetles: and applying the pesticide in the larval hazard period, and spraying 1000-1500 times of 25% perchloro-phoxim emulsifiable concentrate or 45% chlorpyrifos emulsifiable concentrate for preventing and treating.
The disease control objects of the walnut forest are mainly black spot and anthracnose, and the specific operation is as follows:
and (3) black spot prevention and control: the diseased fruits and the diseased leaves are removed in time and are burnt or buried deeply, so as to reduce the sources of pathogenic bacteria. Spraying 3-5 baume lime sulfur mixture before germination of the walnut, spraying Boldo solution (prepared by copper sulfate, quicklime and water in a mass ratio of 1:2: 200) or 500-800 times of 50% thiophanate methyl wettable powder for 1 time before blooming, after blooming and in a young fruit period of female flowers respectively for 5-6 months;
controlling anthracnose: diseased branches and dead branches are removed in winter and burnt out in time, so that the source of diseases is reduced; in the early stage of the onset of the anthracnose, 700-800 times of thiophanate methyl or carbendazim liquid is sprayed for 2-3 times or 800-1000 times of thiophanate methyl or carbendazim liquid is sprayed for 1-2 times.
The insect pest control objects of the Chinese mahonia are mainly aphids, grubs, spodoptera littoralis and virgifera, and the specific operation is as follows:
aphid control: removing weeds and residual plant diseased leaves after harvesting, and preventing and removing overwintering pests; spraying and preventing by using 1500-2000 times of 10% imidacloprid solution or 2000-2500 times of 1% indeed-clear missible oil;
and (3) grub control: in autumn, the ground is turned over, and the insect source base number is reduced; mixing chlorpyrifos powder and fine dry soil according to a ratio of 1:10 to form toxic soil, applying along the ridge, immediately hoeing shallowly, covering the ridge surface with a black agricultural film after smoothing, or spreading the toxic soil on a planting ditch or the ground, immediately turning over or mixing the toxic soil into animal manure for application; in the middle 6 th to the last 7 th of the month, the phototaxis of the imagoes is utilized to install an insect killing lamp for trapping and killing.
Preventing and treating spodoptera littoralis and coilia virgifera: spraying 1000 times of solution of 90% trichlorfon raw pesticide for prevention and treatment;
the Chinese mahonia disease control objects are mainly spot diseases and anthracnose, and the specific operation is as follows:
and (3) spot disease prevention and treatment: the spot disease is prevented and treated by spraying operation by adopting 300-500 times of 1% of bacteria toxin water remover, or 1500-2000 times of 50% of thiophanate methyl suspending agent or 1000-1500 times of 50% of prochloraz wettable powder;
controlling anthracnose: the Chinese mahonia anthracnose is prevented and treated by spraying 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder, or spraying 500 times of 25% carbendazim wettable powder or 1000 times of 50% Baike wettable powder.
(9) Harvesting and seed preparation
Harvesting of walnuts: the harvesting method of the walnut comprises two methods of artificial harvesting and mechanical harvesting, when the fruit is mature, the branch where the walnut is located is knocked by a bamboo pole or a long wooden pole with elasticity or the fruit is knocked down directly;
harvesting of Chinese mahonia: harvesting Chinese mahonia after growing to 5-6 years, selecting high-quality mature Chinese mahonia healthy plants with stem diameter of more than or equal to 4cm, and cutting off stems at a position 10-15 cm away from the ground by using a mechanical chain saw or a chopper at the base of the Chinese mahonia stems; after the plants are laid down, the residual stems, soil and sundries are removed, the plants are classified and sorted according to the stems and the leaves in time and are aired to be completely dry, and the plants are bundled and sold.
Seeds of Mahonia fortunei: the seeds of Chinese mahonia begin to mature every 3 to 4 months, and the Chinese mahonia fruits are purple black and can be collected manually; after harvesting, manually screening the collected Chinese mahonia fruits, and uniformly stacking the Chinese mahonia fruits into a 10cm thick strip pile; after covering the agricultural film, rolling the agricultural film by using a wood stick, and extruding seeds in the fruits under the condition of not damaging the Chinese mahonia kernels; filtering the rolled fruits and seeds, and separating pulp, seed coats and seeds; the seeds for standby can be sealed and stored for standby after being naturally dried for 3d to 5d or dried for 20h to 25h at the temperature of 35 ℃ by using a dryer.
In the step (1) of the invention, the flat ground is selected to be leeward and sunny or semi-yin and semi-sunny; flat land and sloping land require loose soil, fertile soil and no waterlogging; the rocky mountain land needs a soil layer on the upper part of the bedrock, wherein the soil layer is enough for walnut seedlings and Chinese mahonia to grow.
In the step (3), the specific operation of the seedling bare-rooted seedling cultivation method is as follows: ridging and arranging drainage ditches at the periphery, transversely excavating planting ditches with the ditch distance of 15-20 cm and the ditch depth of 2cm on the surface of the ridging, sowing seeds in 3 holes at the hole distance of 10cm in the planting ditches, and covering a layer of straws for moisturizing; if a sand storage germination accelerating method is adopted, transplanting seedling raising needs to be carried out by using a non-woven fabric environment-friendly cup seedling raising method after germination accelerating, after the non-woven fabric environment-friendly cups are watered thoroughly, the Chinese mahonia seedlings with intact roots are transplanted into the nutrition cups, 1 plant is planted in each preset round hole in each nutrition cup, the round holes are filled with soil, the Chinese mahonia seedlings are fixed, and the seedlings are turned green within one week.
The method has the characteristics of three-dimensional property, complexity and universality by interplanting Chinese mahonia under a walnut forest of a certain age, breaks through the limitation of single walnut in the past, and is an efficient, three-dimensional and economic compound planting structure mode. Firstly, the walnut compound planting mode has three-dimensional property, the high-rise layer is a high and big crown layer of the walnut, and a shade-depression environment is formed at the bottom of the high-rise layer, so that the walnut compound planting mode is suitable for planting certain Chinese medicinal plants and crops which like yin. Secondly, a plurality of industries such as forestry and agriculture are fused, and an industrial mode of mutual influence and mutual promotion is formed, so that the industrial structure is more efficient. Compared with the traditional agriculture and forestry planting method, the method has the characteristics of high efficiency, comprehensiveness and the like, meets the requirement of ecological sustainable development, can stabilize the forestry ecosystem, improves the production efficiency of forestry resources and increases the economic income of farmers. The method has strong operability, obvious effect and wide application prospect, and has important significance for accelerating poverty removal and enrichment of the stony desertification poor areas.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages and effects:
1. the invention adopts a three-dimensional cultivation method, and obtains the best interplanting method through a solid and effective field test under the condition of following the production characteristics of the walnuts and the Chinese mahonia, the interplanting method fully utilizes the conditions which are possessed and required by the walnuts and the Chinese mahonia in the corresponding growth stages, the walnuts have the characteristics of good applicability and rapid growth, and the defects of late fruit bearing and slow effect taking exist. Interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut forest, wherein the Chinese mahonia comprises the following components: walnut and shrub: the Chinese mahonia has obvious height difference, can form a three-dimensional cultivation mode, fully utilizes the natural shading effect formed by walnuts, effectively controls and controls the light transmittance of the Chinese mahonia, promotes the growth of the Chinese mahonia and improves the quality.
2. The method provided by the invention changes the traditional single walnut planting mode, has the defects of low land utilization rate and low yield per unit area, and shortens the blank window period of walnut planting income. In the juvenile period of the walnut forest, high-value Chinese medicinal materials are harvested, the income of farmers is increased, and the sustainable development of the walnut industry in stony desertification control is promoted. The method combines the concept of fusion development of forest and medicinal materials, constructs a symbiotic relationship through reasonable interplanting, prevents water and soil loss in the stony desertification area, and keeps ecological balance in the stony desertification area; and the development of local forest processing, forest and fruit processing and Chinese herbal medicine planting processing industries is driven, investment is attracted, local economic development is promoted, surrounding farmers are attracted to nearby employment, a benign industrial circulation chain is formed, and poverty-removing and hardness-attacking work in stony desertification areas is promoted.
Detailed Description
The technical solution of the present invention is further described below, but the present invention is not limited in any way, and any modifications and substitutions based on the description of the present invention are within the protection scope of the present invention.
The invention relates to a cultivation and management method for interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut trees in stony desertification areas, which comprises the following specific operation steps:
step 1, land selection and land preparation: selecting walnut forest in stony desertification area (including flat land, sloping land and stone mountain land) as the one interplanted with mahoniaIn the area, the spacing between the selected walnut forest planting rows is more than or equal to 5m, the walnut forest is grown for less than 8 years, the canopy density is 0.3-0.5, and the growth vigor is medium; in the middle and late ten days of 3 months in spring of the year of planting mahonia in walnut forest areas, deeply ploughing the selected walnut forest land by 25-30 cm, finely raking, leveling, and applying 45000kg/hm of decomposed organic fertilizer in combination with soil preparation2~50000kg/hm2And calcium superphosphate 225kg/hm2~300kg/hm2
The flat land is selected to be leeward and sunny or semi-yin and semi-yang; flat land and sloping land require loose soil, fertile soil and no waterlogging; the rocky mountain land needs a soil layer on the upper part of the bedrock, wherein the soil layer is enough for walnut seedlings and Chinese mahonia to grow.
Step 2, accelerating germination:
when the walnuts are planted, green husks of fresh collected dry walnuts are removed, the seeds are soaked for about 7 days, and the seeds can be sown and planted after the walnuts crack.
During the cultivation of Chinese mahonia, Chinese mahonia seeds are usually germinated by broad-leaved Chinese mahonia seeds, and according to actual conditions, a common germination method and a sand storage germination method can be adopted for germination acceleration. The technical points of the common germination accelerating method are as follows: drying the Chinese mahonia seeds for 1-2 days, soaking the seeds in warm water at 40 ℃ for 12h, removing shrunken seeds, accelerating germination at 25 ℃ for 24h, and sowing after 70% of seeds are exposed. The technical points of the sand storage germination accelerating method are as follows: prefabricating a seedling sand bed with a sunshade net, leveling the surface of a furrow, paving wet fine river sand with the thickness of 5cm, placing Chinese mahonia seeds aired for 1d in warm water at 40 ℃ for soaking the seeds for 12 hours, and removing empty seeds. Uniformly sowing the soaked standby seeds on a seedbed, uniformly sowing 0.3-0.5 cm of wet fine sand for covering, and germinating after 4-5 days.
Step 3, seedling culture:
when walnut seedlings are raised, walnut seeds are directly sown in a seedling raising bed for raising the seedlings, and the walnut seeds are directly planted in flat ground, sloping ground or rocky mountain land in a rocky desertification area after the seedlings are successfully raised;
when the seedling of the Chinese mahonia is raised, 2 seedling raising methods, namely a seedling bare-rooted seedling raising method or a non-woven fabric environment-friendly cup seedling raising method, are adopted according to the actual condition of the Chinese mahonia. The technical key points of the seedling bare-rooted seedling cultivation method are as follows: ridging and arranging drainage ditches at the periphery, transversely excavating planting ditches with the ditch distance of 15-20 cm and the ditch depth of 2cm on the surface of the ridging, sowing seeds in 3 holes at the hole distance of 10cm in the planting ditches, and covering a layer of straws for moisturizing. When the sand storage germination accelerating method is adopted, transplanting seedling raising needs to be carried out by using a non-woven fabric environment-friendly cup seedling raising method after germination accelerating, after the non-woven fabric environment-friendly cups are watered thoroughly, the Chinese mahonia seedlings with intact roots are transplanted into the nutrition cups, 1 plant is planted in each preset round hole of each nutrition cup, the round holes are filled with soil, the Chinese mahonia seedlings are fixed, and the seedlings are turned green within one week.
Step 4, domestication and thinning:
when 4-5 true leaves of Chinese mahonia seedling are unfolded, the seedlings are set according to the row spacing of 70-80 cm × 70-100 cm with the plant spacing of × and the planting density of 300 seedlings/667 m2. When thinning out, the plants with dysplasia and abnormal growth are removed in time. The actual cup number is used as the standard for planting by adopting a non-woven fabric environment-friendly seedling growing method, the non-woven fabric seedling growing method needs to be used for hardening seedlings, the Chinese mahonia seedlings grown by the non-woven fabric seedling growing method are transported to the position near a cultivation place to adapt to the local environment in the first 20 days of field planting, the watering frequency and the watering amount need to be strictly controlled, the seedlings are prevented from growing steeply, the seedlings are promoted to root downwards, the stress resistance of the seedlings is improved, and the field planting and transplanting survival rate is improved.
Step 5, field planting: in the middle and last ten days of 4 months each year, Chinese mahonia begins to be planted in walnut forest lands. According to the topographic features of a stony desertification area and a Chinese mahonia interplanting area, the method is divided into the following 3 planting modes:
planting Chinese mahonia transplanting seedling 2.5m away from walnut plant, planting in hole with plant spacing × row spacing of 1m × 1.2m, each 667m2Planting 350-400 plants;
planting Chinese mahonia 1.0-1.5 m away from walnut plant in sloping field, wherein the plant spacing of × is 0.5m, × 0.8.8 m and 1.0m, and each 667m2The planting density is 600-700 plants;
stone mountain area: planting Chinese mahonia 0.5-0.8 m away from walnut plant, and determining plant-row spacing according to terrain, wherein the plant-row spacing is determined every 667m2The planting density is 300-500 plants.
Step 6, intertillage weeding and irrigation:
after the survival of the field planting, the field planting is carried out for 1 time of intertillage weeding in 4 months, 7 months and 11 months every year, the periphery of the rhizosphere is shallow during intertillage, and the distance can be deep to avoid damaging the root. Watering and loosening soil in good time after rainfall. Carrying out effective irrigation for 3 times in the middle ten days of 4 months, 7-8 months and 10-11 months every year; and draining water in time in rainy season.
Step 6, fertilizing:
the walnut fertilizer application is carried out in 2 modes of base fertilizer and additional fertilizer. Decomposed livestock and poultry fermented organic fertilizer is used as a base fertilizer, the organic fertilizer is applied to the bottom of a planting hole according to the application amount of 15-20 kg/hole, and walnut seedling transplanting is carried out after 8-10 cm of broken soil is covered.
After 45 days of field planting, 1 additional fertilization is started to promote the growth of seedlings. And (2) applying a compound fertilizer with total nutrient content of more than or equal to 45% (the total nutrient is the total content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in the additional fertilizer, wherein the walnut seedlings with the age of over half a year are applied according to 150 g/plant, and the walnut seedlings with the age of over half a year are applied according to 300 g/plant. Digging an annular fertilizing ditch along the tree crown water drip line, and applying the fertilizer in the ditch; when the walnut trees with the age of within half a year are fertilized, the annular fertilization ditch is excavated with the width multiplied by the depth of 10cm multiplied by 10 cm; when the walnut trees with the age of more than half a year are fertilized, the annular fertilization ditch is excavated with the width multiplied by the depth of 20cm multiplied by 20 cm.
Topdressing is carried out for 1-2 times every year from the 2 nd year of walnut planting, and the topdressing time is as follows: in spring for 2-3 months and summer for 5-6 months, digging an annular fertilizing ditch along a tree crown water drop line, applying the fertilizer in a ditch application mode, and digging the annular fertilizing ditch according to the specification that the width multiplied by the depth is 20cm multiplied by 20 cm. The fertilizing amount is increased along with the increase of the walnut tree age, the total nutrient content of the compound fertilizer is more than or equal to 45 percent, and the fertilizing amount is increased and decreased within the range of 0.5-2.0 kg according to the conditions.
And (3) fertilizing the Chinese mahonia, according to the planting time of interplanting the Chinese mahonia under the walnut forest:
interplanting in the 1 st year: fertilization 3 times, 1 st time: applying compound fertilizer with total nutrient content more than or equal to 45% for 1 time in 5-6 months, applying the compound fertilizer 10cm away from the Chinese mahonia plants, and applying 15g of the compound fertilizer to each plant; applying organic fertilizer 1 time in the last ten days of 6 months, each 667m21000 kg of fermented and decomposed cattle and sheep manure or 2000 kg of stable manure is applied and then mixed with common phosphorusSpreading 20 kg-30 kg of calcium carbonate; applying compound fertilizer with total nutrient content more than or equal to 45% for 1 time in 8-9 months, and applying 18g of compound fertilizer to each Chinese mahonia;
and (3) interplanting in the 2 nd year: fertilization 2 times, 1 st time: applying compound fertilizer with total nutrient content more than or equal to 45% for 1 time within 2-4 months, applying the compound fertilizer 10cm away from the Chinese mahonia plants, and applying 20g of the compound fertilizer to each plant; and 2, time: in the period of 6-7 months, applying compound fertilizers with the same concentration at a distance of 15cm from the Chinese mahonia plants, wherein each plant is applied with 25g of the compound fertilizers;
and (3) interplanting: fertilization 2 times, 1 st time: during 2-4 months, digging an annular fertilizing ditch with the depth of 15cm and the width of 20cm at a position 30cm away from the plants, applying fermented and decomposed cattle and sheep manure or stable manure to the ditch, and applying 3kg of fermented and decomposed cattle and sheep manure to each Chinese mahonia stem; and 2, time: excavating annular fertilizing furrows with the same specification at a distance of 50cm from the plants in a 6-7 month period, applying 4.5kg of organic fertilizer with the same type for the 1 st fertilization to each plant, applying fertilizer for the 2 nd fertilization to the outer side below a dripping line of the crown of the Chinese mahonia tree, excavating annular fertilizing furrows with the depth of 15cm and the width of 20cm, and then applying fertilizer to the furrows;
and (4) interplanting: fertilizing for 1 time, and during 2-4 months, excavating an annular fertilizing ditch with the depth of 15cm and the width of 20cm at the lower outer side of a dripping line of the crown of the Chinese mahonia, and applying fermented and decomposed cattle and sheep manure or stable manure in the ditch, wherein 6-8 kg of the fermented and decomposed cattle and sheep manure is applied to each tree;
and (5) interplanting: the Chinese mahonia planting enters a harvesting period in 5 th year without fertilizing;
step 8, pest control:
prevention is taken as the main principle and comprehensive prevention and control is taken as the principle; agricultural control, physical control and biological control are preferably adopted, and chemical control is reasonably used.
And (3) pest control of walnuts:
the walnut insect pests are mainly Yunnan longicorn and walnut leaf beetles. (1) Control of longhorn beetles: the preventive measures are as follows: and applying autumn white. Each coat was applied 1 time each at 4 and 9 months per year, with lime: sulfur powder: salt: the water is prepared according to the mass ratio of 20:2:1:80, and the mixture is coated on the base of a walnut tree trunk to prevent longicorn from ovipositing; mating and oviposition period of adults: adopting 1000 times of 90% trichlorfon raw pesticide solution or 100-300 times of green Weilei solution to intensively spray the walnut forest with the connected pieces of harmful walnut trees to the trunk, and killing imagoes; and (3) in the longicorn larva harm period: and (5-8) the walnut forest is checked plant by plant every year. After the wormhole is found, the longicorn toxin-removing stick is inserted into the wormhole for 3-7 days, the larva fatality rate is higher than 98%, the effective period is long, the use is safe and convenient, and the investment is saved. (2) Preventing and treating walnut leaf beetles: spraying the pesticide in a larval stage, and spraying 1000-1500 times of 25% perchloro-phoxim emulsifiable concentrate or 45% chlorpyrifos emulsifiable concentrate for prevention and treatment.
And (3) disease control of walnut forests:
the walnut diseases mainly comprise black spot, anthracnose and the like. (1) And (3) black spot prevention and control: the pathogenic fruits, the diseased leaves and other pathogenic objects are removed in time and are burnt or buried deeply, so that the sources of pathogenic bacteria are reduced. Spraying a lime sulfur mixture with the Baume degree of 3-5 before the walnut sprouts. Spraying Bordeaux mixture (prepared from copper sulfate, quicklime and water in a mass ratio of 1:2: 200) or spraying 500-800 times of 50% thiophanate methyl wettable powder for 1 time before, after and during young fruit period of female flowers. (2) Controlling anthracnose: diseased branches and dead branches are removed in winter and burnt out in time, so that the source of diseases is reduced; in the early stage of the onset of the anthracnose, 700-800 times of thiophanate methyl or carbendazim liquid is sprayed for 2-3 times or 800-1000 times of thiophanate methyl or carbendazim liquid is sprayed for 1-2 times.
The insect pest control of the Chinese mahonia mainly comprises aphids, grubs, spodoptera littoralis and virgifera, and the specific operation is as follows:
(1) aphid control: removing weeds and residual plant diseased leaves after harvesting, and removing overwintering pests; spraying with 10% imidacloprid 1500-2000 times liquid or 1% emulsified oil 2000-2500 times liquid. (2) And (3) grub control: in autumn, the ground is turned over, and the insect source base number is reduced; mixing chlorpyrifos powder and fine dry soil according to a ratio of 1:10 to form toxic soil, applying along the ridge, immediately hoeing shallowly, covering the ridge surface with a black agricultural film after smoothing, or spreading the toxic soil on a planting ditch or the ground, immediately turning over or mixing the toxic soil into animal manure for application; in the middle 6 th to the last 7 th of the month, the phototaxis of the imagoes is utilized to install an insect killing lamp for trapping and killing. (3) Preventing and treating spodoptera littoralis and coilia virgifera: 90 percent 1000 times of solution of trichlorfon raw pesticide is sprayed for prevention and treatment.
The disease control of the Chinese mahonia mainly comprises the spot disease and the anthracnose, and the specific operation is as follows:
(1) and (3) spot disease prevention and treatment: the spot disease is prevented and treated by 1% of bacterin disinfectant 300-500 times liquid, 50% of thiophanate methyl suspending agent 1500-2000 times liquid or 50% of wettable prochloraz powder l 000-1500 times liquid in a spraying operation. (2) Controlling anthracnose: the Chinese mahonia anthracnose is prevented and treated by spraying 1000 times of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder or spraying 500 times of 25% carbendazim wettable powder or spraying 1000 times of 50% Baike wettable powder.
And 9, harvesting and seed preparation:
and (3) harvesting walnuts: the walnut harvesting method comprises two methods of artificial harvesting and mechanical harvesting. The method is characterized in that when the fruit is ripe, the branch where the walnut is located is knocked by a bamboo pole or a long wooden pole with elasticity or the fruit is knocked down directly. The mechanical harvesting machine comprises a vibration fruit dropping machine, a cleaning and collecting machine and a picking and sorting machine, wherein the operation procedure comprises the steps of firstly enabling walnuts to fall to the ground in a vibration mode through the vibration fruit dropping machine, then enabling the walnuts on the ground to be collected into strips through the cleaning and collecting machine, and finally picking up, simply sorting and then boxing through the picking and sorting machine.
And (3) harvesting the Chinese mahonia: and (5) beginning to collect the Chinese mahonia after the Chinese mahonia grows to 5-6 years. When harvesting, the related personnel wear the mask, goggles and gloves to prevent the branches and leaves of the mahonia from being cut. Selecting high-quality mature Chinese mahonia healthy plants with the stem diameter of more than or equal to 4cm, and cutting stems from the base of the Chinese mahonia stems 10-15 cm away from the ground by using a mechanical chain saw or a chopper; after the plants are laid down, the residual stems, soil and sundries are removed, the plants are classified and sorted according to the stems and the leaves in time and are aired to be completely dry, and then the plants are bundled and sold. When the root of Chinese mahonia is needed to be used as a traditional Chinese medicine raw material, the hoe is used for excavating along the approximate range of the root, the residual root, the stone and the soil are removed after the excavation, the main root and the lateral root are manually sorted while being fresh, the main root and the lateral root are dried to be semi-dry, the main root and the lateral root are bundled into small bundles after classification, and then the small bundles are dried to be completely dry. Or directly removing impurities from the fresh harvested Chinese mahonia plants according to the requirements of related purchasing units, and directly classifying and collecting according to the types of roots, stems, leaves and the like.
For seeds of Mahonia: the seeds of Chinese mahonia begin to mature in 3 to 4 months each year, and the Chinese mahonia fruits are purple black and can be harvested manually. After harvesting, manually screening the collected Chinese mahonia fruits, and uniformly stacking the Chinese mahonia fruits into a 10cm thick strip pile; and after covering the transparent agricultural film, rolling the surface of the agricultural film by a wood stick, and extruding seeds in the fruits under the condition of not damaging the Chinese mahonia kernels. Filtering the rolled fruits and seeds, and separating pulp, seed coat and seeds. The seeds for standby can be sealed and stored for standby after being naturally dried for 3d to 5d or dried for 20h to 25h at the temperature of 35 ℃ by using a dryer.
The following is an example of the process of the present invention, the procedure being as follows:
1. selecting walnut forest lands: the walnut seedlings with 3-year-old ages of walnut trees are planted on flat land, sloping land or rocky mountain land in a rocky desertification area, the planting density is 8m multiplied by 6m, the slope of the planting land is 0-25 degrees, and loose soil, fertile soil and waterlogging-free are required on the flat land and the sloping land. The rocky mountain land needs a soil layer on the upper part of the bedrock, wherein the soil layer is enough for walnut seedlings and Chinese mahonia to grow.
2. Interplanting Chinese mahonia in walnut forest land:
(1) planting: 1 month before soil preparation and planting, turning over the walnut forest land and leveling the ridge surface. The Chinese mahonia is planted at the distance of 2.5m, 1.0-1.5 m and 0.5-0.8 m on flat ground, sloping ground and rocky mountain ground respectively, the spacing between Chinese mahonia plants is planted at the specification of 1.0m multiplied by 1.2m and 0.5m multiplied by 0.8-1.0 m on flat ground and sloping ground respectively, the rocky mountain ground is planted at a proper position according to terrain, when the Chinese mahonia is planted, a small hoe is used for excavating planting holes, and the length, width and depth of the holes are 18cm multiplied by 15 cm. Applying 15-20 kg of organic fertilizer to each hole, and earthing to plant the mahonia fortunei. Planting 1 Chinese mahonia in each hole, naturally extending the root system when putting seedlings with soil, covering soil on the base of the stem, compacting the soil, and watering enough root fixing water.
(2) Field management: intertillage and weeding are respectively carried out for 1 time in 4 months, 7 months and 11 months every year. The fertilization is carried out during intertillage and weeding, the fertilization is carried out for 2 times every year, and the application of the compound fertilizer with the nutrient content being more than or equal to 45 percent is carried out after the intertillage and the weeding are carried out in 4 months and 11 months. The average amount of compound fertilizer applied to each plant in the seedling stage of mahonia fortunei is 10g, and the average amount of compound fertilizer applied to each plant after the 2 nd year. Uniformly spreading the fertilizer in an excavated annular fertilizing ditch, and hilling after fertilizing.
(3) Harvesting: the stem and leaf of Chinese mahonia was harvested in 2018, 9 months, with a hair income of about 5000 yuan.
By the technical measures, the problems that investment is large in the early stage of walnut planting and economic benefit is low in ecological management in stony desertification areas are solved, and comprehensive ecological, social and economic benefits of walnuts in stony desertification management are improved by interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut forests. For example, in Fengshan county, Guangxi province, the Chang county village snakes can be planted in walnuts for 174 mu, Chinese mahonia of 96 mu is planted in walnuts under the forest, Chinese mahonia of 6 mu is harvested in 2018 and 9 months, 10 walnuts are planted in each mu, 13 jin of dry fruits are harvested in each walnut tree in each year, the yield of each walnut tree is 360 yuan, and the income of each mu of hair is about 3600 yuan, which is calculated according to the market price of 27 yuan/jin. Harvesting about 30 jin of leaves of each Chinese mahonia, planting 500 Chinese mahonia leaves per mu, and collecting about 1.5 jin of leaves of the Chinese mahonia; calculated according to the purchase price of 1.0 yuan/jin, the Chinese mahonia income per mu is about 1.5 ten thousand yuan, the Chinese mahonia income is 5 years, and the average income is increased by 3 thousand yuan per year under walnut forests. By adopting the technical measures, the income is increased by planting the Chinese herbal medicines before the walnut fruits are hung. The field observation test in Guangxi Fengshan county shows that the cost is deducted and the income can be increased by 1000-1200 yuan/mu/year by the interplanting method compared with the control group without interplanting. Therefore, compared with the traditional single walnut planting method, the method disclosed by the invention is light and simple in operation, less in investment, considerable in economic benefit, obvious in income increase of walnut planting farmers, and suitable for popularization and application in walnut planting in stony desertification areas.

Claims (2)

1. A cultivation management method for interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut trees in stony desertification areas is characterized by comprising the following operation steps:
(1) selecting and preparing land
Selecting walnut forests in stony desertification areas as areas for interplanting Chinese mahonia, wherein the spacing between planting lines of the selected walnut forests is more than or equal to 5m, the growth is less than 8 years, the canopy density is 0.3-0.5, and the growth vigor is moderate; deeply ploughing the selected walnut forest land by 25-30 cm in the middle and last ten days of 3 months in spring, finely raking, leveling, applying 45000kg/hm of decomposed organic fertilizer in combination with soil preparation2~50000kg/hm2And calcium superphosphate 225kg/hm2~300kg/hm2
(2) Accelerating germination
When the walnuts are planted, green husks of collected fresh dry walnuts are removed, and seeds are soaked, and sowing and planting are carried out after the walnuts crack;
when the Chinese mahonia is planted, seeds of the Chinese mahonia leaves are selected for soaking and germination acceleration, the soaked seeds are uniformly sown on a seedbed and covered by wet fine sand with the thickness of 0.3 cm-0.5 cm, and seedlings can emerge after 4-5 days;
(3) seedling raising
When walnut seedlings are raised, walnut seeds are directly sown in a seedling raising bed for raising the seedlings, and the walnut seeds are directly planted in flat ground, sloping ground or rocky mountain land in a rocky desertification area after the seedlings are successfully raised;
when the Chinese mahonia is cultured, seedling is cultured by adopting a seedling bare-rooted seedling culture method or a non-woven fabric environment-friendly cup seedling culture method; the specific operation of the seedling bare-rooted seedling cultivation method is as follows: ridging and arranging drainage ditches at the periphery, transversely excavating planting ditches with the ditch distance of 15-20 cm and the ditch depth of 2cm on the surface of the ridging, sowing 3 seeds in each hole at the hole distance of 10cm, and covering a layer of straws for moisturizing; adopting a sand storage germination accelerating method, transplanting seedling by using a non-woven fabric environment-friendly cup seedling method after germination accelerating, transplanting the Chinese mahonia seedlings with intact roots into nutrition cups after the non-woven fabric environment-friendly cups are watered thoroughly, planting 1 plant of each nutrition cup, covering soil to bury the round holes and fixing the Chinese mahonia seedlings;
(4) domestication and thinning
When 4-5 true leaves of the Chinese mahonia seedling plant are unfolded, the seedling is set according to the row spacing of 70-80 cm × 70-100 cm with the plant spacing of ×, and the planting density is 300 plants/667 m2(ii) a When thinning out, timely removing dysplastic and abnormal plants; conveying the Chinese mahonia seedlings to the vicinity of a cultivation place to adapt to the local environment in the first 20 days of field planting of the Chinese mahonia seedlings; meanwhile, the watering frequency and the watering amount need to be strictly controlled, so that the seedlings are prevented from growing steeply, the seedlings are promoted to root downwards, the stress resistance of the seedlings is improved, and the transplanting survival rate is improved;
(5) planting
Interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut trees in the middle and last ten days of 4 months per year, wherein the planting specification is respectively carried out according to 3 modes of flat land, sloping land and rocky mountain land:
leveling land: 2.5m from walnut plantTransplanting seedlings of Chinese mahonia, planting in holes with plant spacing of × row spacing of 1m × 1.2m, each 667m2Planting 350-400 plants;
planting Chinese mahonia seedling in the sloping field at a distance of 1.0-1.5 m from walnut plant, wherein the plant spacing of × lines is 0.5m × 0.8.8-1.0 m, and each 667m2The planting density is 600-700 plants;
stone mountain area: planting the Chinese mahonia seedling 0.5-0.8 m away from the walnut plant; the row spacing is determined according to terrain, and each 667m2The planting density is 300-500 plants;
(6) intertillage weeding and irrigation
After the Chinese mahonia is planted and survived, cultivating and weeding for 1 time respectively in 4 months, 7 months and 11 months every year, avoiding damaging roots during cultivating, watering and loosening soil in due time after rainfall, and performing effective irrigation for 3 times in the middle ten days of 4 months, 7-8 months and 10-11 months every year; draining water in time in rainy season;
(7) fertilizing
And (3) fertilizing the walnuts:
fertilizing the walnuts according to the base fertilizer and the additional fertilizer; when the base fertilizer is applied, decomposed livestock and poultry fermented organic fertilizer is used as the base fertilizer, the base fertilizer is applied to the bottom of the planting hole according to the application amount of 15-20 kg/hole, and walnut seedlings are planted and transplanted after 8-10 cm of broken soil is covered;
after planting for 45 days, performing topdressing for 1 time to promote the growth of seedlings; applying a compound fertilizer with total nutrient content more than or equal to 45% in an additional fertilizer, applying walnut seedlings within half a tree age according to 150 g/plant, and applying walnut seedlings more than half a tree age according to 300 g/plant; when in fertilization, the fertilizer is applied in a ring-shaped fertilization ditch excavated along the water drop line of the tree crown in a ring-shaped fertilization mode; when the peaches in the tree age of half a year are fertilized, the annular fertilization ditch is excavated with the width multiplied by the depth of 10cm multiplied by 10 cm; when the walnuts with the tree age of more than half a year are fertilized, the annular fertilizing ditch is excavated with the width multiplied by the depth of 20cm multiplied by 20 cm;
and (3) topdressing for 1-2 times every year from the 2 nd year of field planting, wherein the topdressing time is as follows: in spring for 2-3 months and summer for 5-6 months, fertilizer is applied along the water drop line of the crown in an annular fertilizing ditch digging mode, the digging specification is that the width multiplied by the depth is 20cm multiplied by 20cm, the fertilizing amount is gradually increased along with the increase of the tree age, a compound fertilizer with the total nutrient content being more than or equal to 45 percent is used, and the fertilizing amount is changed within the range of 0.5-2.0 kg;
and (3) fertilizing the Chinese mahonia, according to the planting time of interplanting the Chinese mahonia under the walnut forest:
interplanting in the 1 st year: fertilization 3 times, 1 st time: applying compound fertilizer with total nutrient content more than or equal to 45% for 1 time in 5-6 months, applying the compound fertilizer 10cm away from the Chinese mahonia plants, and applying 15g of the compound fertilizer to each plant; applying organic fertilizer 1 time in the last ten days of 6 months, each 667m2Applying 1000 kg of fermented and decomposed cattle and sheep manure or 2000 kg of stable manure, and then mixing 20 kg-30 kg of common calcium superphosphate for broadcasting; applying compound fertilizer with total nutrient content more than or equal to 45% for 1 time in 8-9 months, and applying 18g of compound fertilizer to each Chinese mahonia;
and (3) interplanting in the 2 nd year: fertilization 2 times, 1 st time: applying compound fertilizer with total nutrient content more than or equal to 45% for 1 time within 2-4 months, applying the compound fertilizer 10cm away from the Chinese mahonia plants, and applying 20g of the compound fertilizer to each plant; and 2, time: in the period of 6-7 months, applying compound fertilizers with the same concentration at a distance of 15cm from the Chinese mahonia plants, wherein each plant is applied with 25g of the compound fertilizers;
and (3) interplanting: fertilization 2 times, 1 st time: during 2-4 months, digging an annular fertilizing ditch with the depth of 15cm and the width of 20cm at a position 30cm away from the plants, applying fermented and decomposed cattle and sheep manure or stable manure, and applying 3kg of the fertilizer to each Chinese mahonia stem; and 2, time: excavating annular fertilizing furrows with the same specification at a distance of 50cm from the plants in a 6-7 month period, applying 4.5kg of organic fertilizer with the same type for the 1 st fertilization to each plant, applying the 2 nd fertilization to the outer side below a dripping line of the crown of the Chinese mahonia tree, excavating annular fertilizing furrows with the depth of 15cm and the width of 20cm, and then uniformly applying the annular fertilizing furrows;
and (4) interplanting: fertilizing for 1 time, and excavating an annular fertilizing ditch with the depth of 15cm and the width of 20cm below the dripping line of the crown of the Chinese mahonia tree during the period of 2-4 months, and applying fermented and decomposed cattle and sheep manure or stable manure, wherein 6 kg-8 kg of fertilizer is applied to each tree;
and (5) interplanting: the Chinese mahonia planting enters a harvesting period in 5 th year without fertilizing;
(8) pest control
The insect pest control of walnut forests mainly controls the longicorn beetles and walnut leaf beetles, and comprises the following specific operations:
and (3) preventing and treating the Yunnan longicorn: the preventive measures are as follows: coating autumn white; coating once every 4 and 9 months, mixing lime, sulfur powder, salt and water according to the mass ratio of 20:2:1:80, coating the mixture on the base of a walnut tree trunk, and preventing the longicorn from spawning; mating and oviposition period of adults: adopting 1000 times of 90% trichlorfon raw pesticide solution or 100-300 times of green Weilei solution to intensively spray the trunk part of the walnut forest endangered by the connected pieces to kill imagoes; and (3) in the longicorn larva harm period: performing plant-by-plant investigation on the walnut forest every 5-8 months, and inserting longicorn poison sticks into the worm holes for 3-7 days after the worm holes are found;
and (3) prevention and treatment of walnut leaf beetles: applying pesticide in the larval hazard period, and spraying 1000-1500 times of 25% perchloro-phoxim emulsifiable concentrate or 45% chlorpyrifos emulsifiable concentrate for prevention and treatment;
the walnut disease control objects are mainly black spot and anthracnose, and the specific operation is as follows:
and (3) black spot prevention and control: the diseased fruits and the diseased leaves are removed in time and are burnt or buried deeply in a centralized way so as to reduce the sources of pathogenic bacteria; spraying a 3-5-degree Baume lime sulfur mixture for 1 time before the walnut sprouts, spraying Bordeaux mixture for 5-6 months, wherein the Bordeaux mixture is prepared by mixing copper sulfate, quicklime and water in a ratio of 1:2:200, or spraying 500-800 times of 50% thiophanate methyl wettable powder solution before flowering, after flowering and in a young fruit period for 1 time respectively;
controlling anthracnose: diseased branches and dead branches are removed in winter and burnt out in time, so that the source of diseases is reduced; spraying 700-800 times of thiophanate methyl or carbendazim liquid for 2-3 times or spraying 800-1000 times of thiophanate methyl or carbendazim liquid for 1-2 times at the early stage of anthracnose attack;
the mahonia fortunei pest control objects mainly comprise aphids, grubs, spodoptera littoralis and virgifera virescens, and the specific operation is as follows:
aphid control: removing weeds and residual plant diseased leaves after harvesting, and removing overwintering pests; when aphids explode, 10% imidacloprid 1500-2000 times liquid or 1% emulsified oil 2000-2500 times liquid is used for spray control;
and (3) grub control: in autumn, the ground is turned over, and the insect source base number is reduced; mixing chlorpyrifos powder and fine dry soil according to a ratio of 1:10 to form toxic soil, applying along the ridge, immediately hoeing shallowly, covering the ridge surface with a black agricultural film after smoothing, or spreading the toxic soil on a planting ditch or the ground, immediately turning over or mixing the toxic soil into animal manure for application; in the middle 6 th to the last 7 th of the month, an insect killing lamp is installed for trapping and killing by utilizing the phototaxis of adults;
preventing and treating spodoptera littoralis and coilia virgifera: spraying 1000 times of solution of 90% trichlorfon raw pesticide for prevention and treatment;
the disease control of the Chinese mahonia is mainly spot disease and anthracnose, and the specific operation is as follows:
and (3) spot disease prevention and treatment: the spot disease is prevented and treated by spraying with 300-500 times of 1% bacteria toxin water remover, 1500-2000 times of 50% thiophanate methyl suspending agent or 1000-1500 times of 50% wettable prochloraz powder;
controlling anthracnose: the Chinese mahonia anthracnose is prevented and treated by spraying 1000 times of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder or spraying 500 times of 25% carbendazim wettable powder or spraying 1000 times of 50% Baike wettable powder;
(9) harvesting and seed preparation
And (3) harvesting walnuts: the harvesting method of the walnut comprises two methods of artificial harvesting and mechanical harvesting, when the fruit is mature, the branch where the walnut is located is knocked by a bamboo pole or a long wooden pole with elasticity or the fruit is knocked down directly;
and (3) harvesting the Chinese mahonia: the Chinese mahonia is grown to 5-6 years and collected, high-quality mature Chinese mahonia healthy plants with the stem diameter being more than or equal to 4cm are selected, and mechanical chain saws or hacking knives are used for cutting stems at the position, 10-15 cm away from the ground, of the base of the Chinese mahonia stems; after the plants are laid down, removing residual stems, soil and sundries, sorting and airing the plants according to the stems and the leaves in time until the plants are completely dry;
for seeds of Mahonia: the seeds of Chinese mahonia begin to mature every 3 to 4 months, and the Chinese mahonia fruits are purple black and can be collected manually; after harvesting, manually screening the collected Chinese mahonia fruits, and uniformly stacking the Chinese mahonia fruits into stacks with the thickness of 10 cm; covering with agricultural film, and squeezing out seeds from the fruits by a stick rolling method under the condition of not damaging the kernel of Chinese mahonia; filtering the rolled fruits and seeds, and separating pulp, seed coats and seeds; the seeds for standby can be sealed and stored for standby after being naturally dried for 3d to 5d or dried for 20h to 25h at the temperature of 35 ℃ by using a dryer.
2. The cultivation and management method for interplanting Chinese mahonia under walnut forest in the stony desertification region as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (1), the flat land is selected to be leeward and exposed to the sun or semi-yin and semi-yang; flat land and sloping land require loose soil, fertile soil and no waterlogging; the rocky mountain land needs a soil layer on the upper part of the bedrock, wherein the soil layer is enough for walnut seedlings and Chinese mahonia to grow.
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