CN109479671A - A kind of domesticating and cultivating matrix and preparation method thereof improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent - Google Patents

A kind of domesticating and cultivating matrix and preparation method thereof improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent Download PDF

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CN109479671A
CN109479671A CN201811525599.5A CN201811525599A CN109479671A CN 109479671 A CN109479671 A CN 109479671A CN 201811525599 A CN201811525599 A CN 201811525599A CN 109479671 A CN109479671 A CN 109479671A
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domesticating
tuber
matrix
pinellia
cultivating
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李金文
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李金文
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals
    • A01G24/15Calcined rock, e.g. perlite, vermiculite or clay aggregates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/30Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing synthetic organic compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B1/00Superphosphates, i.e. fertilisers produced by reacting rock or bone phosphates with sulfuric or phosphoric acid in such amounts and concentrations as to yield solid products directly
    • C05B1/02Superphosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F17/00Preparation of fertilisers characterised by biological or biochemical treatment steps, e.g. composting or fermentation
    • C05F17/50Treatments combining two or more different biological or biochemical treatments, e.g. anaerobic and aerobic treatment or vermicomposting and aerobic treatment
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The present invention relates to agricultural cultivation matrix production technical fields, specifically, it is related to a kind of domesticating and cultivating matrix and preparation method thereof for improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent, which is compounded by 80~90 parts of straw decomposing compost, 5~18 parts of inorganic mineral materials and 1~5 part of composite conditioner.Matrix formulations selection of the invention is easy, simple production process, and proportion is reasonable, easy to use and efficient, water conservation needed for can giving full play to tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling domesticating and cultivating breathes freely, takes root, disease-resistant and trophism, and material therefor is from a wealth of sources, it is low in cost, there is very strong promotional value.The tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling growth potential bred using domesticating and cultivating matrix of the invention is good, robust seedling, full stand, and rhizome is flourishing, robust plant.The hardening time needed for carrying out tuber of pinellia domesticating and cultivating using domesticating and cultivating matrix of the present invention is shorter, it is only necessary to may move into field production within 1~2 month, and survival rate reaches 95% or more, use cost is low, substantially increases productivity effect.

Description

A kind of domesticating and cultivating matrix and preparation method thereof improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent
Technical field
The present invention relates to agricultural cultivation matrix production technical fields, specifically, are related to a kind of raising tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling and survive Domesticating and cultivating matrix of rate and preparation method thereof.
Background technique
The tuber of pinellia be Araeceae Pinellia Tenore herbaceos perennial, be used as medicine with stem tuber, be in prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine frequency of use compared with Height is widely used, important Chinese medicine material curative for effect, and in 558 kinds of Chinese medicine prescriptions, the tuber of pinellia is classified as frequency of use highest 30 The 22nd in taste Chinese medicine, there is the valuable pharmacologicals effects such as antitumor, anti-arrhythmia, Robust speaker feature.With to the medicinal function of the tuber of pinellia Effect research is gradually goed deep into, and the market demand is increasing, and destructiveness excavation tuber of pinellia wild resource, not being able to satisfy market not only needs It asks, also resulting in wild resource, closely exhaustion, the market price rise year after year.For the imbalance between supply and demand for solving the tuber of pinellia, carry out artificial cultivation Have become the task of top priority.Artificial cultivation generally uses tubercle and bulbil as vegetative propagation, but since sowing quantity is big, breeding Coefficient is low, cost is excessively high, limits the field production production of the tuber of pinellia.
The important means of large-scale production is had become with tissue culture method breeding tuber of pinellia seedling, while having been reported that and showing tissue culture half There is no the alkaloid of essential distinction or even tissue-cultured seedling to be higher than Wild Rhizoma Pinelliae on summer and Wild Rhizoma Pinelliae quality, meets commodity half Summer requires, therefore is kind with tissue-cultured seedling, carries out large-scale planting and obtains more and more extensive attention, relevant callus induction skill Art, detoxification treatment technology etc. are increasingly mature.But tissue-cultured seedling, in hardening, domesticating and cultivating link, there is presently no unified domestications Cultivation matrix.Since cultivation matrix selection is improper or formula is not scientific, tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling grows shape during taming hardening State is bad, and survival rate is lower, and which greatly limits utilize tissue culture technique large-scale production application.Therefore, for tuber of pinellia group It is extremely urgent to train seedling domestication growth period base Quality Research.
Production at present is upper generally to tame matrix using river sand or using other tissue-cultured seedling in the prior art.In the prior art Most of the component of domestication matrix mixed by fertile soil, plant ash, fine sand, perlite, carbendazim etc..Due to fertile soil , excavation difficult in the presence of excavation takes artificial, excavation and destroys ecological environment and influenced by seasonal weather, in addition matrix nutrient is unstable, holds The problems such as easy disease carrying germ, is not suitable for industrialization, the standardized production of cultivation matrix;Secondly, being refined using these domestication matrix Seedling cultivation must can carry out field production in transplanting 2-3 months, and the domestication time is longer.
Summary of the invention
In order to overcome the above-mentioned deficiency of the prior art, the present invention provides a kind of domestications for improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent Cultivation matrix and preparation method thereof.Domesticating and cultivating matrix selection of the invention is easy, low in cost, simple production process, uses The tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling growth potential that domesticating and cultivating matrix of the invention is bred is good, robust seedling, full stand, and rhizome is flourishing, robust plant; The hardening time needed for carrying out tuber of pinellia domesticating and cultivating using domesticating and cultivating matrix of the invention is short, survival rate is higher.
To achieve the goals above, the present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
The first object of the present invention is to propose a kind of domesticating and cultivating matrix for improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent, by weight Number meter, including 80~90 parts of straw decomposing compost, 5~18 parts of inorganic mineral materials and 1~5 part of composite conditioner.
Further, according to the mass fraction, the inorganic mineral material includes 2~10 parts of vermiculites and 3~8 parts of perlites.
Further, by mass percentage, the composite conditioner include 20%~30% sulphur, 67%~79% Calcium superphosphate and 1%~3% DA-7.
The second object of the present invention is to propose the preparation of the domesticating and cultivating matrix of above-mentioned raising tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent Method, comprising:
Step 1: high-temperature aerobic fermentation, by volume percentage, by 50%~70% crushing straw and 30%~ The mixing of 50% stillage mud, makes the initial water sub-control system of mixed material 45~55%;Stalk is added in gained mixture material It is decomposed to be transferred to aging workshop progress secondary fermentation after 20-22 days high-temperature aerobic fermentations for decomposing agent and nitrogen fixation agent;
Step 2: secondary aerobic fermentation adds cellulose-decomposing bacterium to high-temperature aerobic fermentation material, between aging workshop use It has a rest offering oxygen way, aerobic fermentation 10~15 days, is down to 25~35% to moisture, temperature stabilization is consistent with room temperature, obtains decomposed material;
Step 3: according to the mass fraction, take decomposed material in 80~90 parts of steps 2,5~18 parts of inorganic mineral materials and 1~ 5 parts of composite conditioner mixing drop bulk density, mixed material is stacked 5~7 days;
Step 4: detection and packaging by the material sample detection of step 3, carry out weighing packaging after meeting physical and chemical index, i.e., To prepare matrix.
Further, the straw decomposing inoculant in the step 1 is that carrier, solution fiber bacillus subtilis are filled by bean cake powder The leavening that bacterium, aspergillus niger and saccharomyces cerevisiae are made into, the solution fiber bacillus subtilis living bacteria count be 200,000,000/gram, black song Mould living bacteria count is 200,000,000/gram, saccharomyces cerevisiae living bacteria count be 100,000,000/gram;By mass percentage, the straw decomposing inoculant Additive amount be stalk stillage mud mixed material 1%.
Further, the nitrogen fixation agent in the step 1 is formulated by calcium superphosphate, magnesium hydroxide and potassium fulvate Complexing agent, mass percent are as follows: calcium superphosphate 37.5%, magnesium hydroxide 20%, potassium fulvate 42.5%;By mass percentage Meter, the additive amount of the nitrogen fixation agent are the 2% of stalk stillage mud mixed material.
Further, the condition of the step 1 high temperature aerobic fermentation are as follows: the temperature rise period control 2~3 days, temperature 45~ 50 DEG C, hot stage maintains 10~15 days, 55~70 DEG C of temperature, and temperature-fall period maintains 2~3 days, 40~45 DEG C of temperature, cooling rank Section control 1~2 day, during which turning 4~5 times.
Further, cellulose-decomposing bacterium is Trichoderma viride in the step 2, by mass percentage, the green wood Mould additive amount is the 1% of high-temperature aerobic fermentation material.
Further, according to the mass fraction, inorganic mineral material includes 2~10 parts of vermiculites and 3~8 parts in the step 3 Perlite.
Further, by mass percentage, the composite conditioner include 20%~30% sulphur, 67%~79% Calcium superphosphate and 1%~3% DA-7.
Compared with prior art, the beneficial effects of the present invention are:
(1) raw material sources used by Matrix formulation procedure of the invention are extensive, and stalk is crops stalk, vegetables tail The wastes such as dish, edible fungi residue and shell, vinasse are the poor mud after Alcohol Plant or distillery's wine brewing, these raw materials belong to plant Material resource class is free of harmful substance, and as the base-material of tuber of pinellia domesticating and cultivating, homology is good, nutrient equilibrium, effect stability.
(2) domesticating and cultivating matrix of the invention, is compounded with Organic Ingredients and inorganic material, and preservation capacity of water and fertility is good, battalion It supports and is able to satisfy the nutritional need that tissue-cultured seedling grows 60 days comprehensively.Matrix bulk density is small simultaneously, than conventional nutraceutical soil or with river sand, corruption The bulk density for growing the matrix that soil is raw material is light by 30% or more, reduces transport and 10% or more cost of labor.
(3) tuber of pinellia domesticating and cultivating matrix is prepared using straw and stillage mud, not only solves fertile soil and takes native difficult, wave The problems such as taking ecological resources and the discarding of agriculture waste biomass or burning bring environmental pollution, realize agricultural wastes circulation It utilizes.Meanwhile carrying out cultivation base Quality Research, exploitation and application, it may advantageously facilitate the sustainable production of high-efficiency agriculture, in promotion The standardization of production of crude drugs whole process, reduces labour cost, increases farmers' income.
(4) be standardized production using high-temperature aerobic fermentation process, after fermentation maturity base starting material physicochemical character it is stable, Rotten degree is almost the same, is formed by humus (DOM) content higher than the fertile soil in natural environment and without germ and its His impurity, it is highly-safe.
(5) matrix is improved using sulphur and calcium superphosphate, not only provide tuber of pinellia seedling growth required for phosphorus, The nutrients such as calcium, sulphur and magnesium also have effects that comprehensive tune acid, it is ensured that the stability of the pH value of tuber of pinellia cultivation matrix, simultaneously Also have the function of killing germ, promotes the healthy growth in tuber of pinellia seedling stage.
(6) DA-7 in matrix composite conditioner (the new rouge of amine) belongs to the substance of plant growth substance class, has and promotes The effect of wound healing and new root under other nutriment collective effects in matrix, can improve tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling Resistance and adaptability promote tissue-cultured seedling new root to send out fastly, significantly improve the seedling quality of tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling, planting percent reaches 95% More than, seedlings are uniform and strong.Shorten the hardening phase simultaneously, shortens 10-15 days than traditional matrix (river sand).
Specific embodiment
It shows that example illustrates certain embodiments of the present invention, and should not be construed as limiting model of the invention It encloses.Present disclosure can be improved from material, method and reaction condition simultaneously, all these improvement should all It falls within spirit and scope of the invention.
One, prepared by tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling domesticating and cultivating matrix
Domesticating and cultivating matrix of the invention include 80~90 parts of straw decomposing compost, 5~18 parts of inorganic mineral materials and 1~ 5 parts of composite conditioners, specific preparation method mainly include the Organic Ingredients fermentation and addition of tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling domesticating and cultivating matrix Inorganic mineral material and conditioner.
1, the Organic Ingredients fermentation of tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling domesticating and cultivating matrix
Experiment matrix is the tuber of pinellia of the invention that compost fermentation production is carried out using straw and stillage mud as Organic Ingredients Domesticating and cultivating matrix, nutrient, moisture and the carbon-nitrogen ratio of organic materials are most important to the influence that compost fermentation is decomposed, microorganism point Solving the suitable carbon-nitrogen ratio of organic materials is 25 or so, and the normal fermentation time is 30 days or so.Selected raw material in test, through more Average after secondary its physicochemical character index of detection the result shows that, the carbon-nitrogen ratio of crop material is higher, about between 40-60 (being shown in Table 1);Stillage mud refers to the poor mud of the activity to precipitate after alcohol fermentation, and main component is cannot be again after number generation fermentation The waste yeast mud and poor slag utilized, contains crude protein 29.97%, heavy metal is lower than national standard (being shown in Table 2), traditional processing Method is landfill or accumulation on ground surface, pollutes environment, and the feature high using its available nutrient, carbon-nitrogen ratio is low mixes the two Adjustment, with carbon source and nitrogen source needed for adapting to compost fermentation.
1 raw material physicochemical character index of table
The 2 innoxious Indexs measure result of alcohol grain mud of table
Data source: academy of agricultural sciences, Hubei Province Agricultural development quality standard and detection technique research institute examining report
(1) high-temperature aerobic fermentation
Straw is ground into the section shape of 1-5cm, by volume percentage, by the straw of 50%-70% and 30%-50% wine (essence) grain mud mixing, makes the initial water sub-control system of mixed material 45~55%;In gained mixture material The nitrogen fixation agent for adding straw decomposing inoculant sum by metering computer weighing belt in mass ratio, is then rapidly heated dress in solar energy compost Middle carry out high-temperature aerobic fermentation is set, it is decomposed to be transferred to aging workshop progress secondary fermentation after 20-22 days for turning 4-5 times.The step Solar energy compost device for quickly elevating temperature is utility model patent product (Patent No. ZL 201220164303.3), high temperature in rapid The condition of aerobic fermentation are as follows: the temperature rise period controls 2-3 days, 45-50 DEG C of temperature, and hot stage maintains 10-15 days, temperature 55-70 DEG C, temperature-fall period maintains 2-3 days, 40-45 DEG C of temperature, and cooling stage controls 1-2 days, during which needs to utilize turning machine turning 4-5 It is secondary.
Wherein stalk is mainly rice straw, corn stover and wheat stalk, based on biomass, C/N ratio about 40, and vinasse Waste yeast, poor mud mainly after distillery or alcohol (ethyl alcohol) factory's brewing spirit or alcohol (ethyl alcohol) fermentation separation, Based on protein, a small amount of organic matter, moisture 60% or so, C/N ratio about 15, after mixing, material C/N ratio is 25 left The right side meets the C/N ratio of compost fermentation.
Straw decomposing inoculant of the invention is to be made by bean cake powder, solution fiber bacillus subtilis, aspergillus niger and saccharomyces cerevisiae Leavening, solution fiber bacillus subtilis living bacteria count is 200,000,000/gram, aspergillus niger living bacteria count be 200,000,000/gram, wine brewing ferment Female living bacteria count be 100,000,000/gram;The additive amount of straw decomposing inoculant is the 1% of stalk stillage mud mixed material;Wherein with bean cake powder Promote fermentative microflora quickly to breed producing enzyme as the initial nitrogen source and carbon source of flora for nutrition carrier, sent out using solar temperature rising Ferment device, which reaches, to be rapidly heated, and shortens fermentation time, by 20-22 days aerobic fermentations, completes the sugar decomposition of stalk organic material With the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose.
Most of compost enterprises in order to reduce fermentation turning during heap body ammonia nitrogen loss, generally all with phosphoric acid and hydrogen-oxygen Changing magnesium is that nitrogen fixation agent is added in fermentation materials, is formed in heap body by fermentation reaction and is similar to ammonium magnesium phosphate (guanite) knot Brilliant mode carrys out fixed nitrogen, but easily causes flocculation phenomenon usually because of the moisture and components influence in material during the reaction, The amount and ingredient and quality for being formed by ammonium magnesium phosphate cannot all be stablized, and therefore, nitrogen fixation effect is also unstable.Fixed nitrogen of the invention Agent is the complexing agent being formulated by calcium superphosphate, magnesium hydroxide and potassium fulvate, mass percent are as follows: calcium superphosphate 37.5%, magnesium hydroxide 20%, potassium fulvate 42.5%;The additive amount of nitrogen fixation agent is the 2% of stalk stillage mud mixed material;Benefit Have the characteristics that deflocculation and biology complexing with fulvic acid, ammonium magnesium phosphate (guanite) crystallization reaction can be promoted during the fermentation Formation, not only nitrogen fixation effect is stable, total nitrogen loss control amount is significant, at the same be formed by struvite crystallization also rich in calcium, Potassium, silicon, quality are significantly higher than traditional nitrogen fixation agent and are formed by crystallization.
(2) secondary aerobic fermentation
The organic material of high-temperature aerobic fermentation is added into cellulose-decomposing bacterium, uses intermittent oxygen supply mode in aging workshop, it is good Aerobe fermentation 10-15 days, during which turning 2-3 times was down to 25~35% to moisture, and temperature stabilization is consistent with room temperature, obtains decomposed material. Wherein cellulose-decomposing bacterium is Trichoderma viride, and by mass percentage, the additive amount of Trichoderma viride is high-temperature aerobic fermentation material 1%, effect be during secondary fermentation, by oxygen supply and turning, hemicellulose and hemilignin in decomposing materials, hair After the completion of ferment, material rotten degree reaches 95% or more.
2, inorganic mineral material and conditioner are added
According to the mass fraction, take decomposed material in 80~90 parts of steps 2,5~18 parts of inorganic mineral materials and 1~5 part multiple Conditioner mixing drop bulk density is closed, mixed material is stacked 5~7 days.
Wherein conditioner is to be made of the DA-7 of the sulphur of 10%-30%, the calcium superphosphate of 67%-79% and 1%-3% Composite conditioner.Due to tuber of pinellia fearness arid, avoid high temperature, fear Qiang Guang, is suitble to the sand in the subacidity for moistening fertile and pH 6-7 It is grown in matter soil, tissue-cultured seedling is in domesticating and cultivating stage, mainly disease prevention, growth-promoting root.It is rotten after organic material passes through compost fermentation Ripe base-material is in alkalinity, and pH is 7.0 or more, it is necessary to improve base-material, make cultivation matrix pH control 6.5 or so.It is multiple The sulphur and calcium superphosphate in conditioner are closed, the pH of matrix can be not only reduced, stablizes it 6.5 or so, is up to when stablizing 50 days or so.Meanwhile calcium superphosphate can supplement rapid available phosphorus required for tuber of pinellia seedling growth, sulphur can kill soil disease Bacterium plays protection effect;DA-7 (the new rouge of amine) in composite conditioner belongs to the substance of plant growth substance class, has and promotes The effect of wound healing and new root under other nutriment collective effects in matrix, can improve tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling Resistance and adaptability promote tissue-cultured seedling new root to send out fastly, significantly improve the seedling quality of tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling, planting percent reaches 95% More than, seedlings are uniform and strong.Shorten the hardening phase simultaneously, shortens 10-15 days than traditional matrix (river sand).
Inorganic material is the mixing inorganic material for including 2~10 parts of vermiculites and 3~8 parts of perlites, and main rise reduces matrix The effect that bulk density and water conservation are breathed freely.Vermiculite is the partial size of 2mm or so, and perlite is the partial size of 3-5mm or so, it is desirable that without dust, Free from admixture, partial size is not too much, is otherwise easy floating, and mixed matrix bulk density is 400g/L-600g/L.
3, it detects and packs
By the above-mentioned fermentation materials sample detection for being added to inorganic mineral material and conditioner, carried out after meeting physical and chemical index Weighing packaging, as prepares matrix.The quality standard of tissue-cultured seedling domesticating and cultivating matrix are as follows: total nutrient (N+P2O5+KO2) 3.5-4.5%, acidity-basicity ph 5.5-7.0, conductivity EC < 1.0mS/cm, bulk density 400-600g/L, organic matter >=40%.
Two, the application method of domesticating and cultivating matrix
Domesticating and cultivating matrix prepared by above-mentioned method is used for tuber of pinellia training tissue culture seedling domesticating and cultivating, such as using technology Under:
The tuber of pinellia bulbil or stem tuber of cutting are placed in bottle in the enterprising pedestrian's work culture of culture medium, when tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling is long extremely Height is 5-8cm, and when having flourishing root system (root long about 1.0cm or so), opens bottle cap, spray sterile water, fountain height is every Bottle 6-8ml;After spraying sterile water, continue to place 2-3 days in culturing room;Tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling is taken out from culture bottle, should especially be infused Meaning not damage root system, be rinsed well root with tap water, gently brush off the agar on root with soft small brushes, more thorough Better, Yao Jinliang does not hurt root;The tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling rinsed well is placed on comparison clean newspaper or toilet paper, to root, Ye Shang There is no extra moisture to be transplanted on domestication seedbed again, domestication seedbed is tiled using domesticating and cultivating matrix of the invention, Thickness is about 5cm or so, and matrix is divided into the bar ditch of a line depth about 2cm with branch or bamboo chip, then by tuber of pinellia tissue culture It is slender to plant in upper, then item cultivation of paddling repeatedly irrigates the sprinkling of bed surface clear water after the completion of transplanting, finally by seedbed with saturating The sunshade net or black and white film that light rate is 40-60% carry out Small plastic shed covering, build up hardening garden, can also use steel structure vinyl house Carry out hardening cultivation.Tuber of pinellia training tissue culture seedling is controlled at 20-25 DEG C, and humidity 40-50%, through 20-30d, new root can It is formed, plantation Tanaka can be transplanted at this time, carry out normal field management, the test tube seedling current year of current year transplanting can then harvest block Stem, mass of 1000 kernel about 2kg.
Three, 1-3 carries out the interpretation of result of compost mixed fermentation test by the following examples
Embodiment 1
1. base starting material: 50Kg straw+50Kg alcohol grain mud+1Kg leavening+2Kg nitrogen fixation agent.
2. the high-temperature aerobic fermentation time: 20 days.
3. two decomposed fermentation times: 15 days.
4. straw decomposing inoculant: bean cake powder fill carrier, solution fiber bacillus subtilis living bacteria count be 200,000,000/gram, black song Mould living bacteria count is 200,000,000/gram, saccharomyces cerevisiae living bacteria count be 100,000,000/gram.
5. nitrogen fixation agent: calcium superphosphate 37.5%, magnesium hydroxide 20%, potassium fulvate 42.5%.
Embodiment 2
1. base starting material: 60Kg straw+40Kg alcohol grain mud+1Kg leavening+2Kg nitrogen fixation agent
2. the high-temperature aerobic fermentation time: 20 days
3. two decomposed fermentation times: 12 days
4. straw decomposing inoculant: bean cake powder fill carrier, solution fiber bacillus subtilis living bacteria count be 200,000,000/gram, black song Mould living bacteria count is 200,000,000/gram, saccharomyces cerevisiae living bacteria count be 100,000,000/gram.
5. nitrogen fixation agent: calcium superphosphate 37.5%, magnesium hydroxide 20%, potassium fulvate 42.5%.
Embodiment 3
1. base starting material: 70Kg straw+30Kg alcohol grain mud+1Kg leavening+2Kg nitrogen fixation agent
2. the high-temperature aerobic fermentation time: 22 days
3. two decomposed fermentation times: 10 days
4. straw decomposing inoculant: bean cake powder fill carrier, solution fiber bacillus subtilis living bacteria count be 200,000,000/gram, black song Mould living bacteria count is 200,000,000/gram, saccharomyces cerevisiae living bacteria count be 100,000,000/gram.
5. nitrogen fixation agent: calcium superphosphate 37.5%, magnesium hydroxide 20%, potassium fulvate 42.5%.
Ingredient in embodiment 1-3 is subjected to hybrid composting fermentation in the present inventive method, it is decomposed to the material after fermentation Degree and physical and chemical index are analyzed, and the optimal material proportion of compost fermentation is filtered out, and are determined most for tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling domesticating and cultivating Good organic substrate.
Interpretation of result
Experiment discovery, the material of 3 embodiments 7 days temperature before stacking constantly increase, and rapidly enter hot fermentation rank Section, the pH and EC of heap body are significantly raised.In composting fermentation process, the variation of " high-low-high " is presented in pH value.Early period microorganism It decomposes itrogenous organic substance and generates ammonia, cause heap body pH value early period to increase but then since microbial metabolism generation is a large amount of organic Acid makes material pH value that downward trend be presented, and fermentation later period pH is increased again, in most of mesophilic micoorganisms death, decomposed material Ammonium salt accumulation is related with the reaction of organic matter humification.During the fermentation, the metal ion activities such as Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, K, Cu It has obtained significantly improving, therefore, the EC value of heap body can be increased constantly in fermentation process.(table 3)
The Nutrient change of 3 organic materials of table fermentation front and back
N, P, K nutrient increase after the material formula compost fermentation in 3 embodiments it can be seen from data in table 3, organic Matter content reduces.In composting fermentation process, microorganism needs the carbonaceous organic material in spent material to provide energy for it, so that material Organic matter reduces, and inorganic nutrients therein constantly accumulate, and make nutrient content relative increase.
Conclusion: stalk and alcohol grain mud under the comprehensive function of straw decomposing inoculant and solar energy compost device for quickly elevating temperature, High temperature fermentation stage can be rapidly entered, aerobic fermentation process can be accelerated.Wherein, best with the ferment effect of embodiment 2, it is high A length of 20 days or so when temperature fermentation, than Traditional compost fermentation time reduction 5 days or so.
Four, the economical character that 4-6 carrys out the stability to domesticating and cultivating matrix physicochemical character, cultivates seedling by the following examples Interpretation of result
Embodiment 4:
1.90Kg compost base-material+2Kg vermiculite+3Kg perlite+5Kg conditioner
2. composite conditioner: the DA-7 of 1Kg sulphur, 3.9Kg calcium superphosphate and 0.1Kg
Embodiment 5:
1. 85Kg compost base-material+7Kg vermiculite+5Kg perlite+3Kg conditioner
2. composite conditioner: the DA-7 of 0.6Kg sulphur, 2.34Kg calcium superphosphate and 0.06Kg
Embodiment 6:
1. 80Kg compost base-material+10Kg vermiculite+8Kg perlite+2Kg conditioner
2. composite conditioner: the DA-7 of 0.4Kg sulphur, 1.56Kg calcium superphosphate and 0.04Kg
Wherein blank group matrix condition: fertile soil 80Kg+5Kg plant ash+5Kg river sand+5Kg perlite+4.8Kg peroxophosphoric acid Calcium+0.2Kg carbendazim (50% pulvis)
Interpretation of result
1, the stability of the physicochemical character of matrix
The physicochemical character of matrix before and after the processing nursery of each embodiment is detected, the results are shown in Table 4: transplanting 14 days Afterwards, matrix nutrient is absorbed by tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling, and Absorption of Nitrogen is most in single nutrient, compared to the blank group compared with experimental group PH, EC variation it is relatively stable, each embodiment and blank group without significant difference, and by observation, the emergence ratio of test group Blank group is good;Simultaneously as being added to inorganic mineral, matrix bulk density has obtained very big decline, reduces by 30% than blank group More than, it in actual production cultivation, can be reduced transport and manual handling costs, reduce labor intensity.
The variation (transplanting 14d) of 4 different substrates physicochemical character of table
2, the economical character physicochemical character of different embodiment substrate culture tissue-cultured seedling
After transplanting 28 days, investigation statistics, result such as 5 institute of table are carried out to the tissue-cultured seedling economical character of each embodiment processing Show: compared to the blank group, experimental group emergence is fast, and leaf age is noticeably greater than blank group;Plant height is significantly higher than blank group;Hundred plants of overground parts Fresh weight is significantly higher than blank group, and hundred plants of underground part fresh weights in blank group without significant difference;The longest root long of experimental group is significantly empty White group;Experimental group hardening survival rate is all larger than 95%, is higher by 4-6 percentage points than blank group, difference reaches the level of signifiance.
5 different substrates of table cultivate the economical character (sowing 28d) of seedling
Brief summary: using tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling domesticating and cultivating matrix produced by the invention, the extensive, production cost with raw material sources Low, effect stability can significantly improve the seedling quality of tuber of pinellia tissue-cultured seedling domesticating and cultivating seedling, shorten the hardening phase, and average hardening survives Rate is up to 95 or more.Meanwhile matrix bulk density is small, it is more native than conventional nutraceutical or light as the bulk density of the matrix of raw material using river sand, fertile soil 30% or more, reduce transport and 10% or more cost of labor;Meanwhile cultivation matrix of the invention is applied not only to the domestication of tissue-cultured seedling Cultivation, and apply also for seed propagation seedling and the stem tuber rhizome cutting propagation nursery of the tuber of pinellia.
The foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, but scope of protection of the present invention is not limited thereto, Anyone skilled in the art in the technical scope disclosed by the present invention, according to the technique and scheme of the present invention and its Inventive concept is subject to equivalent substitution or change, should be covered by the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of domesticating and cultivating matrix for improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent, which is characterized in that according to the mass fraction, including 80~ 90 parts of straw decomposing compost, 5~18 parts of inorganic mineral materials and 1~5 part of composite conditioner.
2. a kind of domesticating and cultivating matrix for improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent according to claim 1, which is characterized in that press Mass fraction meter, the inorganic mineral material include 2~10 parts of vermiculites and 3~8 parts of perlites.
3. a kind of domesticating and cultivating matrix for improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent according to claim 1, which is characterized in that press Mass percentage, the composite conditioner include 20%~30% sulphur, 67%~79% calcium superphosphate and 1%~3% DA-7.
4. a kind of preparation method of domesticating and cultivating matrix for improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent as described in claim 1, special Sign is, comprising:
Step 1: high-temperature aerobic fermentation, by volume percentage, by 50%~70% crushing straw and 30%~50% Stillage mud mixing, makes the initial water sub-control system of mixed material 45~55%;Straw decomposing is added in gained mixture material It is decomposed to be transferred to aging workshop progress secondary fermentation after 20-22 days high-temperature aerobic fermentations for agent and nitrogen fixation agent;
Step 2: secondary aerobic fermentation adds cellulose-decomposing bacterium to high-temperature aerobic fermentation material, is supplied in aging workshop using interval Oxygen mode aerobic fermentation 10~15 days, is down to 25~35% to moisture, temperature stabilization is consistent with room temperature, obtains decomposed material;
Step 3: according to the mass fraction, taking decomposed material in 80~90 parts of steps 2,5~18 parts of inorganic mineral materials and 1~5 part Composite conditioner mixing drop bulk density, mixed material is stacked 5~7 days;
Step 4: detection and packaging by the material sample detection of step 3, carry out weighing packaging after meeting physical and chemical index, as make It is standby to obtain matrix.
5. a kind of preparation method of domesticating and cultivating matrix for improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent according to claim 4, It is characterized in that, the straw decomposing inoculant in the step 1 is that carrier, solution fiber bacillus subtilis, aspergillus niger are filled by bean cake powder The leavening being made into saccharomyces cerevisiae, the solution fiber bacillus subtilis living bacteria count is 200,000,000/gram, aspergillus niger it is effectively living Bacterium number is 200,000,000/gram, saccharomyces cerevisiae living bacteria count be 100,000,000/gram;By mass percentage, the additive amount of the straw decomposing inoculant It is the 1% of stalk stillage mud mixed material.
6. a kind of preparation method of domesticating and cultivating matrix for improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent according to claim 4, It being characterized in that, the nitrogen fixation agent in the step 1 is the complexing agent being formulated by calcium superphosphate, magnesium hydroxide and potassium fulvate, Its mass percent are as follows: calcium superphosphate 37.5%, magnesium hydroxide 20%, potassium fulvate 42.5%;By mass percentage, described The additive amount of nitrogen fixation agent is the 2% of stalk stillage mud mixed material.
7. a kind of preparation method of domesticating and cultivating matrix for improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent according to claim 4, It is characterized in that, the condition of the step 1 high temperature aerobic fermentation are as follows: the temperature rise period controls 2~3 days, 45~50 DEG C of temperature, high temperature Stage maintenance 10~15 days, 55~70 DEG C of temperature, temperature-fall period maintenance 2~3 days, 40~45 DEG C of temperature, cooling stage control 1~ 2 days, during which turning 4~5 times.
8. a kind of preparation method of domesticating and cultivating matrix for improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent according to claim 4, It is characterized in that, cellulose-decomposing bacterium is Trichoderma viride, by mass percentage, the addition of the Trichoderma viride in the step 2 Amount is the 1% of high-temperature aerobic fermentation material.
9. a kind of preparation method of domesticating and cultivating matrix for improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent according to claim 4, It is characterized in that, according to the mass fraction, inorganic mineral material includes 2~10 parts of vermiculites and 3~8 parts of perlites in the step 3.
10. according to benefit require 4 described in a kind of preparation method of the domesticating and cultivating matrix of raising tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent, it is special Sign is, by mass percentage, the composite conditioner include 20%~30% sulphur, 67%~79% calcium superphosphate and 1%~3% DA-7.
CN201811525599.5A 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 A kind of domesticating and cultivating matrix and preparation method thereof improving tuber of pinellia tissue culture shoot survival percent Pending CN109479671A (en)

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CN110050664A (en) * 2019-04-30 2019-07-26 三明市农业科学研究院 A kind of special seedling substrate of Chinese yam and its preparation method and application
CN111053015A (en) * 2019-12-30 2020-04-24 江苏兴农基质科技有限公司 Substrate for artificially cultivating pinellia ternata and preparation method thereof
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CN113016541A (en) * 2021-03-25 2021-06-25 四川省中医药科学院 Cultivation method for two-harvest-one-year pinellia ternata in greenhouse

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CN107641023A (en) * 2017-10-26 2018-01-30 武汉日清生物科技有限公司 A kind of rice seedling raising ground substance produced with straw and beer active sludge and preparation method thereof
CN107691205A (en) * 2017-11-10 2018-02-16 南京工业大学大丰海洋产业研究院 A kind of matrix for improving tuber of pinellia training tissue culture seedling survival rate

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CN105123328A (en) * 2015-07-31 2015-12-09 河南科技大学 Pinellia ternate seedling tissue culturing, hardening and domesticating substrate and preparation and use method for same
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