CN109463230A - A method of breeding high-quality kuh-seng seed - Google Patents

A method of breeding high-quality kuh-seng seed Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109463230A
CN109463230A CN201811085021.2A CN201811085021A CN109463230A CN 109463230 A CN109463230 A CN 109463230A CN 201811085021 A CN201811085021 A CN 201811085021A CN 109463230 A CN109463230 A CN 109463230A
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seed
kuh
seedling
seng
quality
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贠进泽
张金文
李艳霞
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Agricultural Technology Extension Center Longxi County
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Agricultural Technology Extension Center Longxi County
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/25Root crops, e.g. potatoes, yams, beet or wasabi
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B1/00Superphosphates, i.e. fertilisers produced by reacting rock or bone phosphates with sulfuric or phosphoric acid in such amounts and concentrations as to yield solid products directly
    • C05B1/02Superphosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B7/00Fertilisers based essentially on alkali or ammonium orthophosphates

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of methods for breeding high-quality kuh-seng seed, specially Chinese herbal medicine planting technology field.Specific method is the following steps are included: working condition selects: the breeding field of selection will produce field far from periphery kuh-seng, it is desirable that without legume, planting technology within the 1000m of surrounding isolation strip, selection of land site preparation, rational application of fertilizers, seedling selection, transplanting, field management, intertillage are hoed up weeds, top dressing, reasonable irrigation and drainage, roguing, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control are collected seed.This method passes through reasonable cultivation step, hybrid strain, sick and weak strain are removed in different growing, impurity, empty grain and impaired seed are removed after seed harvest, kuh-seng seed purity, cleanliness and the germination percentage bred out are higher than what conventional method was bred out, and kuh-seng seed purity, cleanliness, germination percentage is made to respectively reach 95% or more.It is bred by high quality seed, provides high-quality provenance for kuh-seng Production of Large Fields, ensure that crop field Basic Seedling and its later period robust growth, improve the yield and quality of Sophora flavescens.

Description

A method of breeding high-quality kuh-seng seed
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of methods for breeding high-quality kuh-seng seed, specially Chinese herbal medicine planting technology field.
Background technique
Herbal medicine kuh-seng has the benefits of clearing heat and promoting diuresis, antibacterial anti-inflammatory, stomach invigorating, desinsection, is commonly used for treatment pruitus, nerve declines The diseases such as weak, indigestion and constipation;Stem hide fiber can weave a gunnysack.It is the dry root of kuh-seng, plant, organic molten through ethyl alcohol etc. in fruit Manufactured matrine pesticide is extracted in agent, has the multiple functions such as insecticidal activity, bactericidal activity, coordinate plant growth, is that one kind has Machine environment friendly agricultural is modern agriculture prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control keypoint recommendation product, meets the direction of Sustainable Development of Modern Agriculture.In Academy of Medical Sciences institute of materia medica, state is measured matrine in the kuh-seng of different regions and oxymatrine concentration, Gansu province Produced kuh-seng oxymatrine concentration is up to 2.3%, 1 times of pharmacopeia or more is higher by, also above Guizhou, Sichuan, Henan, Shandong, Zhejiang The ground such as river.The seed used in kuh-seng production at present derives from peasant household and lacks artificial choosing from numerous self-fertile, production process It educates, germ plasm resource Hybridization and degeneration phenomenon is serious, affects the plantation and quality of Chinese herbal medicine kuh-seng.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of mating system of high-quality kuh-seng seed, this method is conducive to improve kuh-seng kind Sub- purity, cleanliness and viability breed out good kuh-seng seed, supply Production of Large Fields with good provenance, promote Chinese herbal medicine The sustainable health development of kuh-seng, the interests of the ultimate guarantee producer and the safety of consumer.
To achieve the above object, the invention provides the following technical scheme: a kind of method for breeding high-quality kuh-seng seed, including Following steps:
1, working condition select: the breeding field of selection will far from periphery kuh-seng produce field, it is desirable that surrounding isolation strip 1000m with Interior no legume, and atmosphere quality should meet the regulation of the secondary standard in GB3095, irrigation water quality should meet Secondary standard regulation in GB5084, soil environment quality should meet the regulation of the secondary standard in GBl5618;
2, planting technology: kuh-seng seed growing use seedling transplanting method, the production cycle 3~5 years;
2-1, selection of land site preparation: selection topography is flat on the sunny side, soil layer is deep, the soil is porous, and permeable breathable is good, and preceding stubble is not Plant the plot of legume, P in soil H value 7.5~8.2 is ploughed deeply sun the earth which has been ploughed up in time after preceding crop harvest, general tilling depth 35cm with On, last time autumn ploughs shallowly, rake a kind of farm tools receives moisture in the soil;
2-2, rational application of fertilizers: according to organic in conjunction with inorganic phase, the principle that base manure and top dressing combine, base manure: in conjunction with whole Ground 667m2Abundant well-rotted farmyard manure 3000kg~5000kg, calcium superphosphate 30kg~40kg, potassium sulfate 5kg~7kg are spread fertilizer over the fields, is tied Conjunction site preparation, which is ploughed deeply, buries;
2-3, seedling selection: seedling age 1 year, disease-free spot worm's ovum healthy and strong seedling is selected;
2-4, transplanting: annual mid-March~mid-April is transplanted;
3, field management;
3-1, intertillage are hoed up weeds: seedling can hoe up weeds ridging after all sprouting, and mid or late June, mid or late July carry out the 2nd, 3 time respectively It hoes up weeds, is hoed up weeds at any time with backsight weeds in field growing state;
3-2, top dressing: combining to water top dressing of pouring water, and nonirrigated farmland is carried out in conjunction with rainfall, and seedling stage top dressing is with urea 5kg/667m2For Preferably;Florescence uses amino acid active top dressing, potassium dihydrogen phosphate foliage spray, and the amount of imposing is illustrated by fertilizer application, and it is white to spray 1% Syrup can attract sweet powder pollination, promote seed more to satisfy;
3-3, reasonable irrigation and drainage: it is primary that kuh-seng seed-breeding field in early squaring such as arid will pour water of buddingging, and water Ying Yi little water Irrigation is advisable, never broad irrigation, and rainy season pays attention to draining flooded fields, and prevents rotten, ponding;
4, roguing: kuh-seng seed-breeding field removes hybrid strain, sick and weak in squaring period, florescence and pest and disease damage initial phase respectively Strain, to guarantee purity, cleanliness and the viability of harvesting seed;
5, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: according to the plant protection policy of " putting prevention first, integrated control ", adhere to so that " cultural control, physics are anti- Control, based on biological control, supplemented by chemical prevention " Unpolluting management principle, kuh-seng disease resistance is stronger, but in high temperature and humidity season Powdery mildew can sporadicly occur for section, field, and early stage selects Bravo, triazolone, propiconazole, Flusilazole, Mancozeb to allow The pesticide used on Chinese herbal medicine illustratively sprays;
6, collect seed: the 3-5 mid or late September of kuh-seng growth adopts in batches when kuh-seng pod crust becomes dark brown It receives, too late kind of pod of harvesting is split, seed shedding, and after kind pod harvesting, threshing after drying 2-3 days on clean, spacious place is removed Decontamination, empty grain and impaired seed, make physical purity of seed reach 95% or more;Harvesting seed will dry in time, with mildew proof, influence Seed quality, the seed that has dried are packed into cloth bag, are placed on ventilation, drying, on the indoor frame plate without the plague of rats.
Preferably, the first is open country transplanting in the step 2-4 there are two types of method for transplanting, method particularly includes: it uses Spade trench digging, ditch depth 25-30 ㎝, seeding row spacing 25cm × 35cm, seedling is short tiltedly to be put seedling on furrow bank by spacing in the rows, and gradient is 45 °, set and followed by open the second row by equal line-spacings, and with heel row ditch soil cover before drug row seedling, symptom of a trend thickness of earth covering 2cm~ 3cm put seedling, side earthing, side drag mill in trench digging, it is also possible to which plough trench digging is transplanted, and depending on the ditch depth, medicine seedling can tiltedly be put or phase end to end It connects and lies in ditch.
Preferably, second of method for transplanting is that mulch is appeared transplanting, method particularly includes: edge of the elder generation in plot The ditch of a depth 10cm, width 35cm are opened with flat spade, the seedling symptom of a trend are then exposed into first 2~3 ㎝ of sideline, by spacing in the rows 25cm is tiltedly swung in the ditch shoveled out, is set followed by the first row shovel and is opened the second row ditch, while soil that trench digging takes out is overlayed on the On the seedling that a line has been set, thickness in the ㎝ of 6 ㎝~8 and 2~3 ㎝ of the symptom of a trend wouldn't earthing, be embedded to the mulch of 35 ㎝ at ditch beginning, put down It is layered on the first row seedling, the symptom of a trend is made to expose 2~3cm of mulch, while taking the second row earth mulch 3~4 ㎝ in the first row symptom of a trend thick, cover Mulching film edge is compacted while native, when putting the second row seedling, so that the symptom of a trend is ridden over previous row 2~3cm of mulching film edge, with such It pushes away, ditches, puts seedling, earthing, overlay film.
Compared with prior art, beneficial effects of the present invention are as follows: this method is by reasonable cultivation step, in different lifes Phase removal hybrid strain, sick and weak strain are educated, removes impurity, empty grain and impaired seed after seed harvest, it is the kuh-seng seed purity bred out, net Degree and germination percentage it is higher than what conventional method was bred out, make kuh-seng seed purity, cleanliness, germination percentage respectively reach 95% with On.It is bred by high quality seed, provides high-quality provenance for kuh-seng Production of Large Fields, ensure that crop field Basic Seedling and its later period are healthy and strong Growth, reduces the investment of agriculture chemical, improves the yield and quality of Sophora flavescens, and then has ensured the interests of the producer and disappeared The safety of the person of expense.
Specific embodiment
Technical solution of the present invention is clearly and completely described below in conjunction in the embodiment of the present invention, it is clear that institute The embodiment of description is only a part of the embodiment of the present invention, instead of all the embodiments.Based on the embodiments of the present invention, Every other embodiment obtained by those of ordinary skill in the art without making creative efforts, belongs to this hair The range of bright protection.
Embodiment 1:
1, working condition: kuh-seng seed growing field will produce field far from periphery kuh-seng, it is desirable that within the 1000m of surrounding isolation strip Without legume, atmosphere quality should meet the regulation of the secondary standard in GB3095.Irrigation water quality should meet in GB5084 Secondary standard regulation.Soil environment quality should meet the regulation of the secondary standard in GBl5618.
2, planting technology: kuh-seng seed growing use seedling transplanting method, the production cycle 3 years.
(2-1) selection of land site preparation: selection topography is flat on the sunny side, soil layer is deep, the soil is porous, and permeable breathable is good, preceding stubble The plot of legume is not planted.P in soil H value 7.5.It ploughs deeply and suns the earth which has been ploughed up in time after preceding crop harvest, general tilling depth 35cm or more, Last time autumn ploughs shallowly, rake a kind of farm tools receives moisture in the soil.
(2-2) rational application of fertilizers: in conjunction with site preparation 667m2Spread fertilizer over the fields abundant well-rotted farmyard manure 3000kg, calcium superphosphate 30kg, sulfuric acid Potassium 5kg, which is ploughed deeply, to bury.
The selection of (2-3) seedling: seedling age 1 year, disease-free spot worm's ovum healthy and strong seedling is selected.
(2-4) transplants optimum period: mid-March.
(2-5) method for transplanting, open country transplanting: being ditched with spade, 25 ㎝ of ditch depth or so, seeding row spacing 25cm × 35cm, seedling Short is tiltedly put seedling on furrow bank by spacing in the rows, and gradient is 45 °, is set and is followed by opened the second row by equal line-spacings, and arranges after Drug row seedling, symptom of a trend thickness of earth covering 3cm before ditch soil covers.Seedling, side earthing, side drag mill are put in trench digging.It can also be moved with plough trench digging It plants, depending on the ditch depth, medicine seedling can tiltedly be put or headtotail is lain in ditch.
3, field management;
(1) intertillage is hoed up weeds: seedling can hoe up weeds ridging after all sprouting, and mid or late June, mid or late July carry out the 2nd, 3 time respectively and uproot Grass.It is hoed up weeds at any time with backsight weeds in field growing state.
(2) top dressing: combining to water top dressing of pouring water, and nonirrigated farmland is carried out in conjunction with rainfall.Seedling stage top dressing is with urea 5kg/667m2For Preferably;Florescence uses potassium dihydrogen phosphate foliage spray, and the amount of imposing is illustrated by fertilizer application.
(3) reasonable irrigation and drainage: it is primary that kuh-seng seed-breeding field in early squaring such as arid will pour water of buddingging, and watering Ying Yi little water fills Irrigating is advisable, never broad irrigation.Rainy season pays attention to draining flooded fields, and prevents rotten, ponding.
4, roguing, kuh-seng seed-breeding field will remove hybrid strain, sick and weak in squaring period, florescence and pest and disease damage initial phase Strain, to guarantee seed purity and cleanliness.
5, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control is adhered to according to the plant protection policy of " putting prevention first, integrated control " with " cultural control, physics are anti- Control, based on biological control, supplemented by chemical prevention " Unpolluting management principle.Kuh-seng disease resistance is stronger, but in high temperature and humidity season Section, if plant is overstocked, powdery mildew can sporadicly occur for field.Early stage selects Bravo, triazolone, propiconazole, Flusilazole, generation Gloomy MnZn etc. allows the pesticide used on Chinese herbal medicine illustratively to spray.
6, it collects seed, in mid or late September, the 3rd of kuh-seng growth harvests in batches when kuh-seng pod crust becomes dark brown. It harvests too late kind of pod to split, seed shedding.After kind pod harvesting, threshing after drying 2 days on clean, spacious place removes impurity elimination Matter, empty grain and impaired seed, make physical purity of seed reach 95% or more.Harvesting seed will dry in time, with mildew proof, influence seed Quality.The seed that has dried is packed into cloth bag, is placed on ventilation, drying, on the indoor frame plate without the plague of rats.
Embodiment 2:
1, working condition: kuh-seng seed growing field will produce field far from periphery kuh-seng, it is desirable that within the 1000m of surrounding isolation strip Without legume, atmosphere quality should meet the regulation of the secondary standard in GB3095.Irrigation water quality should meet in GB5084 Secondary standard regulation.Soil environment quality should meet the regulation of the secondary standard in GBl5618.
2, planting technology: kuh-seng seed growing use seedling transplanting method, the production cycle 4 years.
(2-1) selection of land site preparation: selection topography is flat on the sunny side, soil layer is deep, the soil is porous, and permeable breathable is good, preceding stubble The plot of legume is not planted.P in soil H value 8.It ploughs deeply and suns the earth which has been ploughed up in time after preceding crop harvest, general tilling depth 35cm or more, most An autumn ploughs shallowly afterwards, rake a kind of farm tools receives moisture in the soil.If spring ploughs it is noted that preserving soil moisture.
(2-2) rational application of fertilizers: according to organic in conjunction with inorganic phase, the principle that base manure and top dressing combine, base manure: in conjunction with whole Ground 667m2Abundant well-rotted farmyard manure 4000kg, calcium superphosphate 35kg are spread fertilizer over the fields, potassium sulfate 6kg, which is ploughed deeply, to bury.
The selection of (2-3) seedling: seedling age 1 year, disease-free spot worm's ovum healthy and strong seedling is selected.
(2-4) transplants optimum period: early April;
(2-5) method for transplanting mulch is appeared transplanting: first opening a depth 10cm, width 35cm with flat spade at the edge in plot Ditch, the seedling symptom of a trend is then exposed into first 3 ㎝ of sideline, is tiltedly swung in the ditch shoveled out by spacing in the rows 25cm, with the after setting Shovel opens the second row ditch subject to two trench digging lines, while the soil that trench digging takes out being overlayed on the seedling that the first row has been set, and thickness is in 6 ㎝ (2 ㎝ of the symptom of a trend wouldn't earthing) be embedded to the mulch of 35 ㎝ in ditch one end, be laid on the first row seedling, the symptom of a trend is made to expose mulch 2cm, Take the second row earth mulch 3 ㎝ in the first row symptom of a trend thick simultaneously, mulching film edge is compacted by earthing while, puts the second row seedling When, so that the symptom of a trend is ridden over previous row mulching film edge 2cm, and so on, trench digging, pendulum seedling, earthing, overlay film.
3, field management
(3-1) intertillage is hoed up weeds: seedling can hoe up weeds ridging after all sprouting, and mid or late June, mid or late July carry out the 2nd, 3 time respectively It hoes up weeds.It is hoed up weeds at any time with backsight weeds in field growing state.
(3-2) top dressing: combining to water top dressing of pouring water, and nonirrigated farmland is carried out in conjunction with rainfall.Seedling stage top dressing is with urea 5kg/667m2For Preferably;Florescence uses potassium dihydrogen phosphate foliage spray, and the amount of imposing is illustrated by fertilizer application, sprays 1% white sugar water, can attract sweet powder Pollination promotes seed more to satisfy.
(3-3) reasonable irrigation and drainage: it is primary that kuh-seng seed-breeding field in early squaring such as arid will pour water of buddingging, and water Ying Yi little water Irrigation is advisable, never broad irrigation.Rainy season pays attention to draining flooded fields, and prevents rotten, ponding.
4, roguing: kuh-seng, which transplants seed-breeding field, to remove hybrid strain, disease in squaring period, florescence and pest and disease damage initial phase Weak strain, to guarantee seed purity and quality.
5, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: kuh-seng resistant to diseases and insects itself is stronger, and pest and disease damage does not occur substantially.
6, it collects seed, in mid or late September, the 4th of kuh-seng growth harvests in batches when kuh-seng pod crust becomes dark brown. It harvests too late kind of pod to split, seed shedding.After kind pod harvesting, threshing after drying 3 days on clean, spacious place removes impurity elimination Matter, empty grain and impaired seed, make physical purity of seed reach 95% or more.Harvesting seed will dry in time, with mildew proof, influence seed Quality.The seed that has dried is packed into cloth bag, is placed on ventilation, drying, on the indoor frame plate without the plague of rats.
Embodiment 3:
1, working condition: kuh-seng seed growing field will produce field far from periphery kuh-seng, it is desirable that within the 1000m of surrounding isolation strip Without legume, atmosphere quality should meet the regulation of the secondary standard in GB3095.Irrigation water quality should meet in GB5084 Secondary standard regulation.Soil environment quality should meet the regulation of the secondary standard in GBl5618.
2, planting technology: kuh-seng seed growing use seedling transplanting method, the production cycle 5 years.
(2-1) selection of land site preparation: selection topography is flat on the sunny side, soil layer is deep, the soil is porous, and permeable breathable is good, preceding stubble The plot of legume is not planted.P in soil H value is 8.2.Plough deeply sun the earth which has been ploughed up in time after preceding crop harvest, general tilling depth 35cm with On, last time autumn ploughs shallowly, rake a kind of farm tools receives moisture in the soil.If spring ploughs it is noted that preserving soil moisture.
(2-2) rational application of fertilizers: according to organic in conjunction with inorganic phase, the principle that base manure and top dressing combine, base manure: in conjunction with whole Ground 667m2Abundant well-rotted farmyard manure 5000kg, calcium superphosphate 40kg are spread fertilizer over the fields, potassium sulfate 7kg, which is ploughed deeply, to bury.
The selection of (2-3) seedling: seedling age 1 year, disease-free spot worm's ovum healthy and strong seedling is selected.
(2-4) transplants optimum period: late March.
(2-5) method for transplanting, mulch are appeared transplanting: first opening depth a 10cm, width with flat spade at the edge in plot Then the seedling symptom of a trend is exposed first 3 ㎝ of sideline, tiltedly swung in the ditch shoveled out by spacing in the rows 25cm, after setting by the ditch of 35cm Article 2 of being subject to trench digging line shovel opens the second row ditch, while the soil that trench digging takes out being overlayed on the seedling that the first row has been set, thickness At 8 ㎝ (3 ㎝ of the symptom of a trend wouldn't earthing), it be embedded to the mulch of 35 ㎝ in ditch one end, is laid on the first row seedling, the symptom of a trend is made to expose mulch Mulching film edge is compacted by 3cm, while taking the second row earth mulch 4 ㎝ in the first row symptom of a trend thick, earthing while, puts the second row kind Miao Shi makes the symptom of a trend ride over previous row mulching film edge 3cm, and so on, trench digging, pendulum seedling, earthing, overlay film.
3, field management
(3-1) intertillage is hoed up weeds: seedling can hoe up weeds ridging after all sprouting, and mid or late June, mid or late July carry out the 2nd, 3 time respectively It hoes up weeds.It is hoed up weeds at any time with backsight weeds in field growing state.
(3-2) top dressing: combining to water top dressing of pouring water, and nonirrigated farmland is carried out in conjunction with rainfall.Seedling stage top dressing is with urea 5kg/667m2For Preferably;Potassium dihydrogen phosphate foliage spray, the amount of imposing are illustrated by fertilizer application, spray 1% white sugar water, are attracted sweet powder pollination, are promoted seed More full.
(3-3) reasonable irrigation and drainage: it is primary that kuh-seng seed-breeding field in early squaring such as arid will pour water of buddingging, and water Ying Yi little water Irrigation is advisable, never broad irrigation.Rainy season pays attention to draining flooded fields, and prevents rotten, ponding.
4, roguing, kuh-seng seed-breeding field will remove hybrid strain, sick and weak in squaring period, florescence and pest and disease damage initial phase Strain, to guarantee seed purity and quality.
5, it collects seed, in mid or late September, the 5th of kuh-seng growth harvests in batches when kuh-seng pod crust becomes dark brown. It harvests too late kind of pod to split, seed shedding.After kind pod harvesting, threshing after drying 23 days on clean, spacious place removes impurity elimination Matter, empty grain and impaired seed, make physical purity of seed reach 95% or more.Harvesting seed will dry in time, with mildew proof, influence seed Quality.The seed that has dried is packed into cloth bag, is placed on ventilation, drying, on the indoor frame plate without the plague of rats.
It although an embodiment of the present invention has been shown and described, for the ordinary skill in the art, can be with A variety of variations, modification, replacement can be carried out to these embodiments without departing from the principles and spirit of the present invention by understanding And modification, the scope of the present invention is defined by the appended.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of method for breeding high-quality kuh-seng seed, it is characterised in that: specific method is the following steps are included: (1), working condition Selection: the breeding field of selection will produce field far from periphery kuh-seng, it is desirable that without legume within the 1000m of surrounding isolation strip, and it is big Gas environmental quality should meet the regulation of the secondary standard in GB3095, and irrigation water quality should meet the rule of the secondary standard in GB5084 Fixed, soil environment quality should meet the regulation of the secondary standard in GBl5618;
(2), planting technology: kuh-seng seed growing use seedling transplanting method, the production cycle 3~5 years;
(2-1), selection of land site preparation: selection topography is flat on the sunny side, soil layer is deep, the soil is porous, and permeable breathable is good, and preceding stubble is not planted Plant the plot of legume, P in soil H value 7.5~8.2 is ploughed deeply sun the earth which has been ploughed up in time after preceding crop harvest, general tilling depth 35cm with On, last time autumn ploughs shallowly, rake a kind of farm tools receives moisture in the soil;
(2-2), rational application of fertilizers: according to organic in conjunction with inorganic phase, the principle that base manure and top dressing combine, base manure: in conjunction with site preparation 667m2Abundant well-rotted farmyard manure 3000kg~5000kg, calcium superphosphate 30kg~40kg, potassium sulfate 5kg~7kg are spread fertilizer over the fields, in conjunction with Site preparation, which is ploughed deeply, buries;
The selection of (2-3), seedling: seedling age 1 year, disease-free spot worm's ovum healthy and strong seedling is selected;
(2-4), transplanting: annual mid-March~mid-April is transplanted;
(3), field management;
(3-1), intertillage are hoed up weeds: seedling can hoe up weeds ridging after all sprouting, and mid or late June, mid or late July carry out the 2nd, 3 time respectively and uproot Grass is hoed up weeds at any time with backsight weeds in field growing state;
(3-2), top dressing: combining to water top dressing of pouring water, and nonirrigated farmland is carried out in conjunction with rainfall, and seedling stage top dressing is with urea 5kg/667m2It is advisable; Florescence uses amino acid active top dressing, potassium dihydrogen phosphate foliage spray, and the amount of imposing is illustrated by fertilizer application, sprays 1% white sugar Water can attract sweet powder pollination, promote seed more to satisfy;
(3-3), reasonable irrigation and drainage: it is primary that kuh-seng seed-breeding field in early squaring such as arid will pour water of buddingging, and watering Ying Yi little water fills Irrigating is advisable, never broad irrigation, and rainy season pays attention to draining flooded fields, and prevents rotten, ponding;
(4), roguing: kuh-seng seed-breeding field removes hybrid strain, sick and weak in squaring period, florescence and pest and disease damage initial phase respectively Strain, to guarantee purity, cleanliness and the viability of harvesting seed;
(5), the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: according to the plant protection policy of " putting prevention first, integrated control ", adhere to so that " cultural control, physics are anti- Control, based on biological control, supplemented by chemical prevention " Unpolluting management principle, kuh-seng disease resistance is stronger, but in high temperature and humidity season Powdery mildew can sporadicly occur for section, field, and early stage selects Bravo, triazolone, propiconazole, Flusilazole, Mancozeb to allow The pesticide used on Chinese herbal medicine illustratively sprays;
(6), collect seed: the 3-5 mid or late September of kuh-seng growth harvests in batches when kuh-seng pod crust becomes dark brown, It harvests too late kind of pod to split, seed shedding, after kind pod harvesting, threshing after drying 2-3 days on clean, spacious place is removed Impurity, empty grain and impaired seed, make physical purity of seed reach 95% or more;Harvesting seed will dry in time, with mildew proof, influence to plant Protonatomic mass, the seed that has dried are packed into cloth bag, are placed on ventilation, drying, on the indoor frame plate without the plague of rats.
2. a kind of method for breeding high-quality kuh-seng seed according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the step (2- 4) in there are two types of method for transplanting, the first is open country transplanting, method particularly includes: it is ditched with spade, ditch depth 25-30 ㎝, seeding row spacing 25cm × 35cm, seedling is short tiltedly to be put seedling on furrow bank by spacing in the rows, and gradient is 45 °, is set and is followed by opened the by equal line-spacings Two rows, and with heel row ditch soil cover before drug row seedling, symptom of a trend thickness of earth covering 2cm~3cm, put in trench digging seedling, while earthing, while Rake mill, it is also possible to which plough trench digging transplanting, depending on the ditch depth, medicine seedling can tiltedly be put or headtotail is lain in ditch.
3. a kind of method for breeding high-quality kuh-seng seed according to claim 2, it is characterised in that: second of method for transplanting It appears transplanting for mulch, method particularly includes: the ditch of a depth 10cm, width 35cm are first opened with flat spade at the edge in plot, so The seedling symptom of a trend is exposed into first 2~3 ㎝ of sideline afterwards, is tiltedly swung in the ditch shoveled out by spacing in the rows 25cm, sets followed by first Row shovel opens the second row ditch, while the soil that trench digging takes out being overlayed on the seedling that the first row has been set, and thickness is in the ㎝ of 6 ㎝~8 and the symptom of a trend 2 ~3 ㎝ wouldn't earthing, ditch beginning be embedded to 35 ㎝ mulch, be laid on the first row seedling, make the symptom of a trend expose 2~3cm of mulch, together When take the second row earth mulch 3~4 ㎝ in the first row symptom of a trend thick, mulching film edge is compacted by earthing while, puts the second row seedling When, so that the symptom of a trend is ridden over previous row 2~3cm of mulching film edge, and so on, trench digging, pendulum seedling, earthing, overlay film.
CN201811085021.2A 2018-09-17 2018-09-17 A method of breeding high-quality kuh-seng seed Pending CN109463230A (en)

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Application publication date: 20190315