CN109396380B - Method for preparing high-heat-conductivity baking tray through semi-solid die-casting - Google Patents

Method for preparing high-heat-conductivity baking tray through semi-solid die-casting Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109396380B
CN109396380B CN201811383354.3A CN201811383354A CN109396380B CN 109396380 B CN109396380 B CN 109396380B CN 201811383354 A CN201811383354 A CN 201811383354A CN 109396380 B CN109396380 B CN 109396380B
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aluminum alloy
baking tray
heat
die
casting
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CN109396380A (en
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刘鹭
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Wujiang Geruifu Hardware Co ltd
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Wujiang Geruifu Hardware Co ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D17/00Pressure die casting or injection die casting, i.e. casting in which the metal is forced into a mould under high pressure
    • B22D17/007Semi-solid pressure die casting
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/026Alloys based on aluminium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/03Making alloys by melting using master alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for preparing a high-heat-conductivity baking tray by semi-solid state die casting, which comprises the steps of adding an aluminum alloy ingot into a smelting furnace for smelting, and controlling the smelting temperature to be 740-760 ℃; adding the Al-5B alloy into a smelting furnace, controlling the temperature to be 740 and 760 ℃, and preserving the heat for 0.5-1 h; adding Al-10Sr alloy into a smelting furnace, controlling the temperature to be 740 and 760 ℃, and preserving the heat for 0.5-1h to obtain aluminum alloy melt; refining, degassing and deslagging the aluminum alloy liquid; stirring the aluminum alloy liquid after deslagging at high speed by adopting electromagnetic stirring, cooling to 620-640 ℃ during stirring, stirring for 30-40min at the stirring speed of 250-500rpm, and obtaining semi-solid die casting liquid; transferring the die-casting liquid to a high-pressure hydraulic die-casting machine, and die-casting an aluminum alloy baking tray blank through a baking tray die; and (4) after polishing the blank of the aluminum alloy baking tray, coating to obtain a finished product of the high-heat-conductivity baking tray. The baking tray prepared by the method provided by the invention is simple in preparation method, good in heat conduction effect and suitable for popularization and application in the baking field.

Description

Method for preparing high-heat-conductivity baking tray through semi-solid die-casting
Technical Field
The invention relates to a baking tray manufacturing process for an oven, in particular to a method for preparing a high-heat-conductivity baking tray through semi-solid state die casting.
Background
The oven is an indispensable household appliance in families, and the food baked by the oven is fragrant and delicious in taste. The baking tray of the oven is made of various materials, and is commonly made of stainless steel baking trays, aluminum baking trays, glass baking trays, other alloy baking trays and the like, wherein the steel baking tray has the worst heat conduction effect, so that the baking process is easy to be heated unevenly, and the aluminum alloy baking tray becomes the best choice. In the field of aluminum alloy manufacturing, die casting is the most important casting process at present, the production efficiency is high, the material utilization rate is high, and the method is suitable for large-scale industrial production. In order to ensure the flow property during die casting, about 10% of silicon is usually added into the aluminum alloy, for example, the aluminum alloy with the code number YL113 in China usually contains 9.5-11.5% of silicon, and the lattice of the alloy is distorted to generate large resistance to the movement of free electrons, so that the heat conductivity of the aluminum alloy is not high, and the heat conductivity coefficient is only about 100W/(m · K).
Therefore, the production of bakeware with high thermal conductivity is very urgent for the baking field. In the prior art, the thermal conductivity is changed by changing the silicon phase, the Si phase is changed into a fiber shape from a sheet shape by adding 0.02 percent of boron and 0.03 percent of strontium to perform composite modification, the thermal conductivity of the alloy is improved to about 179W/(m.K) by processing the aluminum-silicon alloy, and the thermal conductivity is improved to about 179W/(m.K) by annealing treatment at 350 ℃ for four hours, but the research only uses the aluminum alloy ENAB-44200 as a raw material, and when the aluminum alloy with ultrahigh copper content is adopted, the copper content between the aluminum alloy and the ENAB-44200 is far higher than that of the aluminum alloy, and the finished product obtained by die casting under the conditions is easy to precipitate copper.
Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method for preparing an aluminum alloy baking tray with convenient production and high heat conduction efficiency.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention overcomes the defects of the prior art and provides the preparation method of the die-casting baking tray which is convenient to prepare, has high heat conductivity and is suitable for high-hardness 2A16 aluminum alloy, 2A17 aluminum alloy, 2A20 aluminum alloy and the like.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the technical scheme that: a method for preparing a high-heat-conductivity baking tray through semi-solid die casting comprises the following steps:
a. adding the aluminum alloy ingot into a smelting furnace for smelting, and controlling the smelting temperature to be 740-760 ℃;
b. adding the Al-5B alloy into a smelting furnace, controlling the temperature to be 740 and 760 ℃, and preserving the heat for 0.5-1 h;
c. adding Al-10Sr alloy into a smelting furnace, controlling the temperature to be 740 and 760 ℃, and preserving the heat for 0.5-1h to obtain aluminum alloy melt;
d. refining, degassing and deslagging the aluminum alloy liquid;
e. stirring the aluminum alloy liquid after deslagging at high speed by adopting electromagnetic stirring, cooling to 620-640 ℃ during stirring, stirring for 30-40min at the stirring speed of 250-500rpm, and obtaining semi-solid die casting liquid;
f. transferring the die-casting liquid to a high-pressure hydraulic die-casting machine, and die-casting an aluminum alloy baking tray blank through a baking tray die;
g. after polishing the blank of the aluminum alloy baking tray, coating to obtain a finished product of the high-heat-conductivity baking tray;
wherein the addition of Sr element accounts for 0.03-0.05wt% of the total alloy addition, the addition of B element accounts for 0.03-0.05wt% of the total alloy addition, the aluminum alloy ingot is selected from one or more of 2A16 aluminum alloy, 2A17 aluminum alloy and 2A20 aluminum alloy, the pressure in the die casting process is 200-250MPa, and the pressure maintaining time is 5-10 seconds.
It is believed that the size of the nuclei is affected by supercooling of the melt, and analysis of the Clausis-Crabellon equation shows that as the pressure is increased on the as-cast melt, the higher the temperature of crystallization, the smaller the size of the corresponding nuclei.
The addition of copper can increase the strength and hardness of the aluminum alloy, and the strength of the 2-series alloy is still far higher than that of the 7-series alloy when the temperature is higher than 125 ℃, so that the copper-based alloy is particularly suitable for being applied in a high-temperature environment such as an oven. Typical high copper content alloys are 2a16 aluminum alloy, 2a17 aluminum alloy, and 2a20 aluminum alloy.
However, for the 2a16, 2a17 or 2a20 alloy with higher copper content, copper is more likely to precipitate, which causes non-uniformity of aluminum phase and also has a negative effect on the thermal conductivity.
Semi-solid die casting differs from conventional die casting in that when the molten slurry is filled into the die, it is a semi-solid slurry that has already begun to solidify outside the die and has completely solidified inside the die. The strong stirring is carried out in the process from liquid metal to solid metal, so that the skeleton which is easy to form tree-shaped crystal lattices is broken, and the granular tissue form which is easy to disperse is kept.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the starting material used is a high copper content aluminium alloy, the Cu element in the finished product constituting 5.8-7.0 wt.%, preferably 6-6.8 wt.%, of the total alloy.
The heat conductivity coefficient of the aluminum alloy high-heat-conductivity baking tray prepared by the method is more than 170W/(m.K).
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the coating is selected from a polytetrafluoroethylene coating or a medical stone coating. The polytetrafluoroethylene coating is a relatively common non-stick coating and has been widely applied to baking trays. The medical stone coating is a latest popular coating, and the two coatings can prevent food from directly contacting with the aluminum alloy body, so that the use is safer.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, in the step f, the bakeware mold is heated and kept at 150-170 ℃ before being subjected to die casting.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a bakeware with high heat conduction effect. The baking tray is prepared by the method. Preferably, the thickness of the baking tray is 1-2 mm.
The invention solves the defects in the background technology, and has the following beneficial effects:
1. the aluminum alloy baking tray die-cast by the preparation method has higher thermal conductivity, transfers heat uniformly when baking food, is not easy to cause baking paste and scorch, and meets the requirements of baking novice and an oven with poor temperature control effect.
2. The die casting method of the invention selects high-pressure die casting to be matched with semi-solid die casting, so that the high heat conductivity coefficient of the aluminum alloy with high copper content can be ensured, and the cast casting can be ensured to be flat and bubble-free. Because under the state of high-speed stirring for the crystal nucleus is littleer, consequently, can avoid the use of superhigh pressure, reduce the production and the maintenance cost of enterprise, also reduce the requirement to equipment apparatus.
Drawings
The invention is further illustrated with reference to the following figures and examples.
FIG. 1 is a microstructure diagram of a sample of example No. 5;
FIG. 2 is a metallographic analysis chart of the sample of example No. 5.
Detailed Description
The following description is presented to disclose the invention so as to enable any person skilled in the art to practice the invention. The preferred embodiments in the following description are given by way of example only, and other obvious variations will occur to those skilled in the art.
Examples
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the method for preparing the high thermal conductive bakeware by semi-solid die casting comprises:
a. adding the aluminum alloy ingot into a smelting furnace for smelting, and controlling the smelting temperature to be 740-760 ℃;
b. adding the Al-5B alloy into a smelting furnace, controlling the temperature to be 740 and 760 ℃, and preserving the heat for 0.5-1 h;
c. adding Al-10Sr alloy into a smelting furnace, controlling the temperature to be 740 and 760 ℃, and preserving the heat for 0.5-1h to obtain aluminum alloy melt;
d. refining, degassing and deslagging the aluminum alloy liquid;
e. stirring the aluminum alloy liquid after deslagging at high speed by adopting electromagnetic stirring, cooling to 620-640 ℃ during stirring, stirring for 30-40min at the stirring speed of 250-500rpm, and obtaining semi-solid die casting liquid;
f. transferring the die-casting liquid to a high-pressure hydraulic die-casting machine, and die-casting an aluminum alloy baking tray blank through a baking tray die;
g. and (4) after polishing the blank of the aluminum alloy baking tray, coating to obtain a finished product of the high-heat-conductivity baking tray.
The aluminum ingot raw materials and process conditions used are shown in table 1 below.
TABLE 1
Numbering Ingot casting raw material Sr(wt%) B(wt%) Pressure (MPa) Die casting method
1 2A16 0 0.03 200 Semi-solid die casting
2 2A16 0.03 0 200 Semi-solid die casting
3 2A16 0.03 0.03 200 Semi-solid die casting
4 2A17 0.05 0.05 125 Semi-solid die casting
5 2A20 0.03 0.03 250 Semi-solid die casting
6 2A20 0.03 0.03 200 Liquid state die casting
Wherein, the samples with the numbers 1 to 5 are prepared by the semi-solid die casting, the sample with the number 6 is prepared by the liquid die casting, and the rest conditions are the same as the samples with the numbers 1 to 5.
The samples numbered 1-6 were sampled prior to coating, the center of the sample was cut and compared and measured using a C-THERM TCI thermal conductivity tester.
The thermal conductivity test results are shown in table 2.
TABLE 2
Numbering 1 2 3 4 5 6
Thermal conductivity W/(m.K) 129.9 116.7 171.3 140.5 185.8 145.2
From the results, it can be seen that the thermal conductivity of the high copper aluminum alloy, for example, the samples 3 and 5, can be effectively improved by semi-solid die casting under high pressure die casting, and the thermal conductivity is higher than 170W/(m · K).
And taking the sample with the number of 5 for metallographic study, wherein the method comprises the steps of polishing and grinding the sample, corroding the sample by using hydrofluoric acid with the concentration of 0.5%, and observing the texture of the tissue under a Zeiss polarized light optical microscope or a metallographic microscope.
FIG. 1 is a microstructure diagram observed under a Zeiss polarized light optical microscope, and it can be seen from the result of FIG. 1 that the aluminum alloy subjected to die casting has a uniform and fine microstructure and almost no casting defects.
Fig. 2 is a microstructure diagram observed under a metallographic microscope, and it can be seen from the result of fig. 2 that metal dendritic crystals should be originally formed, and spherical crystals are obtained after stirring, so that the crystallization state of the aluminum alloy is improved, and the aluminum alloy product has high strength, high toughness and high thermal conductivity.
The high-heat-conductivity baking tray prepared by the method has excellent heat conductivity and tensile strength, and the high-copper-content aluminum alloy has good heat resistance, so that the baking tray is particularly suitable for being made into a baking tray to be applied to an oven environment with higher temperature, and the production method is simple and is suitable for large-scale production.
In light of the foregoing description of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is to be understood that various changes and modifications may be made by one skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. The technical scope of the present invention is not limited to the content of the specification, and must be determined according to the scope of the claims.

Claims (3)

1. A method for preparing a high-heat-conductivity baking tray by semi-solid die casting is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
a. adding the aluminum alloy ingot into a smelting furnace for smelting, and controlling the smelting temperature to be 740-760 ℃;
b. adding the Al-5B alloy into a smelting furnace, controlling the temperature to be 740 and 760 ℃, and preserving the heat for 0.5-1 h;
c. adding Al-10Sr alloy into a smelting furnace, controlling the temperature to be 740 and 760 ℃, and preserving the heat for 0.5-1h to obtain aluminum alloy melt;
d. refining, degassing and deslagging the molten aluminum alloy;
e. stirring the aluminum alloy melt after deslagging at high speed by adopting electromagnetic stirring, cooling to 620-640 ℃ during stirring, stirring for 30-40min at the stirring speed of 250-500rpm, and obtaining semi-solid die casting liquid;
f. transferring the die-casting liquid to a high-pressure hydraulic die-casting machine, and die-casting an aluminum alloy baking tray blank through a baking tray die;
g. after polishing the blank of the aluminum alloy baking tray, coating to obtain a finished product of the high-heat-conductivity baking tray;
wherein the addition of Sr element accounts for 0.03-0.05wt% of the total alloy addition, the addition of B element accounts for 0.03-0.05wt% of the total alloy addition, the aluminum alloy ingot is selected from one or more of 2A16 aluminum alloy, 2A17 aluminum alloy and 2A20 aluminum alloy, the pressure in the die casting process is 200-250MPa, and the pressure maintaining time is 5-10 seconds;
cu element accounts for 6-6.8wt% of the total alloy;
the heat conductivity coefficient of the high-heat-conductivity baking tray is greater than 170W/(m.K);
the coating is selected from a polytetrafluoroethylene coating or a medical stone coating;
in the step f, the baking tray mold is heated and is subjected to die casting after the temperature is kept at 150-170 ℃.
2. The high thermal conductive bakeware manufactured by the method for manufacturing the high thermal conductive bakeware through semi-solid state die casting according to claim 1.
3. The high heat conduction baking tray manufactured by the method for manufacturing the high heat conduction baking tray by semi-solid state die casting according to claim 2 is characterized in that: the thickness of the baking tray is 1-2 mm.
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