CN109372556B - Sandwich arch suitable for high-stress soft rock tunnel surrounding rock support and construction method - Google Patents

Sandwich arch suitable for high-stress soft rock tunnel surrounding rock support and construction method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109372556B
CN109372556B CN201811158669.8A CN201811158669A CN109372556B CN 109372556 B CN109372556 B CN 109372556B CN 201811158669 A CN201811158669 A CN 201811158669A CN 109372556 B CN109372556 B CN 109372556B
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arch
rock
surrounding rock
surrounding
anchor
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CN109372556A (en
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董云
武精科
彭宁波
张继华
陈家瑞
程永振
尹得余
刘畅
张国瀛
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Huaiyin Institute of Technology
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/14Lining predominantly with metal
    • E21D11/15Plate linings; Laggings, i.e. linings designed for holding back formation material or for transmitting the load to main supporting members
    • E21D11/152Laggings made of grids or nettings
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/14Lining predominantly with metal
    • E21D11/18Arch members ; Network made of arch members ; Ring elements; Polygon elements; Polygon elements inside arches
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D21/00Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor in galleries or longwall working, or shaft-lining protection
    • E21D21/0026Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor in galleries or longwall working, or shaft-lining protection characterised by constructional features of the bolts

Abstract

The invention discloses a sandwich arch suitable for surrounding rock support of a high-stress soft rock tunnel and a construction method. The surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch is formed by crushing a deep surrounding rock body in front of a tunneling head by a deep hole pre-splitting blasting method, and re-solidifying the deep fractured rock body and a crushed rock layer by grouting to form a broken stone reinforcing arch; the interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch is formed by densely and uniformly installing anchor rods in a shallow rock layer of surrounding rock to form a uniform thick-layer compression zone; the bearing arch of the inner ring of the surrounding rock is a high-strength grid steel arch frame concrete arch. The sandwich arch obviously improves the bearing capacity of the rock mass at the deep and shallow parts of the surrounding rock, has high supporting strength and large range, provides a reliable acting foundation for the anchor cable bundle, and can realize the long-term stability of the surrounding rock of the high-stress soft rock tunnel.

Description

Sandwich arch suitable for high-stress soft rock tunnel surrounding rock support and construction method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of tunnel roadway surrounding rock control, in particular to a sandwich arch suitable for high-stress soft rock tunnel roadway surrounding rock support and a construction method.
Background
The biggest difficult problem in tunnel and roadway engineering construction under the condition of high-stress soft rock is large deformation of surrounding rock. The large deformation can cause cracking damage of the surrounding rock support, even collapse, and even more serious permanent damage of the support. If the construction method is improper, not only the construction cost is increased, but also the construction cost is improvedConstruction and operation safety also have considerable hidden dangers. According to statistics, the actual repair proportion of the high-stress soft rock tunnel roadway is up to more than 90%, and the deformation characteristics are as follows:the surrounding rock deformation speed is high, the deformation amount is large, and the front excavation and the rear repair become basic procedures of tunnel construction;under the high stress state, the soft rock shows strong expansibility and strain softening characteristics, the stress of the surrounding rock of the tunnel roadway is obviously increased and is in a long-term creep state, the surrounding rock continuously deforms and is difficult to stabilize all the time, and when the support is unreasonable, the surrounding rock deforms until the tunnel roadway is completely closed;the damage of the weak surrounding rock often occurs in a large area, and the weak surrounding rock has regionality, such as large-area roof fall and collapse. At present, many engineering experts at home and abroad provide a plurality of solutions for tunnel roadway support under the condition of high-stress soft rock, such as shed erection, passive arch support, anchor rope and anchor net spraying active support, stepwise joint control and the like, and the method plays a certain role in inhibiting large deformation of surrounding rock, but the support effect is not obvious, a support body is damaged after months, the large deformation damage phenomenon occurs in a short time, the surrounding rock in an anchoring area is subjected to laminar collapse, the surrounding rock outside the anchoring area is subjected to wedge-shaped collapse, the support structure is further permanently failed, and the safety construction and traffic of the tunnel are seriously affected. Therefore, the support technology suitable for the high-stress soft rock roadway is innovatively provided, and the support technology has great significance for engineering site construction.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the problems and provides a sandwich arch suitable for supporting surrounding rocks of a high-stress soft rock tunnel and a construction method, which can realize long-term stability of the surrounding rocks of the tunnel.
In order to achieve the above purpose of the invention, the technical scheme is as follows:
a sandwich arch suitable for surrounding rock support of a high-stress soft rock tunnel comprises a surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch, a sandwich anchor rod reinforcing arch and a surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch, wherein the surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch, the sandwich anchor rod reinforcing arch and the surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch are anchored together by adopting anchor rope bundles to form an anchor shell sandwich arch support structure;
the surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch is formed by crushing a deep surrounding rock body within a preset range in front of a driving head by a deep hole presplitting blasting method, and then grouting to re-consolidate the deep fractured rock body and a crushed rock layer to form a broken stone reinforcing arch;
the interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch is a uniform thick-layer compression zone formed by densely and uniformly installing anchor rods in a shallow rock layer of surrounding rock;
the bearing arch of the inner ring of the surrounding rock is a concrete arch of a grid steel arch frame, the grid steel arch frame is formed by welding steel bars and connecting bolts, a plurality of arch frames are spliced to form an arch and are tightly attached to the surface of the surrounding rock, then concrete is poured into the steel arch frame, and the steel arch frame is wrapped in the concrete to form the concrete arch of the grid steel arch frame.
The surrounding rock outer ring bears the arching effect:a reinforcing arch is prefabricated in a deep rock body in front of the tunneling head, so that the mechanical property and self-supporting capacity of a surrounding rock deep soft rock body are obviously improved, and safe tunneling of a tunnel is facilitated;the anchor cable bundle tensioning device provides a reliable acting force foundation for the installation and tensioning of the anchor cable bundle and the anchoring end of the anchor cable bundle in the subsequent process, can improve the stress state of the anchor cable bundle, ensures the anchoring reliability of the anchor cable bundle, and can effectively solve the problem that the anchoring force is rapidly attenuated and even lost due to the soft and broken surrounding rock of a tunnel roadway.
The interlayer anchor rod has the function of reinforcing arch: the anchor rods are densely installed in the shallow rock stratum of the surrounding rock, when the distance between the anchor rods is small enough, the compressive stress formed in the rock mass around each anchor rod is mutually overlapped to form a compression band with uniform, larger thickness and larger strength, namely the anchor rod reinforcing arch. The anchor rod is consolidated and is encircleed the internal rock mass of arch and receive radial force and tangential force restraint, is in the three-dimensional stress state, and the shallow rock mass bearing capacity of country rock obtains showing and improves, and the thickness of anchor rod reinforcement arch is bigger moreover, is favorable to the stability of country rock more.
The bearing arch function of the inner ring of the surrounding rock is as follows: the high-strength steel arch frame of the grating wraps the concrete to form a firm and stable inner arch, and the stability of the surrounding rock is further enhanced.
And finally, the three are anchored together by adopting an anchor cable bundle to form a large-range, high-strength and high-rigidity anchor shell supporting structure, so that the supporting is carried jointly, and the long-term stability of the surrounding rock of the tunnel roadway is realized.
The invention further adopts the technical scheme that the section of the sandwich arch is in a circular shape, or an oval shape, or a horseshoe shape, or a straight-wall semi-circular arch shape.
According to a further technical scheme, the thickness of the surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch is 1.5-2.5 m, the thickness of the interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch is 2.0-3.0 m, and the thickness of the surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch is 0.3-0.5 m.
The invention also provides a sandwich arch construction method suitable for the surrounding rock support of the high-stress soft rock tunnel roadway, which comprises the following steps: constructing a surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch → constructing an interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch → constructing a surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch, and anchoring the surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch, the interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch and the surrounding rock inner ring by using anchor cable bundles to form an anchor shell sandwich arch supporting structure;
wherein, the surrounding rock outer lane bears the weight of and encircles the formation process: firstly, a directional drilling machine is adopted to lay deep blasting drill holes on surrounding rocks which are a certain distance away from the rear of a tunneling head of a tunnel roadway, the front half section of each drill hole is a curved hole, and after the drill reaches a specified depth away from the surface of the surrounding rocks at the tunneling head, the drill holes are continuously drilled into linear holes in parallel with the central axis of the tunnel roadway; then, arranging a flexible grouting pipe in the drill hole; then, filling explosive into the linear hole section, installing an electric detonator and a lead wire for resisting stray current, adopting stemming to seal the curved hole section, connecting an initiation device, and blasting; finally, grouting is carried out on the fractured rock mass and the broken rock stratum through a grouting pipe, and the fractured rock mass and the broken rock mass are solidified again to form a broken stone reinforcing arch;
the interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch forming process comprises the following steps: after the broken stone strengthening arch is finished, alternately performing tunneling and supporting of a tunnel roadway, wherein each circulation footage is 2.0-5.0 m, and supporting soft rock bodies at the shallow parts of surrounding rocks by adopting dense uniform anchor rods and metal nets;
the surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch forming process comprises the following steps: after the anchor rod support of the shallow part of the surrounding rock is finished and the length is advanced by 2.0-5.0 m, a grid steel arch is installed in a tunnel roadway and is formed by welding steel bars and connecting bolts, a plurality of spliced arches are tightly attached to the surface of the surrounding rock, concrete is poured into the steel arch, and the steel arch is wrapped in the concrete to form a concrete arch structure of the grid steel arch.
The invention has the further improvement scheme that the flexible grouting pipe is a perforated pipe, and the pipe wall in the linear hole is provided with a grout overflow hole. After the deep hole presplitting blasting, the grouting perforated pipe is not easy to block, and the grouting smoothness is ensured.
The invention further improves the scheme that the grouting material is expanded superfine cement, water glass or Marilsan.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
(1) deep hole pre-splitting blasting is carried out on the high-stress soft rock at the deep part of the surrounding rock, and then the deep fractured rock mass and the broken rock stratum are solidified again to form a broken stone strengthening arch, so that the mechanical property and the self-bearing capacity of the deep soft rock mass are obviously improved, and the safe tunneling of a tunnel is facilitated.
(2) The anchoring end of the anchor cable bundle is positioned on the broken stone strengthening arch, so that a reliable and firm force application foundation is provided for anchoring the anchor cable bundle, the stress state of the anchor cable bundle is improved, the anchoring reliability of the anchor cable bundle is ensured, and the problem that the anchoring force is rapidly attenuated and even lost due to soft and broken surrounding rocks of a tunnel roadway can be effectively solved.
(3) The anchor cable bundle is adopted to anchor the broken stone reinforced arch of the outer ring of the surrounding rock, the sandwich anchor rod reinforced arch and the concrete built arch of the grating steel arch frame of the inner ring of the surrounding rock together, a sandwich anchor shell supporting structure with large range, high strength and high rigidity is formed by combination, active supporting and passive supporting are combined, the supporting range is large, the supporting strength is high, the surrounding rock is not easy to deform, and the anchor cable bundle is suitable for supporting the surrounding rock of the tunnel under complex conditions of high stress, soft rock, broken surrounding rock and the like.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a top view of a heading of a high-stress soft rock tunnel;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken along line A-A of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along line B-B of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along line C-C of FIG. 1;
description of reference numerals: 1. a tunnel roadway; 2. tunneling and heading; 3. a high stress soft rock formation; 4. a surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch; 5. the interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch; 6. a surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch; 7. anchor cable bundles; 8. blasting and drilling; 9. an anchor rod.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
As shown in fig. 1 to 4, the sandwich arch suitable for supporting the surrounding rock of the high-stress soft rock tunnel comprises a surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch 4, a sandwich anchor rod reinforcing arch 5 and a surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch 6, which are anchored together by using anchor rope bundles to form a large-range, high-strength and high-rigidity anchor shell sandwich arch supporting structure.
The surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch is a broken stone strengthening arch 4, a deep surrounding rock body within a preset range in front of a tunneling head is crushed by a deep hole pre-splitting blasting method, and then a deep fractured rock body and a crushed rock layer are solidified again by grouting to form a large-range and large-thickness broken stone strengthening arch;
the interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch 5 is a uniform thick-layer compression zone formed by densely and uniformly installing anchor rods 9 in a shallow rock stratum of surrounding rock;
the bearing arch of the inner ring of the surrounding rock is a grid steel arch concrete arch 9, the high-strength grid steel arch is formed by welding steel bars and connecting bolts, a plurality of arch bodies are spliced to form an arch shape and tightly attached to the surface of the surrounding rock, concrete is poured into the steel arch, and the steel arch is wrapped in the concrete, so that the high-strength and high-rigidity grid steel arch concrete arch is formed.
The cross section of the high-stress soft rock tunnel roadway can be in any shape of circle, ellipse, horseshoe and straight wall semi-circular arch.
The invention is explained by taking the shape of a semicircular arch section of a straight wall as an example, and the main construction steps are as follows:
the concrete construction steps for forming the surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch are as follows:
in this example, the width × height of the cross section of the straight-wall semicircular arch tunnel 1 is =5.6 × 4.5m, the diameter of the semicircular arch is 5.6m, and the heights of the straight walls on the two sides are 1.7 m. Firstly, deep blasting drill holes 8 are distributed on surrounding rocks 15 meters behind a heading head 2 of tunnel roadway driving, the distribution positions and related parameters of the drill holes are shown in a table 1, and the purpose is to ensure that the angle, the length and the diameter of the drill holes can meet the design requirements and to prepare for deep hole blasting best. The deep blasting drilling construction method comprises the following steps: and (4) adopting a directional drilling machine to perform directional drilling according to drilling design parameters. Drilling hole drilling requirements: and the first half section 15m of the drilling hole is a curve drilling hole, after the drilling hole reaches the specified depth from the surface of the tunneling head-facing surrounding rock, the drilling hole continues to drill for 30m in a direction parallel to the axis of the tunnel roadway, and the second half section 30m of the drilling hole is a straight line drilling hole and is finished after the specified depth is reached.
TABLE 1 deep blasting drilling parameters for surrounding rock
Number of drilled holes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Drilling angleθ 15° 40° 60° 90° 120° 140° 165° 180°
Angle of drilling hole external bindingα 35° 35° 35° 35° 35° 35° 35° 35° 35°
Length of drilled hole 45m 45m 45m 45m 45m 45m 45m 45m 45m
Drilling straight holeDiameter of a pipe 90mm 90mm 90mm 90mm 90mm 90mm 90mm 90mm 90mm
Depth of bore hole from surface of surrounding rockL 6~8m 6~8m 6~8m 6~8m 6~8m 6~8m 6~8m 6~8m 6~8m
Drilling interval 3m 3m 3m 3m 3m 3m 3m 3m 3m
Secondly, installing a flexible grouting floral tube. And arranging a flexible grouting perforated pipe in the drill hole, wherein the length of the flexible grouting perforated pipe is 20 m. And the pipe wall of the grouting perforated pipe with the diameter of 15m positioned in the drilling hole of the curve section is not provided with a grout overflow hole, and the pipe wall of the grouting perforated pipe with the diameter of 5m positioned in the drilling hole of the straight section is provided with a grout overflow hole. Slip casting floral tube structural design advantage: after deep hole presplitting blasting, the grouting perforated pipe is not easy to block.
Then, deep hole presplitting blasting is carried out. The presplitting blasting steps are as follows:according to the requirements of the blasting range and the blasting radius, the using amount of the safety explosive is set in advance, and the automatic loading equipment for bulk explosive is used for loading the explosive into a 30m straight line section of a drilled hole, so that the advantages of accelerating the loading speed, improving the loading quality and improving the blasting effect are achieved;installing an electric detonator and a lead wire for resisting stray current;carrying out stemming hole sealing, wherein the hole sealing length is the length of a drilling curve section and is required to be incapable of blocking the tail part of the grouting perforated pipe;connecting a detonating device;blasting, wherein the diameter of the blasting range is generally 1.5-2.5 m, and the blasting requirement is subject to no damage to shallow surrounding rock during blasting. The purpose of blasting is as follows: the deep soft rock is loosened by blasting, and grouting slurry easily infiltrates into cracks of the rock to re-consolidate the cracked rock and broken rock.
And finally, grouting. The grouting equipment is connected with the tail part of each grouting perforated pipe of each blasting drill hole, a high-pressure grouting mode is adopted to consolidate broken soft rock, the rock cracks are filled, the mechanical property and the self-bearing capacity of surrounding rock are improved, a large broken stone reinforcing arch is formed, the designed thickness of the broken stone reinforcing arch is generally 1.5-2.5 m, and the effective average thickness is 2.0 m. And after the broken stone strengthening arch is finished, heading and top wall supporting safety construction of a tunnel roadway are started.
The concrete construction steps for forming the interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch are as follows:
the tunneling and the supporting of the tunnel are alternately carried out, each circulation footage is 2.0-5.0 m, the soft rock mass of the shallow part of the surrounding rock is supported by an anchor rod and a metal net, the diameter of the anchor rod is 18-28 mm, the length of the anchor rod is (2.0-3.0 m) +50mm, and the supporting depth range is 2.0-3.0 m. The anchor rod installation method comprises the following steps:uniformly distributing drill holes on the surfaces of the surrounding rocks on the top plate and the two sides of the tunnel roadway by using an anchor rod drilling machine, wherein the diameter of each drill hole is 20-30 mm, the distance between the drill holes is 0.8-1.5 m, the row spacing is 0.8-1.5 m, the depth of each drill hole is 2.0-3.0 m, and the angle of each drill hole is vertical to the surface of the surrounding rock;pushing 2-3 resin anchoring agents into the bottom of the drill hole by using an anchor rod, pushing and rotating the anchor rod, crushing the resin anchoring agents, and ensuring that the end of the anchor rod is positioned at the bottom of the drill hole;and a metal net, a tray and a nut are sequentially arranged at the tail of the anchor rod, and after the nut is fastened, the pre-tightening force of the anchor rod reaches 60-120 kN.
The concrete construction steps for forming the surrounding rock inner ring bearing structure are as follows:
after the shallow anchor rod of the surrounding rock is supported and the footage is finished by 2.0-5.0 m, a grating steel arch is installed in a tunnel, the whole shape of the steel arch is a straight-wall semicircular arch, the steel arch comprises a top beam and two side upright columns, welded angle steel is assembled on each part and connected through bolts, connecting ribs are added, and the structural strength of the connecting part is improved. After the grid steel arch frame is assembled, concrete is poured into the grid steel arch frame, the steel arch frame is wrapped in the concrete, and finally, a high-strength grid steel arch frame concrete arch of the tunnel roadway inner ring is formed, wherein the thickness range of the concrete arch is 300-500 mm.
The concrete construction steps of anchoring the surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch, the interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch and the surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch together by adopting the anchor cable bundle are as follows:
tunnel roadwayAfter the construction of the inner ring bearing structure is completed, drill holes for installing anchor cable bundles are uniformly distributed on the surfaces of a top plate and two sides of surrounding rocks of the inner ring bearing structure by a drilling machine, the diameter of each anchor cable bundle is 80-110 mm, the length of each anchor cable is (6.0-8.0 m) +300mm, the diameter of each drill hole is 90-120 mm, the depth of each drill hole is 6.0-8.0 m, the distance between the drill holes is 1.5-3.0 m, the row spacing is 1.5-3.0 m, and the drilling angle is perpendicular to the surface of the surrounding rocks. The anchor cable bundle installation method comprises the following steps:pushing an anchor cable bundle with the length of (6.0-8.0 m) +300mm into the drilled hole, wherein the end of the anchor cable bundle penetrates into a concrete broken stone reinforcing arch of the surrounding rock outer ring;installing a rubber plug at the tail part of the anchor cable bundle to plug the drilled hole;installing a tray and a lockset;tensioning, anchoring and pre-tightening by adopting a special anchor cable bundle tensioning instrument;and (6) high-pressure grouting. The anchor mode of the anchor cable bundle can adopt two modes of end anchorage and full-length anchorage, and the anchor end of the anchor cable bundle is fixed on the concrete gravel reinforcing arch of the surrounding rock outer ring, so that a reliable acting foundation is provided for the anchor cable bundle, the stress state of the anchor cable bundle is improved, and the anchor reliability of the anchor cable is ensured.
In the present invention, the grouting material may be any one of expanded ultra-fine cement, water glass, and Marilyn.
Although the present invention has been described in detail, the present invention is not limited thereto, and those skilled in the art can modify the principle of the present invention, and thus, various modifications made in accordance with the principle of the present invention should be understood to fall within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. The utility model provides a be suitable for sandwich arch that high stress soft rock tunnel country rock was strutted which characterized in that: the supporting structure comprises a surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch (4), an interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch (5) and a surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch (6), wherein the surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch, the interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch and the surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch are anchored together by an anchor rope bundle (7) to form an anchor shell sandwich arch supporting structure;
the surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch (4) is formed by crushing a deep surrounding rock body within a preset range in front of the tunneling head (2) through a deep hole presplitting blasting method, and then grouting to re-consolidate the deep fractured rock body and a crushed rock layer to form a broken stone strengthening arch;
the interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch (5) is a uniform thick-layer compression zone formed by densely and uniformly installing anchor rods (9) in a shallow rock stratum of surrounding rock;
the surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch (6) is a grating steel arch concrete arch, the grating steel arch is formed by welding steel bars and connecting bolts, a plurality of spliced arches are tightly attached to the surface of the surrounding rock, concrete is poured into the grating steel arch, and the grating steel arch is wrapped in the concrete to form the grating steel arch concrete arch.
2. The sandwich arch suitable for surrounding rock support of the high-stress soft rock tunnel roadway, according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the section of the sandwich arch is in a circular shape, or an oval shape, or a horseshoe shape, or a straight-wall semi-circular arch shape.
3. The sandwich arch suitable for surrounding rock support of the high-stress soft rock tunnel roadway, according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the thickness of the surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch (4) is 1.5-2.5 m, the thickness of the interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch (5) is 2.0-3.0 m, and the thickness of the surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch (6) is 0.3-0.5 m.
4. The method for constructing the sandwich arch suitable for the surrounding rock support of the high-stress soft rock tunnel roadway, which is disclosed by claim 1, is characterized by comprising the following steps of: construction of a surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch (4), construction of an interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch (5), construction of a surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch (6), and anchoring the surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch, the interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch and the surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch together by using an anchor rope bundle (7) to form an anchor shell sandwich arch supporting structure;
wherein, the surrounding rock outer ring bearing arch (4) forming process: firstly, a directional drilling machine is adopted to lay deep blasting drill holes on surrounding rocks which are a certain distance away from the rear of a tunneling head (2) of a tunnel roadway, the front half sections of the drill holes are curved holes, and after the drill holes reach a specified depth away from the surface of the surrounding rocks of the tunneling head (2), the drill holes are continuously drilled into straight holes in parallel with the central axis of the tunnel roadway; then, arranging a flexible grouting pipe in the drill hole; then, filling explosive into the linear hole section, installing an electric detonator and a lead wire for resisting stray current, adopting stemming to seal the curved hole section, connecting an initiation device, and blasting; finally, grouting is carried out on the fractured rock mass and the broken rock stratum through a grouting pipe, and the fractured rock mass and the broken rock stratum are solidified again to form a broken stone reinforcing arch;
the interlayer anchor rod reinforcing arch (5) forming process comprises the following steps: after the broken stone strengthening arch is finished, alternately performing tunneling and anchor bolt supporting on a tunnel roadway, wherein each circulation footage is 2.0-5.0 m, and supporting soft rock bodies on shallow surrounding rock parts by adopting dense uniform anchor bolts (9) and a metal net;
the surrounding rock inner ring bearing arch (6) forming process comprises the following steps: after the anchor rod support of the shallow part of the surrounding rock is finished and the length is advanced by 2.0-5.0 m, a grid steel arch is installed in a tunnel roadway and is formed by welding steel bars and connecting bolts, a plurality of spliced arches are tightly attached to the surface of the surrounding rock, concrete is poured into the steel arch, and the steel arch is wrapped in the concrete to form a concrete arch structure of the grid steel arch.
5. The construction method of the sandwich arch suitable for the surrounding rock support of the high-stress soft rock tunnel roadway according to claim 4, is characterized in that: the flexible grouting pipe is a perforated pipe, and a pipe wall in the linear hole is provided with a grout overflow hole.
6. The construction method of the sandwich arch suitable for the surrounding rock support of the high-stress soft rock tunnel roadway according to claim 4, is characterized in that: the grouting material is expanded superfine cement, water glass or Marilsan.
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