CN109324326A - A kind of no control point mapping SAR baseline scaling method - Google Patents

A kind of no control point mapping SAR baseline scaling method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109324326A
CN109324326A CN201811123279.7A CN201811123279A CN109324326A CN 109324326 A CN109324326 A CN 109324326A CN 201811123279 A CN201811123279 A CN 201811123279A CN 109324326 A CN109324326 A CN 109324326A
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baseline
sar
interferometric phase
level land
control point
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CN201811123279.7A
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胡继伟
谭小敏
党红杏
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西安空间无线电技术研究所
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Publication of CN109324326A publication Critical patent/CN109324326A/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S13/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of radio waves, e.g. radar systems; Analogous systems using reflection or reradiation of waves whose nature or wavelength is irrelevant or unspecified
    • G01S13/88Radar or analogous systems specially adapted for specific applications
    • G01S13/89Radar or analogous systems specially adapted for specific applications for mapping or imaging
    • G01S13/90Radar or analogous systems specially adapted for specific applications for mapping or imaging using synthetic aperture techniques, e.g. synthetic aperture radar [SAR] techniques
    • G01S13/9021SAR image post-processing techniques
    • G01S13/9023SAR image post-processing techniques combined with interferometric techniques
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/02Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S13/00
    • G01S7/40Means for monitoring or calibrating

Abstract

The invention proposes a kind of no control points to survey and draw SAR baseline scaling method, this method is difficult the characteristics of obtaining vertical control point for mapping SAR, by the function model for establishing reference target region interferometric phase and baseline vector, target area elevation information is set as a unknown quantity section and carries out traversal estimation, minimum mean-squared error criterion screening baseline estimations are then based on as a result, to realize without high-precision baseline estimations under the conditions of control point.It include: that two parts are chosen in baseline parameter estimation and the baseline parameter based on minimum mean-squared error criterion based on Extended Kalman filter (Extended Kalman Filter, EKF).This method solves the problems, such as that mapping SAR is difficult to obtain vertical control point, algorithm robustness is good, practical independent of ground control point information.

Description

A kind of no control point mapping SAR baseline scaling method

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of no control points to survey and draw SAR baseline scaling method, belongs to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data Processing technology field.

Background technique

Satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is close several as a kind of important high-resolution microwave remote sensing earth observation means More and more paid attention to over year.SAR has round-the-clock, round-the-clock ability to work, and can be in multiband, multipolarization The high-definition picture of target is obtained under mode, therefore in mapping, marine monitoring, disaster reduction and prevention, agricultural, forestry and army The fields such as thing scouting play an important role.

There are Permanently shadowed area in the South Pole, and hypsography is larger, and optical survey system is illuminated by the light condition limitation, Bu Nengman The demand of sufficient shadow region mapping needs to carry out dimensional topography mapping using mapping SAR technology.High-precision mapping SAR is adopted Observed object digital elevation model (DEM) information is obtained with interference synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technology, using InSAR technology When obtaining DEM, lubber line error is one of the main error source for influencing InSAR measurement of higher degree precision, is carrying out the inverting of DEM elevation When, high-precision baseline parameter is needed to improve dem data precision.And due to platform stance error, antenna phase center error, The presence of antenna installation error, measuring device error and model conversion error equal error source, is difficult by direct measurement method Directly acquire high-precision baseline parameter information, it is necessary to which baseline parameter estimation is carried out by high-precision baseline estimation method.

Be broadly divided into two major classes about InSAR baseline estimation method both at home and abroad at present, one kind based on satellite orbit data into Row baseline estimations, it is another kind of that baseline estimations are carried out based on interferometric phase fringe information or ground control point information.First kind method Distributed satellites interference or heavy rail interference SAR system baseline estimations are generally used for, and baseline estimations precision is lower;Second class side Method baseline estimations precision is higher, but requires known reference region or ground control point elevation information.For surveying and drawing SAR, by In surface without direct available vertical control point, and it is very big thus existing in lunar surface laying control point (corner reflector) difficulty Baseline scaling method is not suitable for surveying and drawing the calibration of SAR baseline.

Summary of the invention

Technology of the invention solves the problems, such as: overcoming the shortcomings of that existing baseline scaling method needs ground control point, provides A kind of no control point mapping SAR baseline scaling method, it is flat site that this method, which only needs to refer to region, is not needed accurately Know the elevation information of reference zone, and do not need to lay the ground control points such as artificial scaler, can effectively solve mapping SAR It is difficult to obtain the problem of vertical control point, algorithm robustness is good, practical.

The technology of the present invention solution: a kind of no control point mapping SAR baseline scaling method, the method steps are as follows:

(1), two width SAR image of observation area is obtained using mapping SAR system, two width SAR images is carried out at interference Reason, obtains the interferometric phase of observation area, one piece of uniform flat region interferometric phase is therefrom chosen, as reference level land region Interferometric phase;

(2), orientation is averaging processing with reference to level land region interferometric phase, is obtained with reference to level land along distance to sight Measuring point interferometric phaseK=1~N, N it is corresponding with reference to level land region interferometric phase along distance to the points of measurement;

(3), setting refers to the initial height value h of the corresponding observation point of level land region interferometric phaseikLevel land is referred to be identical Region height value hi, and enter step (4);

(4), state variable is constituted with SAR baseline vector, baseline vector state-space model is established, according to interferometric phase With the relational model of baseline vector, interferometric phase observation model is established, is used along distance to interferometric phase according to reference level land Extended Kalman filter method estimates the initial height value h in observation areaiCorresponding SAR baseline vector (BXi,BZi);

(5), the corresponding SAR baseline vector (B of the observation area height value obtained according to step (4)Xi,BZi) estimated value and The reference level land region distance obtained in step (1) is to interferometric phaseK=1~N calculates corresponding observation area inverting Elevation information h0ik, k=1~N;

(6), according to step size Δ h, change and refer to level land region height value hi, repeat step (4)~(6), until time All height values in preset observation area elevation section are gone through;

(7), minimum mean-squared error criterion, the initial height value h in calculating observation region are based oniWith observation area inverting elevation Information h0ik, k=1~N, mean square error, choose the smallest initial height value h in one group of observation area of mean square erroriAnd sight Survey region inverting elevation information h0ikCorresponding baseline vector (BXi,BZi) it is used as final baseline estimations result.

Each calculating cycle that is implemented as of the step (4) executes following steps:

(4.1), kalman gain K is calculatedik:

Wherein,For the state variable Square Error matrix of a upper calculating cycle, at the beginning of state variable Square Error matrix Value Pi0Value is unit battle arrayRikFor observation noise coefficient, it is set as 1;HikIndicate interferometric phase to baseline vector Partial derivative is set as WithCalculation is as follows:

In formula, p indicates to survey and draw SAR operating mode parameter, and p=1 indicates that " hair two is received " operating mode, p=2 indicate certainly From receipts, i.e., " ping pong scheme ", rkIt indicates with reference to level land along distance to observation point oblique distance, wherein rnearFor low coverage end oblique distance, c is the light velocity, FsIt is distance to sample frequency, j is distance to location of pixels, and H is that satellite platform is high Degree, hiTo refer to level land region height value,For baseline length;

(4.2), state variable x is updatedikAnd its varivance matrix Pik:

Wherein,For the state variable of a upper calculating cycle,For the state variable of a upper calculating cycle The interferometric phase value of calculating, I are unit battle array.

The state variable of a upper calculating cycleThe interferometric phase value of calculatingCalculation formula are as follows:

In formula,For the state variable of upper a cycle, rkIt indicates with reference to level land along distance to observation point oblique distance.

Observation area inverting elevation information h in the step (5)0ikSpecific formula for calculation are as follows:

In formula, H is satellite platform height, αi=atan (BZi/BXi) indicate baseline angle,It indicates to refer to level land region Interferometric phase, rkIt indicates with reference to level land along distance to observation point oblique distance, whereinC is the light velocity, FsFor distance To sample frequency, k is distance to location of pixels, and H is satellite platform height, hiFor reference zone height, For baseline length.

It is described to be obtained in the following way with reference to level land region interferometric phase: observation area is obtained using mapping SAR system Two width SAR images carry out interference processing to two width SAR images, obtain the interferometric phase of observation area, therefrom choose one piece Even flat site interferometric phase, as reference level land region interferometric phase.

It include the true elevation of reference zone in target area elevation section.

The step size Δ h is set as being less than target measurement of higher degree precision.

Compared with the prior art, the invention has the advantages that:

(1), the present invention is difficult the characteristics of obtaining vertical control point for mapping SAR, dry by establishing reference target region The function model for relating to phase and baseline vector, by target area elevation information be set as a unknown quantity section carry out traversal estimate Meter is then based on minimum mean-squared error criterion screening baseline estimations as a result, to realize without high-precision baseline under the conditions of control point Estimation.

(2), it is flat that no control point high-precision mapping SAR baseline scaling method proposed by the present invention, which only needs to refer to region, Smooth region does not need the elevation information of accurately known reference zone, solves mapping SAR and is difficult to obtain the difficulty of vertical control point Topic, algorithm robustness is good, practical.

(3), it compared to present calibrating method, does not need to lay the ground control points such as artificial scaler, can effectively solve Mapping SAR is difficult to obtain the problem of vertical control point, and algorithm robustness is good, practical.

Detailed description of the invention

Fig. 1 is the method for the present invention flow chart of data processing figure;

Fig. 2 is orientation of the embodiment of the present invention and distance to schematic diagram;

Fig. 3 is DEM schematic diagram in target area in the embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 4 is target area interferometric phase image in the embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 5 is baseline parameter Bx estimated result in the embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 6 is baseline parameter Bz estimated result in the embodiment of the present invention.

Specific embodiment

Below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, the present invention is described in detail.

As shown in Figure 1, a kind of no control point high-precision mapping SAR baseline scaling method, the step of this method includes: to obtain It takes with reference to level land region interferometric phase, setting target area elevation section and step size, baseline parameter estimation three parts, tool Steps are as follows for body:

(1), two width SAR image of observation area is obtained using mapping SAR system, two width SAR images is carried out at interference Reason, obtains the interferometric phase of observation area, one piece of uniform flat region interferometric phase is therefrom chosen, as reference level land region Interferometric phase;

(2), orientation is averaging processing with reference to level land region interferometric phase, is obtained with reference to level land along distance to sight Measuring point interferometric phaseK=1~N, N it is corresponding with reference to level land region interferometric phase along distance to the points of measurement;

As shown in Fig. 2, orientation indicates the direction of satellite flight, distance is to expression perpendicular to satellite flight direction.

(3), setting refers to the initial height value h of the corresponding observation point of level land region interferometric phaseikLevel land is referred to be identical Region height value hi, and enter step (4);

(4), state variable is constituted with SAR baseline vector, baseline vector state-space model is established, according to interferometric phase With the relational model of baseline vector, interferometric phase observation model is established, is used along distance to interferometric phase according to reference level land Extended Kalman filter method estimates the initial height value h in observation areaiCorresponding SAR baseline vector (BXi,BZi);

State-space model are as follows:

X (k+1)=Ax (k)+w (k) (1)

Wherein, x=(BX BZ)T, BX, BZFor two components of baseline parameter, A is state-transition matrix, in this methodW (k) is turbulent noise;

The observation model of baseline vector are as follows:

Wherein,For target point interferometric phase, f (xk) indicate functional relation between interferometric phase and baseline vector, nkFor Observation noise;f(xk) indicate functional relation between interferometric phase and baseline vector, nkFor observation noise;

In formula, xkFor state variable, r indicates observation point oblique distance, and H is satellite platform height, and h is observation point height.

The specific implementation flow of baseline estimations is then carried out based on Extended Kalman filter (EKF) are as follows:

Original state:

xi0Indicate baseline vectorInitial value (BXi0BZi0)T, it is taken as the initial design values of baseline, Pi0For coefficient's Initial value is set as unit matrix

Each calculating cycle executes following steps:

(3.1), kalman gain K is calculatedik:

Wherein,For the state variable Square Error matrix of a upper calculating cycle, at the beginning of state variable Square Error matrix Value Pi0Value is unit battle arrayRikFor observation noise coefficient, it is set as 1;HikIndicate interferometric phase to baseline vector Partial derivative is set as WithCalculation is as follows:

In formula, p indicates to survey and draw SAR operating mode parameter, and p=1 indicates that " hair two is received " operating mode, p=2 indicate certainly From receipts, i.e., " ping pong scheme ", rkIt indicates with reference to level land along distance to observation point oblique distance, wherein rnearFor low coverage end oblique distance, c is the light velocity, FsIt is distance to sample frequency, j is distance to location of pixels, and H is that satellite platform is high Degree, hiTo refer to level land region height value,For baseline length;

(3.2), state variable x is updatedikAnd its varivance matrix Pik:

Wherein,For the state variable of a upper calculating cycle,For the state variable of a upper calculating cycle The interferometric phase value of calculating, I are unit battle array.The state variable of a upper calculating cycleThe interferometric phase value of calculatingCalculation formula are as follows:

In formula,For the state variable of upper a cycle, rkIt indicates with reference to level land along distance to observation point oblique distance.

Such as: f (xi0) it is according to baseline initial value (BXi0BZi0)TThe interferometric phase value of calculating.I is unit battle array.

(5), the corresponding SAR baseline vector (B of the observation area height value obtained according to step (4)Xi,BZi) estimated value and The reference level land region distance obtained in step (1) is to interferometric phaseK=1~N calculates corresponding observation area inverting Elevation information h0ik, k=1~N;

In formula, H is satellite platform height, αi=atan (BZi/BXi) indicate baseline angle,It indicates to refer to level land region Interferometric phase, rkIt indicates with reference to level land along distance to observation point oblique distance, whereinC is the light velocity, FsFor distance To sample frequency, k is distance to location of pixels, and H is satellite platform height, hiFor reference zone height, For baseline length.

(6), according to step size Δ h, change and refer to level land region height value hi, repeat step (4)~(6), until time All height values in preset observation area elevation section are gone through;

The step size Δ h is set as being less than target measurement of higher degree precision, and the target area elevation includes in section The true elevation of reference zone.

According to observation area DEM prior information, such as optical camera, GPS information, airborne InSAR obtains DEM information etc. Setting observation area elevation section [a, b] and step size Δ h, observation area elevation section will cover the true elevation of observation point Size;Step size Δ h is set as being less than observation point measurement of higher degree precision, such as requires measurement of higher degree precision 0.5m, can set Step size Δ h is 0.25m;

(7), minimum mean-squared error criterion, the initial height value h in calculating observation region are based oniWith observation area inverting elevation Information h0ik, k=1~N, mean square error, choose the smallest initial height value h in one group of observation area of mean square erroriAnd sight Survey region inverting elevation information h0ikCorresponding baseline vector (BXi,BZi) it is used as final baseline estimations result.

Described screens baseline estimations result method based on minimum mean-squared error criterion are as follows: for each group of (BXi,BZi), Calculate initial elevation hiWith inverting elevation h0ikBetween mean square error, choose the smallest one group of (B of mean square errorXi,BZi) the most most Whole baseline estimations result, it may be assumed that

Wherein, the target area (x, y) location of pixels, N it is corresponding with reference to level land region interferometric phase along distance to observation point Number;M is the number for having traversed all elevation inputs in preset observation area elevation section,Expression is minimized pair Baseline (the B answeredXi,BZi)。

The present invention further illustrates the course of work of the present invention and expection in conjunction with attached drawing and with a specific embodiment below The effect that can achieve.

Embodiment

The reference zone interferometric phase that the present embodiment uses is that the InSAR system parameter emulation based on table 1 generates, Fig. 3 For simulating area DEM schematic diagram, Fig. 4 is the observation area interferometric phase that emulation generates.

Table 1

System parameter Numerical value Centre frequency 35GHz Satellite platform height 15km Baseline length 2m Baseline angle 0deg Operating mode Ping pong scheme Survey and draw band 2.4km Resolution ratio 0.5m

The step of baseline parameter is demarcated is as follows:

(a1) target area elevation section [a, b] and step size Δ h are set according to prior information, it is assumed that elevation section For [- 5m, 5m], sampling interval 0.25m;

(a2) it according to each value of 0.25m step size traversal elevation section [- 5m, 5m], is filtered based on spreading kalman Wave (EKF) method carries out baseline parameter estimation, and screens final baseline estimations as a result, baseline based on minimum mean-squared error criterion Shown in estimated result such as Fig. 5, Fig. 6 and table 2.

Table 2

Mapping SAR baseline scaling method in no control point proposed by the present invention can obtain very it can be seen from the calibration results High precision, lubber line error is less than 0.1mm after calibration, to demonstrate no control point mapping SAR base proposed by the present invention The validity and feasibility of line scaling method.

The present invention can be used for any frequency range InSAR baseline parameter calibration.

The content that description in the present invention is not described in detail belongs to the well-known technique of professional and technical personnel in the field.

Claims (7)

1. SAR baseline scaling method is surveyed and drawn at a kind of no control point, it is characterised in that steps are as follows:
(1), two width SAR image of observation area is obtained using mapping SAR system, interference processing is carried out to two width SAR images, is obtained The interferometric phase of observation area therefrom chooses one piece of uniform flat region interferometric phase, as reference level land region interferometric phase;
(2), orientation is averaging processing with reference to level land region interferometric phase, is obtained dry to observation point along distance with reference to level land Relate to phaseK=1~N, N it is corresponding with reference to level land region interferometric phase along distance to the points of measurement;
(3), setting refers to the initial height value h of the corresponding observation point of level land region interferometric phaseikLevel land region is referred to be identical Height value hi, and enter step (4);
(4), state variable is constituted with SAR baseline vector, baseline vector state-space model is established, according to interferometric phase and baseline The relational model of vector establishes interferometric phase observation model, according to reference level land along distance to interferometric phase, using extension karr Graceful filtering method estimates the initial height value h in observation areaiCorresponding SAR baseline vector (BXi,BZi);
(5), the corresponding SAR baseline vector (B of the observation area height value obtained according to step (4)Xi,BZi) estimated value and step (1) the reference level land region distance obtained in is to interferometric phaseK=1~N calculates corresponding observation area inverting elevation Information h0ik, k=1~N;
(6), according to step size Δ h, change and refer to level land region height value hi, step (4)~(6) are repeated, it is pre- until having traversed If observation area elevation section in all height values;
(7), minimum mean-squared error criterion, the initial height value h in calculating observation region are based oniWith observation area inverting elevation information h0ik, k=1~N, mean square error, choose the smallest initial height value h in one group of observation area of mean square erroriThe observation area and Inverting elevation information h0ikCorresponding baseline vector (BXi,BZi) it is used as final baseline estimations result.
2. SAR baseline scaling method is surveyed and drawn at a kind of no control point according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step (4) each calculating cycle that is implemented as executes following steps:
(4.1), kalman gain K is calculatedik:
Wherein,For the state variable Square Error matrix of a upper calculating cycle, state variable Square Error matrix initial value Pi0 Value is unit battle arrayRikFor observation noise coefficient, it is set as 1;HikIndicate interferometric phase to the partial derivative of baseline vector, It is set as WithCalculation is as follows:
In formula, p indicates mapping SAR operating mode parameter, p=1, indicates " one hair two receive " operating mode, p=2 indicate from from It receives, i.e., " ping pong scheme ", rkIt indicates with reference to level land along distance to observation point oblique distance, whereinrnearIt is close Away from end oblique distance, c is the light velocity, FsIt is distance to sample frequency, j is distance to location of pixels, and H is satellite platform height, hiFor reference Level land region height value,For baseline length;
(4.2), state variable x is updatedikAnd its varivance matrix Pik:
Wherein,For the state variable of a upper calculating cycle,For the state variable of a upper calculating cycleIt calculates Interferometric phase value, I be unit battle array.
3. SAR baseline scaling method is surveyed and drawn at a kind of no control point according to claim 2, it is characterised in that described upper one The state variable of calculating cycleThe interferometric phase value of calculatingCalculation formula are as follows:
In formula,For the state variable of upper a cycle, rkIt indicates with reference to level land along distance to observation point oblique distance.
4. SAR baseline scaling method is surveyed and drawn at a kind of no control point according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step (5) observation area inverting elevation information h in0ikSpecific formula for calculation are as follows:
In formula, H is satellite platform height, αi=atan (BZi/BXi) indicate baseline angle,It indicates to interfere phase with reference to level land region Position, rkIt indicates with reference to level land along distance to observation point oblique distance, whereinC is the light velocity, FsIt is distance to sampling Frequency, k are distance to location of pixels, and H is satellite platform height, hiFor reference zone height,For baseline Length.
5. SAR baseline scaling method is surveyed and drawn at a kind of no control point according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described with reference to flat Ground region interferometric phase obtains in the following way: two width SAR image of observation area is obtained using mapping SAR system, to two width SAR image carries out interference processing, obtains the interferometric phase of observation area, therefrom chooses one piece of uniform flat region interferometric phase, As reference level land region interferometric phase.
6. SAR baseline scaling method is surveyed and drawn at a kind of no control point according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the target area It include the true elevation of reference zone in the elevation section of domain.
7. SAR baseline scaling method is surveyed and drawn at a kind of no control point according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the stepping is big Small Δ h is set as being less than target measurement of higher degree precision.
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