CN109319934A - A kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body - Google Patents

A kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109319934A
CN109319934A CN201811272778.2A CN201811272778A CN109319934A CN 109319934 A CN109319934 A CN 109319934A CN 201811272778 A CN201811272778 A CN 201811272778A CN 109319934 A CN109319934 A CN 109319934A
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China
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water
plant
river
ecological
farmland
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CN201811272778.2A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
张亚平
杨非
吴伊峰
张志勇
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Southeast University
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Southeast University
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Priority to CN201811272778.2A priority Critical patent/CN109319934A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2103/00Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated
    • C02F2103/007Contaminated open waterways, rivers, lakes or ponds
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/40Protecting water resources
    • Y02A20/402River restoration

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of ecological restoring methods of farmland water catchment area river water body, in river on the basis of original physical size, according to external source pollutional load situation and river water body flow direction, river water body is divided into upstream contaminant from top to bottom and cuts down area, middle reaches water body reinforcement purifying area and downstream ecology diversity recovery district, while water front ecology lifting zone is set in river littoral zone;Upstream contaminant is cut down area and is arranged near sewage draining exit, including land-sourced pollutant intercepts barrier and combined ecological floating bed, and middle reaches water body reinforcement purifying area includes the purse seine for controlling feeding floatingleaved plant and fluitante, and submerged vegetation is planted in downstream ecology diversity recovery district.The present invention grows the characteristics such as rapid, biomass is big, nitrogen phosphorus accumulation ability is strong using floatingleaved plant and fluitante, floatingleaved plant and fluitante root system being capable of enriched microorganisms simultaneously, effective strengthened purification river water quality, submerged plant can be improved water body self-purification ability, promote the bio-diversity of water ecosystem.

Description

A kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body
Technical field
The present invention relates to water and treat agricultural waste method, specially a kind of restoration of the ecosystem side of farmland water catchment area river water body Method.
Background technique
Agricultural non-point source pollution is primarily referred to as in farmland production activity, dissolution or solid pollutant, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, pesticide And other organic or inorganic polluters, water body is entered by rainwash, agricultural drain and underground leakage and causes water pollution Process.Agricultural non-point source pollution is actually to enter water body using water as carrier by processes such as diffusion, confluence, shuntings and (converge in farmland Pool).A large amount of chemical fertilizer, pesticide and agricultural film are put into farmland production, but nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient utilization rate only has 33% and 24% respectively.? When irrigation and drainage or rainfall, the nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient of a large amount of surpluses is migrated with water, very big on the influence of farmland water catchment area river water body, is caused River water body eutrophication;Farmland area is big, and utilization is various informative, and terrain is complicated, can not accurately recognize pollutant emission Process and receiving area, therefore pollutant sources have very big dispersibility and complexity;The fertilising behavior and rainfall of peasant household Time and scale have uncertainty, and contaminant transportation enters the route in river and load is difficult to determine;Pollutant has amount greatly and low Concentration feature, refractory reason, at high cost, slow effect.In short, Control of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution difficulty is very big.
Currently, agricultural non-point source pollution is as the point-source pollutions such as industrial wastewater and city domestic sewage are effectively controlled Being substituted point source becomes the most important source of water environment pollution.The contribution rate of agricultural non-point source pollution in national nitrogen and phosphorus pollution load More than in 50%, COD pollutional load, agricultural non-point source pollution contribution rate is close to 40%.Farmland water catchment area is as agriculture face The last one important link of source pollution control needs to cause the concern of people for its improvement.
For farmland water catchment area river water quality caused by agricultural non-point source pollution deteriorate the phenomenon that, study at present it is less, not yet Formation system and effective administering method.It is directed to such farmland tail water in the past, generally uses stabilization pond processing system, land percolation Processing system and artificial wet land treating system, these technologies using the nutrition such as chemical fertilizer in plant or animal secondary use tail water at Point, degree for the treatment of is lower, and consuming is larger, needs a large amount of construction, not can be carried out in-situ treatment.It is more referring to studying City river administering method, be applicable to agricultural non-point source pollution water catchment area river water body Treatment process can be divided into physical method, Chemical method and bio-ecological process three categories.Major technique includes Sediment Dredging, artificial oxygenation, ecological water transfer, chemical algae removing, wadding Retrogradation shallow lake, the fixation of heavy metal chemistry, microbial augmentation, plant purification, biomembrane etc..Physics and chemical method cannot be fundamentally Solve the problems, such as river water environment degradation.
Summary of the invention
Goal of the invention: it is an object of the present invention to provide a kind of reproducible and popularizations, the farmland remittance of improvement quality of the region's water The ecological restoring method of pool river water body.
Technical solution: a kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body of the present invention, it is original in river On the basis of physical size, according to external source pollutional load situation and river water body flow direction, by river water body from top to bottom according to The secondary upstream contaminant that is divided into cuts down area, middle reaches water body reinforcement purifying area and downstream ecology diversity recovery district, while close in river Water front ecology lifting zone is arranged in bank band, and upstream contaminant is cut down area and is arranged near sewage draining exit, including land-sourced pollutant intercepts screen Barrier and combined ecological floating bed, middle reaches water body reinforcement purifying area includes the purse seine for controlling feeding floatingleaved plant and fluitante, downstream ecology Plant submerged vegetation in diversity recovery district.Using floatingleaved plant and fluitante growth are rapid, biomass is big, nitrogen phosphorus accumulation ability The characteristics such as strong, at the same floatingleaved plant and fluitante root system can enriched microorganism, being capable of effective strengthened purification urban river water Matter, submerged plant can be improved water body self-purification ability, promote the bio-diversity of water ecosystem.
Land-sourced pollutant for quickly and thoroughly intercepting sewage draining exit sewage intercepts barrier and is arranged away from sewage draining exit side At 3~4m of water front, including geotextiles and steel pipe, geotextiles one end are fixed on steel pipe, and the other end is embedded in bed mud, steel pipe and river Road bottom is fixedly connected, and to realize that sewage draining exit outflow sewage obtains process purification during water conservancy diversion, is maximized and is reduced farmland row Water pollutant enters the amount of watershed, prevents a large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants from causing impact load to water catchment area river water body.Floating leaf Plant and fluitante are the one or more of water lily, water lettuce and Eichhornia crassipes.Submerged vegetation be thorn eel grass, hydrilla verticillata, she One of happy algae and p.malaianus are a variety of.
Geotextiles are preferably density polyethylene film with high, environment-protecting and non-poisonous, have good leakage performance, tensile strength Height, resisting environmental stress and cracking are good with tear-resistant strength character, can effectively ensure that land-sourced pollutant intercepts the use of barrier device Period, while ensuring water conservancy diversion, prevent heavy polluted water from directly directly contacting with water catchment area river.
The setting of combined ecological floating bed intercepts on the inside of barrier in land-sourced pollutant, is fixed on piling bar by loose collar, piling bar It is fixedly connected with bottom of river channel.Combined ecological floating bed includes the nylon rope of bracket and fixed plant, at the top of combined ecological floating bed Planting face planting aquatic plants one, suspended from macromolecule soft cellulose filler.Water plant one is reed, wild rice stem, perfume (or spice) One of Pu, rhizoma acori graminei, canna, water spinach and Chinese celery are a variety of.Filler is macromolecule soft cellulose filler, using contact Oxidation technology, microbes are accumulated on the surface of filler, are contacted with increasing microorganism with the surface of river water body, utilization is micro- The denitrification dephosphorization function of biology carries out degradation treatment to heavy polluted water.
Water front ecology lifting zone includes porous concrete ecological slope protection, and the lower part mixed planting of celluar concrete slope protection is aquatic Herbaceous plant is planted on plant two and shrub plant, top.Porous concrete ecological slope protection has good water penetration and gas permeability, Be conducive to plant to grow wherein, build the environment of bio-diversity, can safeguard the stability of entire bank of river and right Rainwash pollutant is intercepted.Water plant two is one of canna, reed, rhizoma acori graminei and thaliadeabata or a variety of, 12~15 plants/m of planting density2, shrub plant is one of photinia glabra and Ligustrum quihoui or a variety of, planting density 0.3 ~0.6g/m2.Herbaceous plant includes one of Festuca Arundinacea and clover or a variety of, and planting density is 3~4g/m2
The principle of present invention removal nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants are as follows: farmland irrigating drainage and rainfall runoff carry nitrogen and phosphorus loading master To enter water body by approach such as sewage draining exit and rainwashes, the pollutant of water body is entered by upstream contaminant by sewage draining exit The isolation that area's land-sourced pollutant intercepts barrier device is cut down, it is avoided directly to contact with water catchment area river;Under the action of water conservancy diversion, Pollutant carries out absorption, the filler of suspension to nitrogen phosphorus by the combined ecological floating bed in geotextiles, the plant of floating bed plantation Denitrification dephosphorization function is carried out, realizes first of reduction to nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants;In addition the floating bed plant four seasons all grow, and ensure that pair The anniversary catharsis of river water body;Water body flows downwardly through middle reaches water body reinforcement purifying area, floatingleaved plant and drift in large area Under floating plant absorption effect, pollutant obtains very big strengthened purification effect;Next pollutant enters downstream ecology diversity Recovery district is constructed using Submerged plant communities are restored, fundamentally improves water body self-purification ability, while ensuring reaching for water quality Mark;The nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants carried by rainfall rainwash utilize the porous coagulation of laying under the action of water front ecology lifting zone Native ecological slope protection and aquatic, the humidogene sowing landscape plant of plantation, carry out the comprehensive interception of rainwash pollutant.
The utility model has the advantages that compared to the prior art the present invention, has the characteristics that following conspicuousness: the present invention can be effectively removed , the polluters such as nitrogen phosphorus in water body so that the structure and function of aquatic ecosystem is restored and is promoted;Of the invention The ecological restoring method of river water body intercepts, ecological reestablishment for multi-faceted, multi-level pollutant, had both considered pollution Object interception effect, and focus on improving the ecological diversity and self-purification capacity in river, while opposite bank band, river channel ecology landscape habitat change The kind raising with spontaneous recovery function has significant effect;The present invention is mainly suitable for farmland water catchment area eutrophication river, Domestic sewage in rural areas deep purification of tail water, black-odor riverway improvement etc.;The present invention can remove nitrogenous and phosphorous in water body Pollutant makes water quality reach " water environment quality standard " (GB3838-2002) V class water quality standard, for realizing ecology Agricultural, improvement quality of the region's water are of great significance, for farmland water catchment area heavy polluted water Ecological Restoration Project from now on Provide the ecological restoring method of good river harnessing ideas and reference.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is allomeric function area schematic diagram of the invention.
Fig. 2 is the structural schematic diagram of combined ecological floating bed 7 of the invention.
Fig. 3 is the structural schematic diagram of celluar concrete ball 19 of the invention.
Fig. 4 is the structural schematic diagram of porous concrete ecological slope protection 9 of the invention.
Specific embodiment
Such as Fig. 1, ecology is repaired according to external source pollutional load situation and river water body flow direction for farmland sewage draining exit 1 Multiple engineering control section is divided into upstream contaminant from top to bottom by water (flow) direction and cuts down area 2, middle reaches water body reinforcement purifying area 3, downstream ecology diversity recovery district 4, entire littoral zone be water front ecology lifting zone 5, thus realize the interception of rainwash with And the purification of farmland water catchment area river water body.
Upstream contaminant is cut down area 2 and is made of land-sourced pollutant interception barrier 6 and combined ecological floating bed 7.Pollution from land-based sources Object intercepts barrier 6 and uses geotextiles, and two cloth, one film is arranged at away from 1 side water front 3m of sewage draining exit, and a steel pipe is arranged every 2m, Geotextiles flexible are fixed on steel pipe, along water surface 10cm or more is higher by geotextiles, geotextiles lower edge is embedded to bed mud 20cm or more.Geotextiles are density polyethylene film with high, environment-protecting and non-poisonous, have good leakage performance, tensile strength height, resistance to ring Border stress cracking is good with tear-resistant strength character, can effectively ensure that land-sourced pollutant intercepts the service life of barrier 6, while really Water conservancy diversion is protected, prevents heavy polluted water from directly directly contacting with water catchment area river.
Body strengthened purification area 3 of swiming utilizes " piling bar foam floating ball linked network " to construct purse seine 8, using mesh sheet by floatingleaved plant and Fluitante controls in water surface certain area, while also guaranteeing that its coverage accounts for the one third of river surface.Specific construction method Are as follows: every 3~5m sets a specification as the foam floating ball of 300 × 500mm, and purse seine 8 can be with floating downward on the water surface under floating ball effect It is dynamic, while in 8 bottom weight Concrete brick of purse seine, the every 6m of purse seine 8 sets a steel wire ring, passes through activity using DN40 coating steel pipe Ring 13 is to fix purse seine 8.Floatingleaved plant and fluitante are water lily, water lettuce and Eichhornia crassipes, and planting density is 20 plants/m2.It is floating Leaf plant and fluitante grow vigorous in 6~November;It stops growing after November, gradually withers, need to be salvaged, by aquatic plant The nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants that object is absorbed from river remove water body.
The submerged vegetation that landscape effect is good, detergent power is strong, the four seasons are evergreen is planted in 4 kinds of downstream ecology diversity recovery district, i.e., Eel grass, hydrilla verticillata, waterweed and p.malaianus are pierced, planting density is 12 plants/m2
Such as Fig. 2, landscape type combined ecological floating bed 7 passes through artificial growth Various Seasonal, difference using high molecular material as carrier The functional water plant of biotype also enriches the sense organ of the water surface landscape while enhancing its home position strengthening detergent power Property.Specific building mode are as follows: 7 length and width of combined ecological floating bed is that 3m × 3m is fixed on using PVC bracket 11 by loose collar 13 It on piling bar, can float up and down with the water surface, inside is using the fixed plant of nylon rope 15, the planting at 7 top of combined ecological floating bed 12 planting aquatic plants one of face, i.e. reed, wild rice stem, cattail, rhizoma acori graminei, canna, water spinach and Chinese celery, planting density be 8 plants/ m2, suspended from macromolecule soft cellulose filler 14.
Such as Fig. 3~4, River Bank-Line ecology lifting zone 5 mainly uses eco-concrete bulkhead tech, with celluar concrete ball 19 be repair vector, combines aquatic, humidogene sowing landscape plant building water front ecology, porous concrete ecological slope protection 9 can either Meet the requirement that engineering uses, and the living environment of sloping bank can be improved.Celluar concrete ball 19 has cellular structure, has Good water penetration and gas permeability, plant can grow wherein, while the root system of plant prosperity can play anchor to concrete Gu and reinforced action.Porous concrete ecological slope protection 9 is constructed using four ball disjunctor of prefabricated components formula, can according to need design not Same mold carries out the production of prefabricated components, is conducive to the automation and streamlined of production, easy for construction, and nature is only needed after molding Conserve the plant on slope protection.Phenomena such as constructing porous concrete ecological slope protection 9, side slope avalanche, soil erosion can be prevented, Restore phytobiocoenose, is allowed to near-nature forest, sustainable state, while ecological intercepting is carried out to earth's surface Runoff contaminants.It is close River two sides breeding difference biotype emergent vegetation zone 10, building section is on 0.3m to design high-water under design lowest stage Water front band between 0.3m retains existing soil property water front state by 1: 3 gradient shaping.Floristics is Arundo donax, again power The emergent aquactic plants such as flower, wild rice stem, rhizoma acori graminei and reed;Planting density is 25 plants/m2;Plant bandwidth regards river water level variation Depending on amplitude, it is not less than 1.5m.It is configured by proportional space, interception blocking is carried out to pollutant in agricultural drain and rainwash And strengthened purification.
To guarantee ecological slope protection stability, ecological slope protection need to be built using brick concrete at 0.3m under design lowest stage Foot beam 18 builds ecological slope protection capping beam 17 using brick concrete at 0.3m on design high-water, in foot beam 19 and bears down on one Celluar concrete ball 19 is laid between beam 17.Ecological slope protection water front band includes ecological slope protection foot beam 18 and ecological slope protection capping beam 17 Between celluar concrete ball planting face and original soil property water front 16 above ecological slope protection capping beam 17.Porous coagulation Soil ball planting face planting aquatic plants two and shrub plant.Water plant two includes canna, reed, rhizoma acori graminei and power again Flower, 10 plants/m of planting density2;Shrub plant is photinia glabra and Ligustrum quihoui, planting density 0.5g/m2;The original soil property in top 16 kinds of plant herbaceous plant of water front, herbaceous plant is clover, planting density 3g/m2
After Introduction of The Comprehensive Regulating Works, river end COD in water body, nitrogen phosphorus, ammonia-nitrogen content reach surface water V class water Requirement, the results showed that water quality situation is improved, water plant have it is stronger removal nitrogen and phosphorus pollution ability.River So that riparian vegetation width increases, this indicates primary producer's abundance and landscape for the building of road water front ecology lifting zone 5 The increase of comfort level;The building of Submerged plant communities not only has remarkable effect to reduction Water phosphorus concentration, but also can drop The turbidity of low water body and the concentration of suspended matter, significantly improve the transparency of water body.Compared with prior art, present system is comprehensive Propose ecological remediation and treatment method for agricultural non-point source pollution draining river, not only high efficiency, low cost, operation and maintenance letter It is single, without occupying the land area other than river, and by improving basic environment, restoring water plant, building benign cycle Aquatic ecosystem, promoted landscape effect, fundamentally improve water quality, improve water body self-purification capacity.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body, it is characterised in that: from top to bottom successively by river water body It is divided into upstream contaminant and cuts down area (2), middle reaches water body reinforcement purifying area (3) and downstream ecology diversity recovery district (4), while Water front ecology lifting zone (5) are arranged in river littoral zone, and the upstream contaminant is cut down area (2) and is arranged near sewage draining exit (1), packet It includes land-sourced pollutant and intercepts barrier (6) and combined ecological floating bed (7), the middle reaches water body reinforcement purifying area (3) includes that control is feeding floating Submerged vegetation is planted in the purse seine (8) of leaf plant and fluitante, downstream ecology diversity recovery district (4).
2. a kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described Land-sourced pollutant intercepts barrier (6) and is arranged at away from sewage draining exit (1) side 3~4m of water front, including geotextiles and steel pipe, the soil Work cloth one end is fixed on steel pipe, and the other end is embedded in bed mud, and the steel pipe is fixedly connected with bottom of river channel.
3. a kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described Combined ecological floating bed (7) setting intercepts on the inside of barrier (6) in land-sourced pollutant, is fixed on piling bar by loose collar (13), institute Piling bar is stated to be fixedly connected with bottom of river channel.
4. a kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body according to claim 1 or 3, it is characterised in that: The combined ecological floating bed (7) includes the nylon rope (15) of bracket (11) and fixed plant, combined ecological floating bed (7) top Planting face (12) planting aquatic plants one, suspended from macromolecule soft cellulose filler (14).
5. a kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body according to claim 4, it is characterised in that: described Water plant one is one of reed, wild rice stem, cattail, rhizoma acori graminei, canna, water spinach and Chinese celery or a variety of.
6. a kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described Floatingleaved plant and fluitante are the one or more of water lily, water lettuce and Eichhornia crassipes.
7. a kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described Submerged vegetation is one of thorn eel grass, hydrilla verticillata, waterweed and p.malaianus or a variety of.
8. a kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described Water front ecology lifting zone (5) includes porous concrete ecological slope protection (9), the lower part hybrid of the celluar concrete slope protection (9) Water plant two and shrub plant are planted, herbaceous plant is planted on top.
9. a kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body according to claim 8, it is characterised in that: described Water plant two is one of canna, reed, rhizoma acori graminei and thaliadeabata or a variety of, 12~15 plants/m of planting density2, described Shrub plant is one of photinia glabra and Ligustrum quihoui or a variety of, and planting density is 0.3~0.6g/m2
10. a kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body according to claim 8, it is characterised in that: institute It includes one of Festuca Arundinacea and clover or a variety of for stating herbaceous plant, and planting density is 3~4g/m2
CN201811272778.2A 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 A kind of ecological restoring method of farmland water catchment area river water body Pending CN109319934A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110143721A (en) * 2019-05-23 2019-08-20 东南大学 Table stepped ecological wetland and its method for purifying water
CN111072150A (en) * 2019-12-26 2020-04-28 南大(常熟)研究院有限公司 Method for strengthening ecological purification of river channel
CN111087076A (en) * 2019-12-19 2020-05-01 南京大学盐城环保技术与工程研究院 Chemical industry park heavy pollution river channel treatment system and river channel ecological restoration method

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CN206635720U (en) * 2017-03-08 2017-11-14 湖南环美科创生态科技有限公司 A kind of multi-functional anti-filter plants raw eco-concrete protective slope structure
CN108483816A (en) * 2018-04-28 2018-09-04 苏州国通建设工程有限公司 River water plant ecological restoring method

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JPH1128465A (en) * 1997-07-14 1999-02-02 Kurita Water Ind Ltd Membrane separator
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CN105084643A (en) * 2015-07-15 2015-11-25 同济大学 Water quality in-situ pre-treatment method in water source region
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110143721A (en) * 2019-05-23 2019-08-20 东南大学 Table stepped ecological wetland and its method for purifying water
CN111087076A (en) * 2019-12-19 2020-05-01 南京大学盐城环保技术与工程研究院 Chemical industry park heavy pollution river channel treatment system and river channel ecological restoration method
CN111072150A (en) * 2019-12-26 2020-04-28 南大(常熟)研究院有限公司 Method for strengthening ecological purification of river channel

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