CN109298669B - Modular high-precision control system and method suitable for large-scale array beam forming - Google Patents

Modular high-precision control system and method suitable for large-scale array beam forming Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109298669B
CN109298669B CN201811340263.1A CN201811340263A CN109298669B CN 109298669 B CN109298669 B CN 109298669B CN 201811340263 A CN201811340263 A CN 201811340263A CN 109298669 B CN109298669 B CN 109298669B
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control
voltage
computer
scanning
phase
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CN109298669A (en
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苗俊刚
胡岸勇
郭翔宙
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Beihang University
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Beihang University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B19/00Programme-control systems
    • G05B19/02Programme-control systems electric
    • G05B19/04Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers
    • G05B19/042Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers using digital processors
    • G05B19/0423Input/output
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/20Pc systems
    • G05B2219/21Pc I-O input output
    • G05B2219/21137Analog to digital conversion, ADC, DAC

Abstract

The invention relates to a modularized high-precision control system and a method suitable for large-scale array beam forming, wherein an upper computer generates corresponding voltage control word data according to the requirements of an array system on a beam scanning area and a beam scanning form and sends the data to modularized beam control units, after each beam control unit receives the voltage control word, the corresponding voltage control word is read by a table lookup method according to different beam scanning modes under the control instruction of the upper computer, and control voltages are sequentially output to 16 paths of analog phase shifters according to a specified working time sequence through a digital-to-analog conversion chip, so that high-precision phase adjustment of all paths is completed, and beam focusing and beam scanning of the whole array on a two-dimensional plane are realized. The invention realizes the modular design of the phased array beam control system, can complete the beam forming and the electric scanning of a large-scale array through module expansion, can effectively reduce the design risk and the design complexity of the system, has the advantages of high integration level, miniaturization and low power consumption, and can be widely applied to large-scale phased array radars and scanning type radiometer systems.

Description

Modular high-precision control system and method suitable for large-scale array beam forming
Technical Field
The invention relates to a beam control technology, in particular to a modular high-precision control system and method for large-scale array beam forming.
Background
Phased arrays are widely applied in the fields of radar and military as an advanced phase control technology at present. The typical phased array utilizes an electronic computer to control a phase shifter to change the phase distribution on the aperture of the antenna, so that the phase difference between array elements is offset with the phase difference of an arrival signal, the antenna array receives radiation from the direction with the maximum gain, and the electric scanning of a wave beam in the space is realized. Nowadays, the wide application of the phased array technology is not only embodied in the phased array radar, but also applied to the aspects of ultrasonic phased array nondestructive testing, phased ultrasonic underwater detection, satellite communication and the like.
How to control the phase of each unit to complete the beam forming is the key of the phased array technology, and along with the continuous expansion of the phased array scale and the improvement of the beam forming requirement, a beam control system becomes more and more complex, so that certain risks are generated in the research and development and design stages of a large-scale phased array system, the testing and verification difficulty is increased, and the requirement of high reliability of the system cannot be met in the later stage.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention solves the problems: the phased array beam forming system and the method have the advantages of being high in integration level, small in size and low in power consumption, and being widely applied to a large-scale phased array radar and a scanning radiometer system.
The invention is realized by the following technical method.
A modularized high-precision control system suitable for large-scale array beam forming comprises a plurality of beam control modules, an upper computer and a phase shifter; the method comprises the following steps of realizing storage and index of phase voltage data needing to be configured by adopting a mode of storing a lookup table; the upper computer firstly generates a corresponding voltage control word according to system configuration information and a working mode, sends the voltage control word to the beam control module in a txt text form, and then continuously sends related contents such as configuration information and the like; each beam control module receives and stores txt texts and configuration information into corresponding internal memory space and then returns state information to the upper computer, which indicates that the data are received completely; and then under the control of the upper computer, the beam control module reads corresponding voltage control words from the text by receiving beam position information of the upper computer, completes digital-to-analog conversion of the phase shifter control voltage according to the data configuration format of the digital-to-analog conversion and the read-write time sequence requirement under the action of a synchronous signal, and transmits the converted analog voltage to the phase shifter to realize phase adjustment of each array unit so as to complete beam switching and electric scanning on a two-dimensional surface.
The voltage control word is: and calculating to obtain a phase value which needs to be compensated for each position point array unit on each scanning surface according to the beam scanning distance and the scanning area, obtaining a corresponding control voltage value according to a voltage-phase relation table of the phase shifter, converting the voltage value into a control word form according to a DAC conversion chip, and writing the control word form into a text for storage.
The wave beam control module comprises a main control chip, a DAC conversion chip, an operational amplifier and a network port, wherein interfaces can be a serial port, a jtag port and the like, the main control chip receives voltage control word data and related control information such as system configuration and the like sent from an upper computer through an Ethernet port and a TCP/IP protocol, the voltage control word data are output to a data input end of the DAC conversion chip in a serial SPI mode through time sequence operation under the action of synchronous control signals, the DAC receives the voltage control word data, converts the voltage control word data into analog voltage, and then the analog voltage is transmitted to a control end of the phase shifter through a 4-time operational amplifier circuit.
The model of the main control chip is Zynq-7020, and the model of the DAC conversion chip is AD 5668.
The ARM end of the main control chip is connected with an upper computer for communication through an Ethernet based on a Linux system, the digital logic part outputs voltage control words to the DAC conversion chips on the falling edge of the DAC clock, the number of the DAC conversion chips is 2, and each DAC conversion chip can independently control 8 paths of voltage conversion.
The control signal comprises distance information and a synchronous signal, wherein the distance information is sent in a serial port mode, the synchronous signal is in a pulse mode with a certain width, voltage data of a corresponding address are read from a storage area through the distance information, the voltage data of the DAC conversion chip are configured at the rising edge of the synchronous signal, and synchronous phase shifting of the multiple modules is achieved.
And an Ethernet interface is adopted between each beam control module and the upper computer for data transmission and instruction interaction, and the modules are independent and not influenced.
The large-scale array is provided with 64 wave beam control modules, each wave beam control module independently controls 16 phase shifters to carry out phase adjustment, and an upper computer realizes the control of each wave beam control module through a switch.
The invention relates to a modular high-precision control method suitable for large-scale array beam forming, in particular to a modular high-precision control method suitable for large-scale array beam forming, which is characterized in that: each beam control module establishes a socket server based on Linux and is connected with an upper computer client through an Ethernet, the upper computer calculates a phase value of each channel to be changed according to the beam scanning area and scanning form requirements of an array system by using a beam forming principle, converts the phase value into corresponding voltage control word data according to an analog phase shifter working characteristic curve and DAC conversion chip characteristics, and sends the voltage control word data to the beam control module in a txt text form through a TCP/IP protocol via an Ethernet port, and the beam control module stores the voltage control word data into an RAM storage area after receiving the voltage control word data, so that the voltage control word data can be transmitted and stored between the upper computer and the beam control module. When beam scanning is required to be started, all beam control modules read voltage control word data in corresponding addresses from respective RAMs by a lookup table method according to different beam scanning modes under the action of synchronous control signals, sequentially complete SPI voltage configuration of a 16-path phase shifter 32bit under the control of a digital logic time sequence, and output analog control voltage to the phase shifter after passing through a digital-to-analog conversion and operational amplifier circuit. Under the condition of a working clock of 25MHz, the number of clocks required for completing voltage configuration of each channel is 32, which is about 1.2us, and quick beam response and beam switching can be realized. The phase adjustment of all the channels is completed by synchronously controlling the working voltage of the multi-module phase shifter, and the beam focusing and beam scanning of the whole array on a two-dimensional plane are realized.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that: the invention adopts the analog phase shifter to realize more accurate and continuous phase adjustment compared with a digital phase shifter, and is beneficial to realizing high-precision beam pointing; the system on the SOC is used for designing the beam control module, the respective advantages of ARM and FPGA digital logic resources are fully utilized, phase calculation is placed in an upper computer to realize phase voltage index of a beam focusing point, consumption of time resources caused by real-time phase calculation in the working process of the system is avoided, the response time of a beam system is reduced, rapid beam scanning and beam switching can be realized, synchronization of multiple modules is realized through synchronous control signals, and the system on the SOC has the characteristics of high integration level, low power consumption and small size; the design of the modules is divided, each module can independently realize the data transmission and the instruction interaction with an upper computer, the system stability can be improved, the design risk and the complexity of a large-scale array are reduced, and meanwhile, the scale of the system in the later period is easy to expand. The invention can be widely applied to the fields of phased array radar, satellite communication, millimeter wave security inspection imaging and the like.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a diagram of an overall beam steering architecture;
FIG. 2 is a connection diagram of an upper computer and a control module;
FIG. 3 is a connection diagram of a beam steering module and 16-way phase shifters;
FIG. 4 is a hardware diagram of the beam control modules;
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a DAC conversion chip;
FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of an operational amplifier circuit;
FIG. 7 is a timing diagram of the upper computer beam control module;
fig. 8 is a flowchart of network communication between the upper computer and the beam control module in fig. 7.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail below by taking a 1024-array millimeter wave radiometer imaging system as an example. The present invention is implemented on the premise of the technical solution of the present invention, and it should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are only used for explaining the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited to the following.
As shown in fig. 1, the control system of the present invention includes an upper computer 1, 64 beam control modules 2 and 1024 phase shifters 3, and each beam control module 2 independently controls 16 phase shifters. After the system is powered on, the upper computer 1 firstly sends relevant configuration information such as phase voltage configuration data and a system working mode to the beam control module through the Ethernet, the beam control module receives and stores the relevant configuration information into a corresponding storage space in the main control chip, when imaging is required, a control instruction and a synchronous signal are sent to the beam control module through the upper computer, voltage data of a corresponding address are read from the storage space according to the FPGA side of the control information main control chip, SPI voltage configuration of the 16-path phase shifter 3 is sequentially finished, the configuration voltage is effective under the action of the synchronous signal, a DAC conversion chip converts digital voltage into analog voltage, the analog voltage is output to the phase shifter 3 after passing through a 4-time operational amplifier circuit, the phase shifter 3 performs phase shifting on a signal received by the front end, beam forming of the current position is finished, and then the arrival of the control signal and the synchronous signal is continuously waited, waiting for DAC voltage configuration for the next beam position.
As shown in fig. 2, the upper computer and 64 beam control modules are connected via an ethernet through a switch, when setting the IP addresses of the upper computer and the beam control modules, all the IP addresses should be in the same network segment, each beam control module is a server, the upper computer is a client, and the upper computer can initiate a connection or disconnection request to any module.
Referring to fig. 3, each beam control module controls 16 phase shifters, the operating frequency of the phase shifters is 13GHz, the control voltage is in the range of 0-10V, and the beam control module configures and outputs the control voltage of the 16 phase shifters under the action of control information and a synchronization signal to control the operating state of the phase shifters.
As shown in fig. 4, the beam control module mainly comprises a main control chip Zynq-7020, a DAC conversion chip AD5668, an operational amplifier circuit, and a network port. The ARM end of the Zynq-7020 is communicated with an upper computer through a network port, the FPGA controls the DAC chip through DA _ CLK, DA _ SYNC, DA _ LOAD and DA _ IN, and the working clock of the FPGA end is 50 MHz. Since each DAC chip has 8 outputs and each amplifier has 4 outputs, each DAC chip output is connected with 2 operational amplifiers. The output voltage after the operational amplification is VB1-VB16 and is used as the control voltage input of the 16-way phase shifter. The AD5668 conversion bit number is 16 bits, the full scale output is 2.5V, and the minimum step of the output voltage isThe voltage step after the output of the 4 times operational amplifier circuit is 0.038mv multiplied by 4 to 0.152mv, and the phase shift range of the phase shifter in the control voltage range of 0-10V is about 180 degrees, so the voltage value required for unit degree is the same as that of the unit degreeIn order to realize the phase shift of the radio frequency front end in the full 360-degree range, the theoretically controllable phase precision obtained by the analysis and calculation is as follows:
can meet the index requirement of the system on the phase shift precision.
As shown in fig. 5, the AD5668 circuit schematic. The chip selects AD5668 which is an SPI voltage digital-to-analog conversion chip with 8-channel output. The power supply pin VDD is connected with 3.3V voltage, the reference voltage pin is grounded through a capacitor C206 of 0.1uf, a reference source inside the chip is used as reference voltage, and the reference voltage is 2.5V. SYNC is an enabling signal, low level is effective, LDAC is a loading signal, low level is effective and shows that the currently configured voltage information output is enabled, SDIN is a data input port and is serial input, SCLK is a DAC chip working clock, the clock frequency does not exceed 50MHz, 25MHz is selected, and CLR is a register zero clearing signal, and low level is effective. VOUT1 to VOUT8 are 8 voltage output ends, and the channels are independent of each other, and the DAC chip receives serial voltage data from the main control chip, completes voltage digital-to-analog conversion of the 8 channels in sequence under the control of the main control chip, and then sends the output analog voltage signal to the operational amplifier circuit for 4 times amplification.
Fig. 6 is a schematic diagram of an operational amplifier circuit. With the LM2902PW operational amplifier chip, the supply voltage is 11.5V, and the output voltage VO _1 is (1+ R286/R287) × DAVO _1 is (1+10/3.3) × DAVO _1 is 4DAVO _1, as can be seen from the principle of the inverting proportional amplifier. The operational amplifier circuit amplifies the output analog voltage signal of the DAC chip by 4 times and outputs the amplified signal to the control end of the phase shifter, and meanwhile, the driving capability of the output current of the DAC chip is increased.
Fig. 7 shows a working timing chart of the upper computer and the beam control module. After the system is powered on, the upper computer sends a start command, the beam control module receives distance control information distance, updates the address by BaseAddr _ update, enters a voltage writing state DAC _ write, and starts to configure voltage data for the DAC chip, wherein the voltage configuration data of each channel is 32 bits, the data bit number is 16 bits, and the address bit number is 4 bits. After voltage configuration of all channels is completed, the synchronous control signal trigger is waited, the DAC _ load signal is pulled down at the rising edge of the trigger, the output voltage of the DAC conversion chip is enabled to take effect, and at the moment, beam forming of a position point is completed. The configuration of the phase control voltage for the next position point is started. And continuously receiving the range signal after the beam scanning at the current range is completed.
Fig. 8 is a flowchart of network communication between the upper computer and the beam control module. After the system is powered on, the main control chip operates the Linux system, initializes the IP address and the port number of the beam control module, enters an interception state, establishes network connection with the upper computer after receiving a connection request of a client of the upper computer, receives voltage data and system related configuration information downloaded by the upper computer through the Ethernet and a TCP/IP protocol, and sends feedback information to the upper computer to indicate whether communication is normal or not. The server can respond to the connection and disconnection request of the upper computer client at any time.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and should not be taken as limiting the invention, and any modifications, equivalents, improvements, etc. made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. A modularization high accuracy control system suitable for large-scale array beam forming is characterized in that: the device comprises a plurality of beam control modules, an upper computer and a phase shifter; the method comprises the following steps of realizing storage and index of phase voltage data needing to be configured by adopting a mode of storing a lookup table; the upper computer firstly generates a corresponding voltage control word according to the system configuration information and the working mode, sends the voltage control word to the beam control module in a text form, and then continuously sends the relevant content of the configuration information; each beam control module receives and stores the text and the configuration information into a corresponding internal memory space and then returns state information to the upper computer, which indicates that the data are received completely; under the control of the upper computer, the beam control module reads corresponding voltage control words from the text by receiving beam position information of the upper computer, completes digital-to-analog conversion of phase shifter control voltage according to a data configuration format of digital-to-analog conversion and read-write time sequence requirements under the action of a synchronous signal, and transmits the converted analog voltage to the phase shifter to realize phase adjustment of each array unit so as to complete beam switching and electric scanning on a two-dimensional surface;
the voltage control word is: calculating to obtain a phase value which needs to be compensated for each position point array unit on each scanning surface according to the beam scanning distance and the scanning area, obtaining a corresponding control voltage value according to a voltage-phase relation table of the phase shifter, converting the voltage value into a control word form through a DAC conversion chip, and writing the control word form into a text for storage;
the wave beam control module comprises a main control chip, a DAC conversion chip, an operational amplifier and a network port, wherein the main control chip receives voltage data and control information sent from an upper computer through the network port and outputs voltage control words to a data input end of the DAC conversion chip in a serial SPI mode through time sequence operation under the action of corresponding control signals, and the DAC receives the voltage control words, converts the voltage control words into analog voltage, then transmits the analog voltage to a control end of the phase shifter after passing through the operational amplifier.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the system comprises: the model of the main control chip is Zynq-7020, and the model of the DAC conversion chip is AD 5668.
3. The system of claim 2, wherein the system comprises: the ARM end of the main control chip is connected with an upper computer for communication through an Ethernet based on a Linux system, the digital logic part outputs voltage control words to the DAC conversion chips on the falling edge of the DAC clock, the number of the DAC conversion chips is 2, and each DAC conversion chip can independently control 8 paths of voltage conversion.
4. The system of claim 1, wherein the system comprises: the control signal comprises distance information and a synchronous signal, wherein the distance information is sent in a serial port mode, the synchronous signal is in a pulse with a certain width, voltage data of a corresponding address are read from a storage area through the distance information, the voltage data of the DAC conversion chip are configured at the rising edge of the synchronous signal, and synchronous phase shifting among the multiple modules is achieved.
5. The system of claim 1, wherein the system comprises: and an Ethernet interface is adopted between each beam control module and the upper computer for data transmission and instruction interaction, and the modules are not influenced mutually.
6. The system of claim 1, wherein the system comprises: the large-scale array is provided with 64 wave beam control modules, each wave speed control module controls 16 paths of phase shifters to carry out phase adjustment, and the upper computer realizes the control of each wave beam control module through the Ethernet switch.
7. A method for implementing the modular high-precision control system for large-scale array beamforming of any of claims 1-6, wherein: each beam control module establishes a socket server based on Linux and is connected with an upper computer client through an Ethernet, the upper computer calculates a phase value of each channel to be changed according to the beam scanning area and scanning form requirements of an array system, the phase value is converted into corresponding voltage control word data according to an analog phase shifter working characteristic curve and DAC conversion chip characteristics and is sent to the beam control module through a TCP/IP protocol in a text form through an Ethernet port, and the beam control module stores the voltage control word data into an RAM storage area after receiving the voltage control word data, so that the voltage control word data are transmitted and stored between the upper computer and the beam control module; when beam scanning is required to be started, all beam control modules read voltage control word data in corresponding addresses from respective RAMs by a lookup table method according to different beam scanning modes under the action of synchronous control signals, sequentially complete SPI voltage configuration of a 16-path phase shifter 32bit under the control of a digital logic time sequence, and output analog control voltage to the phase shifter after passing through a digital-to-analog conversion and operational amplifier circuit; under the condition of working clock 25MHz, the number of clocks needed for completing voltage configuration of each channel is 32, and quick wave beam response and wave beam switching are realized; the phase adjustment of all the channels is completed by synchronously controlling the working voltage of the multi-module phase shifter, and the beam focusing and beam scanning of the whole array on a two-dimensional plane are realized.
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