CN109238154A - A kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method based on laser scaling ranging - Google Patents

A kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method based on laser scaling ranging Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109238154A
CN109238154A CN201811130573.0A CN201811130573A CN109238154A CN 109238154 A CN109238154 A CN 109238154A CN 201811130573 A CN201811130573 A CN 201811130573A CN 109238154 A CN109238154 A CN 109238154A
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ladle
laser
coordinate system
coordinate
wall thickness
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刘军
陈磊
孟宪武
侯庆明
方江雄
杨凤
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East China Institute of Technology
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East China Institute of Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/02Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring length, width or thickness
    • G01B11/06Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring length, width or thickness for measuring thickness ; e.g. of sheet material

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement methods based on laser scaling ranging, the side of ladle mouth is equipped with laser range finder, the side of ladle bottom is set there are two laser sensor, two laser sensors are respectively first laser sensor and second laser sensor, and laser range finder is fixed on three-dimensional rotation platform.This patent is directed to the problem of Ferrous Metallurgy in-site measurement ladle wall thickness hardly possible, proposes a kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method of laser positioning ranging, ensures measurement accuracy by the way of three laser sensor calibrations and ranging;Spatial position locating for tested ladle is determined using positioning laser, then the coordinate of ladle inner wall each point is obtained by the measurement laser scanning ladle inner wall face of executing agency's drive;Measurement coordinate system and ladle coordinate system are established, ladle coordinate system, i.e. ladle wall thickness information is mapped to by coordinate system data are measured further according to positioning relation, realizes ladle wall thickness measuring.

Description

A kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method based on laser scaling ranging
Technical field
The present invention relates to continuous casting field, especially a kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measuring based on laser scaling ranging Method.
Background technique
In continuous casting, ladle is the intermediate receptacle for connecting steel making working procedure and being poured between process, ladle inner wall thickness It is then the key factor of liquid steel temperature control and quality assurance.Ladle outermost layer is steel shell, and inside is the interior of refractory material composition Lining, liner are divided into insulating layer, permanent layer and working lining.In the actual production process, due to the working lining of ladle liner directly with High-temperature molten steel, clinker contact in ladle, cause working lining constantly to corrode by physics, mechanically and chemically, and cause fire proofed wood The loss of material[1~] [2] [3].The loss of ladle inner wall part is excessive to will lead to steel-making quality decline, or even causes security risk, into And influence the normal operation of steel production[4,][5].Therefore, grasping accurate ladle inner wall thickness data becomes guarantee steel-making matter The important prerequisite of amount, safety in production and save the cost.
Cao Yingjie et al. uses thermocouple to measure copper cooling wall slag crust and lining thickness as detecting element.This method is surveyed It is wide to try range, but accuracy and sensitivity is low;Liu Quan et al.[7]Laser ranging is combined to measurement Converter liner thickness with automatic control measurement Degree, this method measurement accuracy with higher, but institute's ranging is accurate corresponding from being difficult to erosion degree;Que Y H et al.[8]Benefit With ultrasonic measurement blast furnace thickness, this method principle is simple, but needs to lead in ultrasonic sensor and grader insertion furnace It causes difficult in maintenance;Isei Y et al.[9]Ladle inner surface and steel shell outer surface, the party are measured respectively using two laser sensors Method stability is good, but measurement accuracy is low.However, because production process ladle inner wall is in the condition of high temperature (more than 800 DEG C), simultaneously Ladle is put by traveling crane between each station and is set, and absolute position is difficult to fix, its wall thickness is caused to be difficult to measure, at present scene Artificial evaluation method is still used to the ladle wall thickness of the circulation process in hot operation, not can guarantee accuracy.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to solve defect of the existing technology, provide a kind of based on laser scaling ranging Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method.
To achieve the goals above, the technical solution adopted by the present invention is that:
The side of a kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method based on laser scaling ranging, ladle mouth is equipped with laser ranging Instrument, the side of ladle bottom are set there are two laser sensor, and two laser sensors are respectively first laser sensor and second Laser sensor, laser range finder are fixed on three-dimensional rotation platform;
The ladle that lifting is placed every time will generate front and back offset and horizontal deflection angle, while because purging process needs, steel Packet bottom be higher than ladle mouth, Bao Kou and packet lower shaft to angle with horizontal plane be α (ladle place support fix).First laser passes It is respectively L that sensor and second laser sensor, which obtain ladle bottom two respectively and be measured point distance,1And L2.Then think Ladle Bottom Facial planes is L relative to reference planes offsetd, while can also obtain ladle bottom planar offset angle θ.
In formula: vertical range of the d between first laser sensor and second laser sensor.
A kind of above-mentioned Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method based on laser scaling ranging, establishes 2 coordinate systems, respectively It is that measurement is sat to measure coordinate system M and ladle coordinate system S, M coordinate system with laser range finder initial position (horizontal positioned) center Origin O' is marked, the horizontal direction for being parallel to laser sensor plane is X-axis, and laser beam direction is Y-axis, vertical direction Z Axis.S coordinate system using the ladle outer wall bottom center of circle as coordinate origin O, vertical base in-plane be Y-axis, ladle bottom surface vertically to Direction is Z axis, and ladle bottom surface vertical Z direction is X-axis, and the X, Y, Z axis of M coordinate system uses X respectivelyM、YM、ZMIt indicates, coordinate is used (xm,ym,zm) indicate;
The X, Y, Z axis of S coordinate system uses X respectivelyS、YS、ZSIt indicates, coordinate (xs,ys,zs) indicate.Obviously, to final Each dot thickness of ladle inner wall is obtained, i.e., ranging coordinate of the laser in M coordinate system to ladle inner wall point need to be transformed into S coordinate In system.
A kind of above-mentioned Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method based on laser scaling ranging, on measurement station, only ladle Deviate LdIt will change with deviation angle θ, other positions coordinate parameters are it is known that through off-line calibration, laser range finder initial position Center is respectively x relative to the offset in the ladle outer wall bottom center of circle0, z0, laser range finder initial position center and positioning refer to The distance of plane is L, and LdIt can be measured again by positioning system with θ.Therefore the relative position of ladle and measuring system can determine.It is false If the horizontal and vertical drift angle of scanning laser be respectively β and
There are translation transformation and rotation transformation, M coordinate origin O' phases between ladle coordinate system and laser measurement coordinate system Displacement to S coordinate system isM coordinate system is with respect to the posture of S coordinate systemThen M coordinate system There is following relationship between point and the point of S coordinate system:
In formula: pSFor S coordinate system coordinate;pMFor M coordinate system coordinate.
A kind of above-mentioned Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method based on laser scaling ranging, specific coordinate system transformation operation Are as follows:
The conversion of the data in thickness measuring system coordinate system to ladle coordinate system can be realized according to formula (3), obtain ladle Wall thickness information;
Assuming that certain measured point vertical height is h apart from ladle bottom level, then the steel shell radius r of the point is crossed are as follows:
In formula (4): RbFor steel shell bottom radius;RtFor steel shell top (mouth) portion radius;H is ladle height.
Above-mentioned a kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method based on laser scaling ranging, if measured point is in ladle coordinate Coordinate in system is (x, y, z), then can calculate the ladle wall thickness of the point are as follows:
In formula: γ is the steel ladle angle of gradient.
The invention has the benefit that this patent is directed to the problem of Ferrous Metallurgy in-site measurement ladle wall thickness hardly possible, propose A kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method of laser positioning ranging, using the calibration of three laser sensors with it is true by the way of ranging Measurement accuracy is protected;Spatial position locating for tested ladle is determined using positioning laser, then is swashed by the measurement that executing agency drives Optical scanning ladle inner wall face is to obtain the coordinate of ladle inner wall each point;Measurement coordinate system and ladle coordinate system are established, further according to fixed Position relationship maps to ladle coordinate system, i.e. ladle wall thickness information for coordinate system data are measured, and realizes ladle wall thickness measuring.
Field experiment shows this patent method wall thickness measuring worst error 5.2mm, minimal error 2.6mm, mean error 3.6mm, measurement accuracy is higher, reproducible, meets actual production requirement, with good application prospect.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of ladle wall thickness measuring system of the present invention;
Fig. 2 a is the relational graph in kind of ladle of the present invention and laser measurement coordinate relationship;
Fig. 2 b is ladle of the present invention and laser measurement coordinate relational graph;
Fig. 3 is new ladle wall thickness measuring figure;
Fig. 4 is 15 ladle wall thickness measuring figures of operating;
Fig. 5 is 33 ladle wall thickness measuring figures of operating;
Fig. 6 is 52 ladle wall thickness measuring figures of operating.
Specific embodiment
It should be without molten steel in ladle and to be placed in position opposite to measure using the ladle liner wall thickness in turnover It is measured on fixed station.Hot repair station is needed to carry out bottom blowing in after pouring using ladle in line because all Wall purging, ladle is placed across on relatively-stationary support at this time, using hot repair station as wall thickness measuring station.
This paper wall thickness measuring system composition is as shown in Figure 1.Wall thickness measuring system is swashed by positioning laser, measuring table, measurement Light and data calculate and the compositions such as main control module.Due to the ladle poured every time is installed onto hot repair station by traveling crane cannot The absolute position for guaranteeing that ladle is placed is constant, therefore positions positioning of the laser to realize ladle position;Laser is measured by measuring Platform rotary scanning ladle inner wall obtains range data, and data, which are calculated, then changes into wall thickness data for range data with main control module;
Specifically, the side of the ladle mouth of ladle 1 be equipped with laser range finder 2, the side of 1 bottom of ladle set there are two swash Optical sensor, two laser sensors are respectively first laser sensor 3 and second laser sensor 4, and laser range finder 2 is solid It is scheduled on three-dimensional rotation platform 5;
This wall thickness measurement method detailed process and principle are as follows:
(1) ladle position positions.Positioning laser is parallel to the laser sensor that horizontal plane is symmetrically installed by two and forms, As first laser sensor 3 and second laser sensor 4, it is fixed by being considered as where positioning laser and with the face of horizontal plane Position reference planes, positioning laser obtain the two o'clock of ladle bottom plane at a distance from the positioning plane of reference respectively;And according to the two o'clock Distance value obtains locating bias and locating bias angle of the ladle bottom plane relative to positioning reference planes, therefore can determine steel The positioning coordinate of packet.
(2) ladle inner wall scans ranging.Three-dimensional rotation platform 5 is to execute the mechanism both horizontally and vertically rotated, is put down The installation of platform pedestal horizontal plane, laser range finder 2 are installed on three-dimensional rotation platform 5.It should be noted that three-dimensional rotation platform 5 Belonging to the existing mechanical equipment in market, acquirement can be purchased, the structure of three-dimensional rotation platform 5 is not described herein, therefore, Three-dimensional rotation platform 5 can survey horizontal angle, vertical angle and distance, i.e., the sky of ladle inner wall measuring point is measured using three-dimensional rotation platform 5 Between coordinate.In wall thickness measuring, three-dimensional rotation platform 5 is scanned ladle inner wall face, obtains each measured point and measurement laser The range data of point, to obtain ladle inner wall face each point relative rotation fulcrum measurement distance and measurement deviation angle.
(3) wall thickness data mapping reduction.In order to obtain each dot thickness of ladle inner wall, it is necessary to by laser measurement data conversion Into ladle coordinate system.Measurement coordinate system and ladle coordinate system are established respectively, are swashed according to the location parameter of off-line calibration and positioning The measurement distance of ladle inner wall each point and measurement deviation angle are mapped to ladle coordinate system, complete three by the location parameter that light obtains Dimension data mapping, is converted into ladle wall thickness coordinate information.Secondary ladle and the comparison of initial steel ladle thickness information are poured by each again, To obtain ladle inner wall erosion distribution information.
Measurement method is realized
3.1 establishment of coordinate system
On measurement station, positioning system and measuring system are installed in fixed position, and the two relative position is fixed not Become, spatial relationship can off-line calibration.And the ladle of placement is lifted every time, offset and horizontal deflection angle before and after generating, while because Purging process needs, and it is that (it is solid that ladle places support to α that ladle bottom, which is higher than ladle mouth, Bao Kou and packet lower shaft to angle with horizontal plane, It is fixed).It is respectively L that positioning laser sensor 1 and positioning laser sensor 2, which obtain ladle bottom two respectively and be measured point distance,1 And L2.Then thinking that ladle bottom plane is deviated relative to reference planes is Ld, while can also obtain ladle bottom planar offset angle θ。
In formula: vertical range of the d between laser sensor 1 and laser sensor 2.
3.2 three-dimensional reconstruction principles
To construct ladle wall thickness field, 2 coordinate systems are established herein, respectively measurement coordinate system M and ladle coordinate system S is (such as Shown in Fig. 2 a, Fig. 2 b).M coordinate system is measurement coordinate origin O' with laser range finder initial position (horizontal positioned) center, is put down Row is X-axis in the horizontal direction of laser sensor plane, and laser beam direction is Y-axis, and vertical direction is Z axis.S coordinate system with The ladle outer wall bottom center of circle is coordinate origin O, and vertical base in-plane is Y-axis, and ladle bottom surface is vertically Z axis, steel to direction Packet plane perpendicular Z-direction is X axis, and coordinate system schematic diagram is as shown in Figure 2.In order to distinguish, the X, Y, Z axis of M coordinate system is used respectively XM、 YM、ZMIt indicates, coordinate (xm,ym,zm) indicate;The X, Y, Z axis of S coordinate system uses X respectivelyS、YS、 ZSIt indicates, coordinate is used (xs,ys,zs) indicate.It obviously, i.e., need to be by the laser in M coordinate system to ladle to finally obtain each dot thickness of ladle inner wall The ranging coordinate of inner wall point is transformed into S coordinate system.
On measurement station, only ladle deviates LdIt will change with deviation angle θ, known to other positions coordinate parameters.Through Off-line calibration, laser range finder initial position center are respectively x relative to the offset in the ladle outer wall bottom center of circle0, z0, Laser Measuring Distance meter initial position center is L at a distance from positioning reference planes.And LdIt can be measured again by positioning system with θ.Therefore ladle and The relative position of measuring system can determine.Assuming that the horizontal and vertical drift angle of scanning laser be respectively β andBy the above parameter It is found that there are translation transformations and rotation transformation between ladle coordinate system and laser measurement coordinate system, M coordinate origin O' is with respect to S The displacement of coordinate system isM coordinate system is with respect to the posture of S coordinate systemThe then point of M coordinate system There is following relationship between the point of S coordinate system:
In formula: pSFor S coordinate system coordinate;pMFor M coordinate system coordinate.
Specific coordinate system transformation operation are as follows:
The conversion of the data in thickness measuring system coordinate system to ladle coordinate system can be realized according to formula (3), obtain ladle Wall thickness information.
Ladle is made of the steel shell and the liner of masonry for fixing shape.Due to steel shell in the turn around time of ladle almost Will not deformation occurs, and steel shell and liner fit closely, as long as therefore steel shell radius is subtracted into liner radius, can obtain To the thickness of ladle liner.Measurement gained Lining Thickness of Ladle is compared with standard new mint Lining Thickness of Ladle simultaneously, can be obtained Take ladle liner erosion distribution situation.
Assuming that certain measured point vertical height is h apart from ladle (steel shell) bottom level, then the steel shell radius r of the point is crossed are as follows:
In formula (4): RbFor steel shell bottom radius;RtFor steel shell top (mouth) portion radius;H is ladle height.If measured point exists Coordinate in ladle coordinate system is (x, y, z), then can calculate the ladle wall thickness of the point are as follows:
In formula: γ is the steel ladle angle of gradient.
Field application
4.1 measurement pattern
This paper system is provided with 3 kinds of measurement patterns: continuous measurement, region measurement and single line measurement.Continuously it is measured as measuring Primary measurement mode, as Surface scan, the scan pattern are that basis is pre-configured with projecting parameter (horizontal angle, pitch angle initial angle Degree and scanning angular region) it measures, no manual intervention;Region is measured as to area-of-interest, according to set that region is surveyed It measures range angle (horizontal angle and pitch angle) size and carries out specific aim measurement;Single line measures the single then once rotated horizontally Path measurements.Situations such as according to scene temperature and measurement station, device is placed on a distance from ladle 3-5m.In order to allow system Steady operation, thickness measuring system are further provided with the devices such as industrial air-conditioning cooling and ambient temperature measurement alarm, reach the mesh of protection 's.
4.2 experiments and analysis
For the availability of testing laser thickness measuring system, in certain steel plant to the ladle of new ladle and the different number of turnover On-the-spot test has been carried out, and has passed through artificial comparison ladle wall thickness.The structural parameters of the new ladle at the scene are as follows: outside packet mouth Diameter: 3560mm;Packet mouth internal diameter: 2827mm;Wrap bottom outer diameter: 3411mm;Wrap bottom internal diameter: 2699mm;Highly: 4150mm.Tank skin magnesium Carbon residue pile thickness: 200mm;Magnalium canister lining brick thickness: 150mm;Tank bottom brick: 300mm.
New ladle measurement and turnover are respectively 15 times, and 33 times, the wall thickness measuring curve of 52 ladles is respectively such as Fig. 3-6 institute Show.The results are shown in Table 1 for data comparison by laser measurement data and manual verification's (waiting ladle cooling);
The experiment of table 1 compares (mm) with manual verification
T
As shown in figure 4, the wall thickness profile that context of methods measurement obtains is integrally smooth, with manual verification couple for new ladle Than there is relatively large deviation in left side slag line position, wrapping the curved portion deviation in bottom and right side middle position in 4mm model In enclosing.In operation process this paper measurement method and manually it can be seen from the ladle circular flow test comparison shown in Fig. 5-6 Worst error 5.2mm, minimal error 2.6mm are verified, average (absolute) error 3.6mm reaches compared with high measurement accuracy, meets life Production demand.
Herein for the problem of Ferrous Metallurgy in-site measurement ladle wall thickness hardly possible, a kind of company of laser positioning ranging is proposed Cast steel containment wall method for measuring thickness ensures measurement accuracy by the way of three laser sensor calibrations and ranging;Utilize positioning Laser determines spatial position locating for tested ladle, then the measurement laser scanning ladle inner wall face driven by executing agency to obtain Take the coordinate of ladle inner wall each point;Measurement coordinate system and ladle coordinate system are established, coordinate coefficient will be measured further according to positioning relation According to ladle coordinate system, i.e. ladle wall thickness information is mapped to, ladle wall thickness measuring is realized.
Field experiment shows context of methods wall thickness measuring worst error 5.2mm, minimal error 2.6mm, mean error 3.6mm, measurement accuracy is higher, reproducible, meets actual production requirement, with good application prospect.
The basic principles, main features and advantages of the present invention have been shown and described above.The technology of the industry Personnel are it should be appreciated that the present invention is not limited to the above embodiments, and what is described in the above embodiment and the description is only the present invention Principle, various changes and improvements may be made to the invention without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, these variation and Improvement is both fallen in the range of claimed invention.The present invention claims protection scope by appended claims and Its equivalent defines.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method based on laser scaling ranging, which is characterized in that the side of ladle mouth is equipped with Laser range finder, the side of ladle bottom are set there are two laser sensor, and two laser sensors are respectively first laser sensing Device and second laser sensor, laser range finder are fixed on three-dimensional rotation platform;
The ladle that lifting is placed every time will generate front and back offset and horizontal deflection angle, while because purging process needs, ladle bottom Higher than ladle mouth, Bao Kou and packet lower shaft to angle with horizontal plane be α (ladle is placed support and fixed), first laser sensor and the It is respectively L that dual-laser sensor, which obtains ladle bottom two respectively and is measured point distance,1And L2.Then think ladle bottom plane phase It is L for reference planes offsetd, while can also obtain ladle bottom planar offset angle θ;
In formula: vertical range of the d between first laser sensor and second laser sensor.
2. a kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method based on laser scaling ranging according to claim 1, feature exist In, establish 2 coordinate systems, respectively measurement coordinate system M and ladle coordinate system S, M coordinate system with laser range finder initial position (horizontal positioned) center is measurement coordinate origin O', and the horizontal direction for being parallel to laser sensor plane is X-axis, laser beam side To for Y-axis, vertical direction is Z axis.Using the ladle outer wall bottom center of circle as coordinate origin O, vertical base in-plane is S coordinate system Y-axis, ladle bottom surface are vertically Z axis to direction, and ladle bottom surface vertical Z direction is X-axis, and the X, Y, Z axis of M coordinate system uses X respectivelyM、 YM、ZMIt indicates, coordinate (xm,ym,zm) indicate;
The X, Y, Z axis of S coordinate system uses X respectivelyS、YS、ZSIt indicates, coordinate (xs,ys,zs) indicate.Obviously, to finally obtain steel Ranging coordinate of the laser in M coordinate system to ladle inner wall point need to be transformed into S coordinate system by each dot thickness of packet inner wall.
3. a kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method based on laser scaling ranging according to claim 2, feature exist In on measurement station, only ladle deviates LdIt will change with deviation angle θ, other positions coordinate parameters it is known that marked offline Fixed, laser range finder initial position center is respectively x relative to the offset in the ladle outer wall bottom center of circle0, z0, at the beginning of laser range finder Beginning place-centric is L at a distance from positioning reference planes, and LdIt can be measured again by positioning system with θ.Therefore ladle and measuring system Relative position can determine.Assuming that the horizontal and vertical drift angle of scanning laser be respectively β and
There are translation transformation and rotation transformation between ladle coordinate system and laser measurement coordinate system, M coordinate origin O' is sat with respect to S Marking the displacement for being isSpM-org=[x0,L-Ld,z0]T, M coordinate system is with respect to the posture of S coordinate systemThen the point of M coordinate system and There is following relationship between the point of S coordinate system:
In formula: pSFor S coordinate system coordinate;pMFor M coordinate system coordinate.
4. a kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method based on laser scaling ranging according to claim 3, feature exist In specific coordinate system transformation operation are as follows:
The conversion of the data in thickness measuring system coordinate system to ladle coordinate system can be realized according to formula (3), obtain ladle wall thickness Information;
Assuming that certain measured point vertical height is h apart from ladle bottom level, then the steel shell radius r of the point is crossed are as follows:
In formula (4): RbFor steel shell bottom radius;RtFor steel shell top (mouth) portion radius;H is ladle height.
5. a kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method based on laser scaling ranging according to claim 4, feature exist In, if coordinate of the measured point in ladle coordinate system be (x, y, z), then can calculate the ladle wall thickness of the point are as follows:
In formula: γ is the steel ladle angle of gradient.
CN201811130573.0A 2018-09-27 2018-09-27 A kind of Con casting ladle wall thickness measurement method based on laser scaling ranging Pending CN109238154A (en)

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