CN109221247A - 空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂及其制备方法与应用 - Google Patents

空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂及其制备方法与应用 Download PDF

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CN109221247A
CN109221247A CN201811145123.9A CN201811145123A CN109221247A CN 109221247 A CN109221247 A CN 109221247A CN 201811145123 A CN201811145123 A CN 201811145123A CN 109221247 A CN109221247 A CN 109221247A
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tillandsia
salicylic acid
resistant agent
drought resistant
drought
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郑凯
丁久玲
史俊
梁慧敏
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Jiangsu Polytechnic College of Agriculture and Forestry
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
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    • A01N43/34Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom
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    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/64Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with three nitrogen atoms as the only ring hetero atoms
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Abstract

本发明提供一种空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,包括如下浓度的原料组分:亚硒酸钠0.2~2.0mg/L与水杨酸10~30mg/L;本发明还提供了改抗旱剂的制备方法与在空气凤梨抗旱中的应用。本发明提供的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,对空气凤梨具有良好的抗旱效果,将空气凤梨的萎蔫系数相对于最大降低53.4%;相对电导率降低54.7%,含水量升高82.6%;同时,该抗旱剂的制备方法简单有效,不需添加任何化工原料,施用于空气凤梨不会对其造成损害,不会破坏土壤的理化特性。

Description

空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂及其制备方法与应用
技术领域
本发明涉及抗旱剂与及其制备方法与应用,尤其涉及一种空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂及其制备方法与应用。
背景技术
空气凤梨(学名Tillandsia,英文名Air plant)为凤梨科(Bromeliaceae)铁兰属(Tillandsia)多年生草本植物,包括近550个品种和90个变种,品种繁多、形态各异。我国是近几年才开始引进这种植物。因空气凤梨植物独有的特点(生长在空气中,栽培时不需泥土,又具有吸收甲醛、重金属等有害物质等特点),一经引进就受到许多人的喜爱和关注。
目前,我国对空气凤梨研究尚处于初步阶段,栽培技术欠成熟。对于观赏植物来说,水分管理是关键。现代社会大多数人工作压力大、繁忙,无暇顾及室内种植的植物,故人们希望室内种植的植物在疏于管理的条件下又具有一定的观赏价值,即希望种植的植物耐干旱。
发明内容
发明目的:本发明的第一目的是提供一种有效提高空气凤梨存活率及生长质量的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂;本发明的第二目的是提供该空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的制备方法;本发明的第三目的是提供该空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的应用。
技术方案:本发明提供一种空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,包括如下浓度的原料组分:亚硒酸钠0.2~2.0mg/L与水杨酸10~30mg/L。
优选地,上述空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,亚硒酸钠浓度为0.5~1.5mg/L和水杨酸浓度为15~25mg/L。
优选地,上述空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,还包括如下浓度的原料组分:脯氨酸100~180mg/L、氯化钾200~400mg/L、葡萄糖10~15g/L、丁酸10~15mg/L、苹果酸20~25mg/L和多效唑50~120mg/L。
上述空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的制备方法,包括如下步骤:
(1)在水杨酸、脯氨酸和丁酸三者的乙醇溶液中加入苹果酸和多效唑二者的水溶液,搅拌形成复配溶液;
(2)向复配溶液中加入亚硒酸钠和氯化钾搅拌并调节酸碱度,得到所述空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂。
优选地,上述乙醇溶液为95%乙醇,所述水杨酸、脯氨酸和丁酸三者的乙醇溶液为将水杨酸、脯氨酸、丁酸分别溶解于95%乙醇中,其中的搅拌温度为20~30℃,搅拌时间为0.5~1h制得。
优选地,所述苹果酸和多效唑二者的水溶液为苹果酸、多效唑分别溶解于水中,搅拌温度为25~35℃,搅拌时间为1~1.5h制得。
优选地,上述的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的制备方法,步骤(1)中所述搅拌温度为25~35℃,搅拌时间为2~3h。
进一步地,上述的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的制备方法,步骤(2)中所述搅拌温度为30~40℃,搅拌时间为3~4h。
优选地,上述的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的制备方法,步骤(2)中所述调节酸碱度为调节pH值为5.8~6.8。
上述的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的应用,其中,施用空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂为浸泡空气凤梨植株30~40min。
进一步地,上述应用中,施用空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂时控制环境温度为25~30℃。
有益效果:本发明提供的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,对空气凤梨具有良好的抗旱效果,将空气凤梨的萎蔫系数相对于空白对照最大降低53.4%;相对电导率降低54.7%,含水量升高82.6%;同时,该抗旱剂的制备方法简单有效,不需添加任何化工原料,施用于空气凤梨不会对其造成损害,不会破坏土壤的理化特性。
具体实施方式
下面针对本发明的技术方案作进一步说明。
下面对本发明作进一步描述,本发明的原料与试剂均从上海国药集团化学试剂有限公司购得。
实施例1
空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的制备与应用
将水杨酸、脯氨酸、丁酸分别溶解于95%乙醇中,其中的搅拌温度为20℃,搅拌时间为0.5h;苹果酸、多效唑分别溶解于水中,搅拌温度为25℃,搅拌时间为1h;将溶解后的水杨酸、脯氨酸、丁酸、苹果酸和多效唑在25℃下搅拌2h加入到蔗糖溶液中制成复配溶液;再向复配溶液中加入亚硒酸钠和氯化钾,在30℃下充分搅拌3h,使得各成分的浓度分别为Na2SeO30.2mg/L、水杨酸10mg/L、脯氨酸100mg/L、氯化钾200mg/L、葡萄糖10g/L、丁酸浓度10mg/L、苹果酸20mg/L和多效唑50mg/L;溶液的pH值为5.8。所得溶液即为空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂。
使用空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂浸泡空气凤梨植物30min,之后将植株取出,置于环境温度为25℃,期间对空气凤梨进行常规培育管理。结果表明抗旱效果良好。
实施例2
空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的制备与应用
将水杨酸、脯氨酸、丁酸分别溶解于95%乙醇中,其中的搅拌温度为30℃,搅拌时间为1h;苹果酸、多效唑分别溶解于水中,搅拌温度为35℃,搅拌时间为1.5h;将溶解后的水杨酸、脯氨酸、丁酸、苹果酸和多效唑在35℃下搅拌3h加入到蔗糖溶液中制成复配溶液;再向复配溶液中加入亚硒酸钠和氯化钾,在40℃下充分搅拌4h,使得各成分的浓度分别为Na2SeO32.0mg/L、水杨酸30mg/L、脯氨酸180mg/L、氯化钾400mg/L、葡萄糖15g/L、丁酸浓度15mg/L、苹果酸25mg/L和多效唑120mg/L;溶液的pH值为6.8。所得溶液即为空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂。
使用空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂浸泡空气凤梨植物35min,之后将植株取出,置于环境温度为28℃,期间对空气凤梨进行常规培育管理。结果表明抗旱效果良好。
实施例3
空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的制备
将水杨酸、脯氨酸、丁酸分别溶解于95%乙醇中,其中的搅拌温度为25℃,搅拌时间为45min;苹果酸、多效唑分别溶解于水中,搅拌温度为30℃,搅拌时间为1h15min;将溶解后的水杨酸、脯氨酸、丁酸、苹果酸和多效唑在30℃下搅拌2.5h加入到蔗糖溶液中制成复配溶液;再向复配溶液中加入亚硒酸钠和氯化钾,在35℃下充分搅拌3.5h,使得各成分的浓度分别为Na2SeO31.5mg/L、水杨酸20mg/L、脯氨酸150mg/L、氯化钾300mg/L、葡萄糖12g/L、丁酸浓度12mg/L、苹果酸23mg/L和多效唑100mg/L;溶液的pH值为6.5。所得溶液即为空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂。
使用空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂浸泡空气凤梨植物40min,之后将植株取出,置于环境温度为30℃,期间对空气凤梨进行常规培育管理。结果表明抗旱效果良好。
实施例4
空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂主要原料组分的浓度选择
(1)实验组模型构建
每个空气凤梨品种挑选大小基本一致的植株,剪除植株周围的枯叶短叶,在温室中恢复半月后进行干旱胁迫。该温室内设温控,夏季温度控制在28℃、风机、遮阳网夏季遮光率为50~60%、水帘、微喷等设备,空气湿度75~90%,每天通风。干旱胁迫:将空气凤梨植株置于室外露天处进行干旱胁迫处理,此处无遮荫,全光照;干旱胁迫处理的方法为连续不浇水15d,在干旱胁迫期间没有雨水。干旱胁迫期间每日上午8:00-8:30、中午14:00-14:30和下午17:00-17:30测定室外温度和光照强度,统计出干旱胁迫期间室外的日均温为:26.7℃,白天日平均光照强度为:65264lux。
干旱胁迫后将空气凤梨植株置于温室内,温室条件同上,喷水至植株完全湿润为准。第二天按照实施例3的步骤与原料组分配制空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,其中Na2SeO3溶液和水杨酸溶液均按不同浓度分为若干个处理组,处理组中的其余原料组分的浓度均以实施例3为准。其中Na2SeO3溶液的浓度分别为0、0.2mg/L、0.5mg/L、1.0mg/L、1.5mg/L、1.8mg/L和2.0mg/L;水杨酸溶液的浓度分别为0、10mg/L、15mg/L、25mg/L、30mg/L和40mg/L。两种溶液混合配比处理如表1,共设了33个处理,其中处理1为对照,即为水。每个处理设3个重复,每个重复每个品种有生长一致的空气凤梨植株10株。
表1亚硒酸钠和水杨酸混合配比处理表
各处理用相应浓度的溶液浸泡空气凤梨植物0.5h,之后将植株取出,置于温室内。试验期间对空气凤梨进行常规管理。空气凤梨经过水杨酸复合抗旱剂处理后的第三天开始每天喷水一次,喷水标准为植株完全湿润为准,喷水时间在早上8:00-9:00或下午4:00-6:00;每周喷施氮磷钾配比为20:10:20的空气凤梨专用肥一次,喷施浓度为稀释1000-1500倍。
(2)测定项目
处理过程中观察各处理空气凤梨的生长状况,记录其萎蔫植株数,计算萎蔫系数。萎蔫系数=死亡植株数*100/处理的植株数。
处理1个月后测定各处理空气凤梨的电导率。具体测定步骤如下:各处理每个重复随机选取5株,采集倒2-3叶(从心叶往外数2-3叶),用电导仪法测定叶片电解质渗出率。相对电导率(%)=原电导率*100/煮沸后电导率。
处理1个月后测定各处理空气凤梨的叶片相对含水量。采用烘干称重法测定并计算叶片相对含水量。叶片相对含水量=(Wf-Wd)*100/(Wt-Wd),式中Wf为叶片鲜重,Wd为叶片干重,Wt为叶片饱和鲜重。
(3)结果分析
3.1空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂处理对干旱胁迫后空气凤梨萎蔫系数的影响
供试植物材料经过干旱胁迫后用不同浓度的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂进行处理,1个月其萎蔫系数有所不同,见表2。
表2空气凤梨的萎蔫系数(萎蔫系数单位为%)
本研究通过萎蔫系数来反映施加空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂对干旱胁迫下空气凤梨植株的成活状况,萎蔫系数越低,植物存活率越低;反之,空气凤梨存活率越高。由表2可知,供试空气凤梨品种中,处理6、11、16、21、26、31、32、33与对照(处理1)相比较其萎蔫系数差异不显著,萎蔫系数均较高。其余处理的萎蔫系数均较低,显著的低于对照及其他处理。由此说明,外施一定浓度的硒与水杨酸的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂可以降低干旱胁迫后空气凤梨的萎蔫系数。只有在空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的组分浓度适宜时,才可显著降低植物萎蔫系数。本研究认为,当空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂中0.2~2.0mg/L的Na2SeO3溶液与10~30mg/L的水杨酸溶液混合时可有效降低干旱胁迫后空气凤梨的萎蔫系数,有效提高空气凤梨的抗旱性,从而促进空气凤梨植物的生长;尤其的,当0.5~1.5mg/L的Na2SeO3溶液与15~25mg/L的水杨酸溶液混合时可有效降低干旱胁迫后空气凤梨的萎蔫系数,有效提高空气凤梨的抗旱性。
3.2空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂处理对干旱胁迫后空气凤梨相对电导率的影响
表3空气凤梨植株的相对电导率(相对电导率单位为%)
运用电导率法测定植物叶片的相对电导率,相对电导率可反映植物的抗旱性的强弱。干旱胁迫发生时,叶片细胞膜容易受到损伤,膜透性增加,细胞内含物外渗,导致外渗液电导率升高,质膜损伤程度加大,抗旱性减弱。相对电导率越高,植物的抗旱性越低;相对电导率越低,说明植物的抗旱性越高。本研究将经过干旱胁迫的空气凤梨品种进行空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂处理,通过测定不同处理下各品种的相对电导率,确定空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂是否能提高空气凤梨的抗旱性。
由表3可知,供试空气凤梨品种中,处理6、11、16、21、26、31、32、33与对照(处理1)相比较其相对电导率均稍低于对照,但差异不显著,相对电导率均较高。其余处理的相对电导率均较低,显著的低于对照及其他处理。由此可说明,外施一定组分浓度的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂可以降低干旱胁迫后空气凤梨的相对电导率。只有在空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂组分浓度适宜时,才可显著降低植物相对电导率。本研究认为,当空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂中0.2~2.0mg/L的Na2SeO3溶液与10~30mg/L的水杨酸溶液混合时可有效降低干旱胁迫后空气凤梨的萎蔫系数,有效提高空气凤梨的抗旱性,从而促进空气凤梨植物的生长;尤其的,当抗旱剂中0.5~1.5mg/L的Na2SeO3溶液与15~25mg/L的水杨酸溶液混合时可有效降低干旱胁迫后空气凤梨的萎蔫系数,有效提高空气凤梨的抗旱性。
3.3空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂处理对干旱胁迫后空气凤梨叶片相对含水量的影响
表4空气凤梨叶片相对含水量(叶片相对含水量单位为%)
水分是维持植物体正常生理作用的基础,叶片相对含水量可以反映植物体内水分亏缺程度,干旱胁迫下植物叶片相对含水量越高,叶片持水力越强,植物抗旱性越强。
空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂处理后空气凤梨的叶片相对含水量见表4。由表4可知,供试空气凤梨品种中,各空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂处理的叶片相对含水量均高于对照,处理6、11、16、21、26、31、32、33与对照(处理1)相比较其叶片相对含水量稍高于对照,但差异不显著;其余处理的叶片相对含水量均显著的高于对照。由此可说明,外施一定组分浓度的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂可以提高干旱胁迫后空气凤梨的叶片相对含水量。只有在空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂组分浓度适宜时,才可显著提高植物叶片相对含水量。本研究认为,当空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂中0.2~2.0mg/L的Na2SeO3溶液与10~30mg/L的水杨酸溶液混合时可有效降低干旱胁迫后空气凤梨的萎蔫系数,有效提高空气凤梨的抗旱性,从而促进空气凤梨植物的生长;尤其的,当0.5~1.5mg/L的Na2SeO3溶液与15~25mg/L的水杨酸溶液混合时可有效降低干旱胁迫后空气凤梨的萎蔫系数,有效提高空气凤梨的抗旱性,从而促进空气凤梨植物的生长。
通过本研究得出如下结论:综合萎蔫系数、相对电导率和叶片相对含水量三个指标,干旱胁迫后,使用一定组分浓度的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂可以提高空气凤梨的抗旱性,当0.2~2.0mg/L的Na2SeO3溶液与10~30mg/L的水杨酸溶液混合时可有效降低干旱胁迫后空气凤梨的萎蔫系数,有效提高空气凤梨的抗旱性,从而促进空气凤梨植物的生长;尤其的,当0.5~1.5mg/L的Na2SeO3溶液与15~25mg/L的水杨酸溶液时可有效降低干旱胁迫后空气凤梨的萎蔫系数,有效提高空气凤梨的抗旱性。
对比例1
脯氨酸对空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂效果的影响
不加入脯氨酸,其余均按照实施例3的方法及原料组分配制空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,按照实施例4的方法,测得空气凤梨品种贝克立的萎蔫系数为42.1%、相对电导率为58.2%、相对含水量为41.5%。各个测定指标与对照相比差异均不显著,说明不加入脯氨酸不能显著的提高空气凤梨品种贝克立的抗旱性。
对比例2
氯化钾对空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂效果的影响
不加入氯化钾,其余均按照实施例3的方法及原料组分配制空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,按照实施例4的方法,测得空气凤梨品种贝克立的的萎蔫系数为40.1%、相对电导率为58.5%、相对含水量为42.4%。各个测定指标与对照相比差异均不显著,说明不加入氯化钾不能显著的提高空气凤梨品种贝克立的抗旱性。
对比例3
丁酸对空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂效果的影响
不加入丁酸,其余均按照实施例3的方法及原料组分配制空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,按照实施例4的方法,测得空气凤梨品种贝克立的的萎蔫系数为43.1%、相对电导率为60.0%、相对含水量为43.1%。各个测定指标与对照相比差异均不显著,说明不加入丁酸不能显著的提高空气凤梨品种贝克立的抗旱性。
对比例4
苹果酸对空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂效果的影响
不加入苹果酸,其余均按照实施例3的方法及原料组分配制空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,按照实施例4的方法,测得空气凤梨品种贝克立的的萎蔫系数为40.8%、相对电导率为58.2%、相对含水量为41.5%。各个测定指标与对照相比差异均不显著,说明不加入苹果酸不能显著的提高空气凤梨品种贝克立的抗旱性。
对比例5
多效唑对空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂效果的影响
不加入多效唑,其余均按照实施例3的方法及原料组分配制空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,按照实施例4的方法,测得空气凤梨品种贝克立的萎蔫系数为42.4%、相对电导率为59.4%、相对含水量为40.4%。各个测定指标与对照相比差异均不显著,说明不加入多效唑不能显著的提高空气凤梨品种贝克立的抗旱性。

Claims (9)

1.一种空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,其特征在于,包括如下浓度的原料组分:亚硒酸钠0.2~2.0mg/L与水杨酸10~30mg/L。
2.根据权利要求1所述一种空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,其特征在于:亚硒酸钠浓度为0.5~1.5mg/L和水杨酸浓度为15~25mg/L。
3.根据权利要求1或2所述的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂,其特征在于,还包括如下浓度的原料组分:脯氨酸100~180mg/L、氯化钾200~400mg/L、葡萄糖10~15g/L、丁酸10~15mg/L、苹果酸20~25mg/L和多效唑50~120mg/L。
4.权利要求3所述空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的制备方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:
(1)在水杨酸、脯氨酸和丁酸三者的乙醇溶液中加入苹果酸和多效唑二者的水溶液,搅拌形成复配溶液;
(2)向复配溶液中加入亚硒酸钠和氯化钾搅拌并调节酸碱度,得到所述空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂。
5.根据权利要求4所述的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的制备方法,其特征在于:步骤(1)中所述搅拌温度为25~35℃,搅拌时间为2~3h。
6.根据权利要求4所述的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的制备方法,其特征在于:步骤(2)中所述搅拌温度为30~40℃,搅拌时间为3~4h。
7.根据权利要求4所述的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的制备方法,其特征在于:步骤(2)中所述调节酸碱度为调节pH值为5.8~6.8。
8.权利要求1~3任一所述的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的应用,其特征在于:所述应用中,施用空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂为浸泡空气凤梨植株30~40min。
9.根据权利要求8所述的空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂的应用,其特征在于:所述应用中,施用空气凤梨水杨酸复合抗旱剂时控制环境温度为25~30℃。
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