CN109217597B - Composite excitation amorphous alloy axial flux motor - Google Patents

Composite excitation amorphous alloy axial flux motor Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109217597B
CN109217597B CN201811226332.6A CN201811226332A CN109217597B CN 109217597 B CN109217597 B CN 109217597B CN 201811226332 A CN201811226332 A CN 201811226332A CN 109217597 B CN109217597 B CN 109217597B
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permanent magnet
stator
stator core
electric excitation
area
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CN109217597A (en
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佟文明
吴胜男
王帅
荆明
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Shenyang University of Technology
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Shenyang University of Technology
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K16/00Machines with more than one rotor or stator
    • H02K16/04Machines with one rotor and two stators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K1/00Details of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K1/06Details of the magnetic circuit characterised by the shape, form or construction
    • H02K1/12Stationary parts of the magnetic circuit
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K1/00Details of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K1/06Details of the magnetic circuit characterised by the shape, form or construction
    • H02K1/22Rotating parts of the magnetic circuit
    • H02K1/27Rotor cores with permanent magnets
    • H02K1/2793Rotor axially facing stator
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K15/00Methods or apparatus specially adapted for manufacturing, assembling, maintaining or repairing of dynamo-electric machines
    • H02K15/02Methods or apparatus specially adapted for manufacturing, assembling, maintaining or repairing of dynamo-electric machines of stator or rotor bodies
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K2201/00Specific aspects not provided for in the other groups of this subclass relating to the magnetic circuits
    • H02K2201/12Transversal flux machines

Abstract

A mixed magnetic pole magnetic field controllable axial flux motor comprises two amorphous alloy stators and a rotor arranged between the two stators; the stator core of the stator part is divided into three parts along the radial direction, namely a permanent magnet area stator core, a magnetism isolating area and an electric excitation area stator core; the permanent magnet area armature winding is arranged on the permanent magnet area stator iron core; the armature winding of the electric excitation area is arranged on the stator core of the electric excitation area; permanent magnets and ferromagnetic poles are embedded in a rotor support of the rotor part and respectively axially correspond to the stator iron core in the electric excitation area and the stator iron core in the permanent magnet area. Has the advantages of simple manufacture, small loss, high power density and wide weak magnetic speed expansion range.

Description

Composite excitation amorphous alloy axial flux motor
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of axial flux motors, and mainly relates to a composite excitation amorphous alloy axial flux motor.
Background
As a novel soft magnetic material, the amorphous alloy strip has the characteristics of excellent magnetism, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, high strength, high hardness, high resistivity and the like, and the thickness is only 0.025 mm. Compared with the traditional silicon steel sheet, the amorphous alloy has very small core loss especially in a high-frequency section, so the amorphous alloy strip is very suitable for a high-speed high-frequency motor. The traditional amorphous alloy axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor adopts a permanent magnet structure with a double rotor and a single stator, the surface of a motor rotor with the structure is pasted with a permanent magnet, armature windings are sleeved on two sides of the stator, and the amorphous alloy axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor has the advantages of high power density, high torque density, high efficiency and the like. However, due to the inherent characteristics of the permanent magnet material, the air gap magnetic field in the amorphous alloy axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor is basically kept constant, and the axial flux motor of the traditional permanent magnet structure generally adopts a surface-mounted magnetic pole structure, and the structure has large air gap, small inductance and basically equal quadrature-direct axis inductance, so that the problems of difficult excitation regulation, narrow weak magnetic speed regulation range, easy demagnetization of the permanent magnet and the like exist, and the amorphous alloy axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor becomes a bottleneck for restricting the development of the motor. The application of the amorphous alloy axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor is greatly restricted.
In order to pursue the effects of high power torque density, high efficiency and controllable magnetic field of the motor, many researchers have proposed different kinds of topological structures in a mixed excitation form to solve the problems that the magnetic field of the traditional permanent magnet synchronous motor is difficult to adjust and is not beneficial to flux weakening and speed expansion, but the defects of different degrees still exist:
(1) chinese patent CN 201310301385.0 proposes a double-stator disc type hybrid excitation motor, which comprises two stators, a permanent magnet, a three-phase concentrated armature winding, a single-phase concentrated excitation winding and a rotor. The stator and the rotor are coaxially arranged, and the rotor is placed between the two stators. The permanent magnet, the armature winding and the electric excitation winding are all positioned on the stator, and the rotor is not provided with the permanent magnet or the winding, so that the structure is simple. The air gap magnetic field is formed by an electric excitation magnetic field generated by an electric excitation winding and a permanent magnetic field generated by a permanent magnet, and the air gap magnetic field is adjusted by changing electric excitation current. The disc type magnetic flux switching permanent magnet motor structurally reserves the characteristics of compactness, simplicity and suitability for high-speed operation, can realize the mixed excitation function without additionally increasing the volume of the motor, and ensures that the motor with the structure has stronger torque output capacity and higher power density. However, the permanent magnet is positioned on the stator, the assembly type stator core increases the difficulty of the process and the assembly, and the copper consumption of the excitation winding is increased by the electric excitation magnetic circuit passing through the permanent magnet.
(2) Chinese patent CN 201310203116.0 proposes a magnetic suspension bearing disc type hybrid excitation doubly salient wind driven generator, which aims at the problems of the existing magnetic suspension wind driven generator system that the structure is too complex, the self energy consumption is large, and the system is not suitable for medium and small fans. The technical scheme includes that the wind power generator comprises a rotor, two generator stators, two permanent magnet rings, three magnetic suspension bearing stators, a fan blade and a rotor shaft; a magnetic bearing control winding is wound on the magnetic bearing stator; the fan blades are arranged at one end of the rotor shaft, the rotor is arranged at the other end of the rotor shaft, and the fan blades and the rotor rotate synchronously with the rotor shaft; the two permanent magnet rings are respectively connected with the two generator stators and are simultaneously connected with the magnetic suspension bearing stator; the permanent magnet ring is embedded between the magnetic suspension bearing stator and the generator stator; the magnetic suspension bearing stators are uniformly distributed on the periphery of the rotor, and the periphery of the rotor extends into the magnetic suspension bearing stators; an air gap is reserved between the two planes of the magnetic bearing stator and the rotor.
(3) Chinese patent CN 201610317337.4 proposes a hybrid excitation axial magnetic flux modulation type composite structure motor, which aims to solve the problem of small output torque of the existing hybrid excitation motor. The rotating shaft sequentially penetrates through the permanent magnet outer stator, the first magnet adjusting ring, the inner stator, the second magnet adjusting ring and the electric excitation outer stator, the permanent magnet outer stator, the inner stator and the electric excitation outer stator are rotationally connected with the rotating shaft through bearings, the magnet adjusting ring rotor is fixedly connected with the rotating shaft, and gaps are reserved between the permanent magnet outer stator and the first magnet adjusting ring, between the first magnet adjusting ring and the inner stator, between the inner stator and the second magnet adjusting ring and between the second magnet adjusting ring and the electric excitation outer stator; the permanent magnet is magnetized in a Halbach structure 90-degree magnetizing mode; the first magnetic adjusting ring and the second magnetic adjusting ring are formed by arranging magnetic adjusting iron blocks and epoxy resin non-magnetic-conducting materials at intervals along the circumferential direction. But the structure is more complicated, and the Halbach structure increases the difficulty in the manufacturing process.
(4) Chinese patent CN 201210197633.7 proposes a hybrid excitation axial magnetic field disc type switched reluctance motor, which includes a stator disc and a rotor disc, wherein the stator disc includes a plurality of stator yokes and stator poles, the rotor disc includes rotor yokes and rotor poles, the rotor poles are uniformly distributed on the rotor yokes, the stator poles are uniformly distributed on the circumference of the stator yokes, each stator pole is provided with a stator coil, the stator coils are connected to form a multiphase winding, a slot is arranged between two adjacent stator poles, a permanent magnet is arranged at the slot, the permanent magnet is positioned above the outside of the stator coil, the magnetizing direction of the permanent magnet is tangential, the magnetizing directions of the permanent magnets on two sides of each stator pole are opposite, the number of the stator poles is six, and the number of the rotor poles is four; the motor has the advantages of high running efficiency, low vibration and noise of the motor, and high power density and torque density of the motor. But the permanent magnet is positioned on the stator, thereby increasing the difficulty of manufacturing the stator and reducing the strength of the stator.
(5) Chinese patent CN 200310109497.2 proposes a controllable magnetic field permanent magnet disc type motor, the stator assembly mainly comprises an inner stator core, an outer stator core, a left armature coil, a right armature coil and a dc excitation coil, wherein, the left and right armature coils are respectively embedded at the left and right sides of the inner and outer stator cores, the dc excitation coil is arranged between the inner stator core and the outer stator core; the rotor assembly is provided with a left rotor assembly and a right rotor assembly, the left rotor assembly (right rotor assembly) is embedded into a permanent magnet N pole (S pole) at a position interval relative to the outer stator core, meanwhile, the left rotor assembly (right rotor assembly) is embedded into a permanent magnet S pole (N pole) at a position interval relative to the inner stator core, and the permanent magnet N pole and the permanent magnet S pole are staggered by a pole distance. However, the direct-current excitation magnetic circuit part of the motor passes through the permanent magnet, so that the magnetic resistance of the excitation magnetic circuit is increased, and the excitation copper consumption is higher.
(6) Chinese patent CN 201310418173.0 proposes a stator-divided axial flux-switching hybrid excitation synchronous motor, which comprises a stator and a rotor, wherein the stator is formed by splicing an inner layer of "H" -shaped unit stator core and an outer layer of "H" -shaped unit stator core into two wound concentric rings, a magnetism isolating ring separates the two concentric rings, an armature winding adopts a concentrated winding, the armature winding is wound on stator teeth of two adjacent "H" -shaped unit stator cores, and a permanent magnet N, S poles are alternately distributed between the adjacent "H" -shaped unit stator cores; the permanent magnet and the stator slot are both rectangular structures; the excitation bracket is positioned right above the permanent magnet and separated by a magnetic isolation ring, the excitation winding is axially wound on the excitation bracket, the rotor adopts a disc structure and comprises a rotor magnetic yoke and rotor poles which are uniformly fixed on the surface of the rotor magnetic yoke in a radial mode, and the stator is coaxially connected with the rotor. The stator is divided into an inner part and an outer part by the magnetism isolating ring, so that the electric excitation magnetic circuit and the permanent magnet magnetic circuit are connected in parallel, the coupling of the two magnetic circuits is reduced, the utilization rate of the permanent magnet is greatly improved, and the efficiency of the motor is obviously improved. However, the stator tooth part is simultaneously acted by magnetic fluxes generated by the armature winding, the electric excitation winding and the permanent magnet, so that the saturation state is easy to achieve, and the magnetic regulation capacity of the motor is reduced.
Disclosure of Invention
The purpose of the invention is as follows: the air gap magnetic field in the axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor is basically kept constant, the air gap is large, the number of turns of each phase in series is small, and the flux-weakening speed expansion is not facilitated. In order to realize simple, flexible, economic and effective regulation and control of an air gap field of an axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor, thereby improving the speed regulation and driving performance of the motor and avoiding the occurrence of irreversible demagnetization of a permanent magnet, a composite amorphous alloy axial flux motor is introduced.
The technical scheme is as follows:
a mixed magnetic pole magnetic field controllable axial flux motor comprises two amorphous alloy stators and a rotor arranged between the two stators;
the stator core of the stator part is divided into three parts along the radial direction, namely a permanent magnet area stator core, a magnetism isolating area and an electric excitation area stator core;
the permanent magnet area armature winding is arranged on the permanent magnet area stator iron core; the armature winding of the electric excitation area is arranged on the stator core of the electric excitation area;
permanent magnets and ferromagnetic poles are embedded in a rotor support of the rotor part and respectively axially correspond to the stator iron core in the electric excitation area and the stator iron core in the permanent magnet area.
The mixed magnetic pole magnetic field controllable axial flux motor preferably comprises: the stator core of the electric excitation area is provided with 6 x n open slots to form a tooth-shaped structure; the number of poles of the rotor ferromagnetic is 5 x n, and the number of poles of the rotor permanent magnet is 10 x n;
and the armature winding of the electric excitation area is wound on the teeth of the stator core of the electric excitation area.
The mixed magnetic pole magnetic field controllable axial flux motor preferably comprises: the permanent magnet and the ferromagnetic pole with good magnetic conductivity are embedded in the stainless steel rotor bracket without magnetic conductivity.
The mixed magnetic pole magnetic field controllable axial flux motor preferably comprises: the depth of the stator groove in the electric excitation area is larger than that of the stator groove in the permanent magnet area, and an electric excitation winding is arranged in the position, close to the yoke, in the groove.
The advantages and effects are as follows:
the invention relates to a composite excitation amorphous alloy axial flux motor, which has the following advantages and beneficial effects:
(1) the composite excitation amorphous alloy axial flux motor provided by the invention changes the polarity and the magnitude of direct current excitation current, can conveniently realize the adjustment of the total air gap magnetic field, and has good rotating speed adjustment and constant voltage power generation capacity.
(2) The electromagnetic excitation magnetic flux path provided by the invention is connected in parallel with the magnetic flux path of the magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet, and the magnetomotive force generated by the direct current excitation current is not superposed on the permanent magnet, so that the problem of demagnetization of the permanent magnet possibly existing when larger excitation current is introduced is avoided, and the running reliability of the motor is improved.
(3) The invention provides an electric excitation magnetic flux path which is composed of a stator iron core, an air gap and a ferromagnetic pole, the magnetic resistance of a magnetic circuit is very low before the iron core reaches saturation, and a higher magnetic regulation level can be achieved by introducing less excitation winding current.
(4) The magnetic isolation area provided by the invention can effectively reduce the magnetic flux leakage condition between the permanent magnetic circuit and the electric excitation magnetic circuit.
(5) The stator provided by the invention has a simple structure, is easy to process, and reduces the influence of the processing technology on the performance of the amorphous alloy iron core material.
(6) The invention provides a composite excitation amorphous alloy axial flux motor, wherein an electric excitation winding of the motor is positioned on a stator, the rotor structure is relatively simple, and the strength and the reliability of the rotor structure are ensured.
(7) The invention provides a composite excitation amorphous alloy axial flux motor, which can meet the requirements of different occasions on speed regulation ranges by properly adjusting the proportion of an electric excitation area to a permanent magnet area.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a disassembled schematic view of fig. 1.
Description of reference numerals:
1 a stator core; 2 permanent magnet field armature winding; 3 electrically exciting a field armature winding; 4, electrically exciting the winding; 5, a rotor bracket; 6 a permanent magnet; 7 a ferromagnetic pole; 8 electrically exciting the regional stator; 9 a magnetic isolation area; 10 permanent magnet regional stator core.
Detailed Description
The invention is further described below with reference to the accompanying drawings:
the invention provides a compound excitation amorphous alloy axial flux motor, as shown in fig. 1 and fig. 2, comprising a combined amorphous alloy stator core, a permanent magnet area armature winding, an electric excitation winding, a rotor bracket, a permanent magnet and a ferromagnetic pole; the method is characterized in that: the combined stator core is divided into three parts along the radial direction, and the three parts are a permanent magnet area stator, a magnetism isolating area and an electric excitation area stator from inside to outside in sequence; the armature winding is respectively positioned in the stator slots of the permanent magnet area and the electric excitation area, and the permanent magnet and the ferromagnetic pole respectively correspond to the stator core and the axial direction; the stator core of the electric excitation area is provided with 6 × n open slots, n is a positive integer, and 5 × n ferromagnetic poles exist in the rotor axially corresponding to the n open slots; the permanent magnet regional rotor is provided with 10 x n permanent magnets;
the electric excitation winding is wound on the stator teeth of the electric excitation area. The motor is composed of a permanent magnet area, a magnetism isolating area and an electric excitation area along the radial direction. The number of stator slots in the electrically excited region is 6 x n, the number of ferromagnetic poles of the rotor is 5 x n, and the number of permanent magnet poles of the rotor in the permanent magnet region is 10 x n. The motor rotor is a combination of a permanent magnet rotor and a reluctance rotor, and the permanent magnet and a ferromagnetic pole with good magnetic conductivity are embedded in a stainless steel rotor bracket which is not magnetic conductive.
The manufacturing method of the amorphous alloy iron core comprises the following steps:
according to the required size of the amorphous alloy iron core, winding the amorphous alloy strip on a die, shaping and solidifying to respectively obtain a stator iron core yoke part and a tooth part, cutting the stator tooth part according to the size and fixing the stator tooth part on the stator yoke part by using a grinding tool. The electric excitation winding is parallel to the armature winding along the axial direction in the electric excitation area. When the number of slots of the permanent magnet regional stator is 10 m, the armature windings wound on the teeth of the permanent magnet regional stator and the electro-magnetic regional stator are the same coil. The depth of the stator groove in the electric excitation area is larger than that of the stator groove in the permanent magnet area, and an electric excitation winding is arranged in the position, close to the yoke, in the groove.
The working process of the invention is as follows:
the invention provides a composite excitation amorphous alloy axial flux motor, wherein an armature winding of the motor is connected with an alternating current power supply, an electric excitation winding is connected with a direct current excitation winding, when an excitation current is connected, the phase of an armature winding flux linkage in an electric excitation area is the same as that of an armature winding flux linkage in a permanent magnet area, the directions of the armature winding flux linkages are the same, the excitation current and the demagnetization current are opposite, and the demagnetization effect is realized. Therefore, the axial magnetic flux of the composite excitation amorphous alloy has the advantage of high flux weakening speed expansion range.
And (4) conclusion: the composite excitation amorphous alloy axial flux motor has the advantages of simple manufacture, small loss, high power density and wide flux weakening speed expansion range.

Claims (3)

1. The utility model provides a controllable type axial flux motor in mixed magnetic pole magnetic field which characterized in that: comprises two amorphous alloy stators and a rotor arranged between the two stators;
the stator core (1) of the stator part is divided into three parts along the radial direction, namely a permanent magnet region stator core (10), a magnetism isolating region (9) and an electric excitation region stator core (8);
the permanent magnet regional armature winding (2) is arranged on the permanent magnet regional stator core (10); the armature winding (3) of the electric excitation area is arranged on the stator core (8) of the electric excitation area;
a rotor bracket (5) of the rotor part is embedded with a permanent magnet (6) and a ferromagnetic pole (7) which respectively correspond to a permanent magnet regional stator core (10) and an electric excitation regional stator core (8) in the axial direction;
the number of poles of the ferromagnetic pole (7) is 5 x n, and the number of poles of the permanent magnet (6) is 10 x n;
the stator core (8) of the electric excitation area is provided with 6 x n open slots to form a tooth-shaped structure; the armature winding (3) of the electric excitation area is wound on the teeth of the stator core (8) of the electric excitation area.
2. The hybrid pole field-controllable axial flux electric machine of claim 1, wherein: the permanent magnet (6) and the ferromagnetic pole (7) with good magnetic conductivity are embedded in the stainless steel rotor bracket (5) without magnetic conductivity.
3. The hybrid pole field-controllable axial flux electric machine of claim 1, wherein: the groove depth of the stator core (8) in the electric excitation area is greater than that of the stator core (10) in the permanent magnet area, and an electric excitation winding (4) is arranged in the position, close to the yoke, in the groove of the stator core (8) in the electric excitation area.
CN201811226332.6A 2018-10-22 2018-10-22 Composite excitation amorphous alloy axial flux motor Active CN109217597B (en)

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109768684B (en) * 2019-03-04 2020-08-11 哈尔滨工业大学 Radial parallel double-stator multiphase permanent magnet fault-tolerant motor
CN110417223B (en) * 2019-08-06 2020-07-24 郑州轻工业学院 Permanent magnet motor magnetic adjustment mechanism and magnetic adjustment method thereof
CN111181262B (en) * 2019-12-31 2020-12-08 郑州轻工业大学 Stator structure using built-in magnetic flux modulation ring of winding

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CN2919670Y (en) * 2006-06-26 2007-07-04 沈阳工业大学 Permanent magnet synchronous generator with adjustable magnetic field
CN103178666A (en) * 2012-08-13 2013-06-26 聊城汇创电机有限公司 Combined motor with switched reluctance motors and double disk type permanent magnet motors with axial magnetic fields
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