CN109183831B - Become the multistage load stake of stake diameter string hole and its construction method - Google Patents

Become the multistage load stake of stake diameter string hole and its construction method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109183831B
CN109183831B CN201811003931.1A CN201811003931A CN109183831B CN 109183831 B CN109183831 B CN 109183831B CN 201811003931 A CN201811003931 A CN 201811003931A CN 109183831 B CN109183831 B CN 109183831B
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China
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pile
stake
pile cutoff
grade
cutoff
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CN109183831A (en
Inventor
陈星�
区彤
谭和
张小良
陈加
王伟江
傅剑波
林泳
林菲菲
郭达文
刘雪兵
龚伟骢
陈有德
陈蛟龙
谢祥斌
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Guangdong Architectural Design and Research Institute Co., Ltd
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ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF GUANGDONG PROVINCE
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D27/00Foundations as substructures
    • E02D27/32Foundations for special purposes
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/22Piles
    • E02D5/34Concrete or concrete-like piles cast in position ; Apparatus for making same
    • E02D5/38Concrete or concrete-like piles cast in position ; Apparatus for making same making by use of mould-pipes or other moulds
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/22Piles
    • E02D5/48Piles varying in construction along their length, i.e. along the body between head and shoe, e.g. made of different materials along their length

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake and its construction methods, equipped with the 1st grade of pile cutoff, 1st grade of pile cutoff is reinforced concrete pile, it is additionally provided with the N-1 grades of pile cutofves for being embedded in the rock stratum, N is the positive integer greater than 1, any one in the N-1 grades of pile cutoff is made of steel sleeve and the armored concrete pile body being built in the steel sleeve;The N-1 grades of pile cutoff is respectively positioned on the lower section of the 1st grade of pile cutoff and coaxial with the 1st grade of pile cutoff, and the stake diameter of the 1st grade of pile cutoff and the N-1 grades of pile cutoff from top to bottom successively decreases step by step;For any one in the N-1 grades of pile cutoff, the upper end is inserted into upper level pile cutoff, and every level-one pile cutoff penetrates one layer of unfavorable geology cavity;Wherein, the value of N meets grading condition.The invention has the following advantages that the problem of can effectively solve the problem that engineering pile supporting course thickness low LCL, using multistage bearing course at pile end stress, securely and reliably, rigidity is big, intensity is high, can save cost, shorten the construction period.

Description

Become the multistage load stake of stake diameter string hole and its construction method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake and its construction methods.
Background technique
With the continuous quickening of Urbanization in China, urban infrastructure construction has obtained further development, high-rise The quantity of building increasingly increases, and to the quality safety of pile foundation construction, more stringent requirements are proposed.During pile foundation construction, The case where encountering solution cavity unfavorable geology is much, and since pile foundation construction is underground concealed engineering, solution cavity is to pile foundation construction Very big difficulty is brought, if not handled reasonably, there will be following harm:
First, collapse hole: hole wall unstability and collapse, it may occur however that ground subsidence, the damage of piling equipment, annex object or ground The accidents such as underground pipelines damage even casualties.
Second, the broken pile of engineering pile, during concrete perfusion, if concrete outflows because underground has solution cavity, meeting The integrality of pile concrete is destroyed, fracture accident occurs.
Third, induce geological disaster: native solution cavity continues to develop, and can cause differential settlement or karst ground subsidence, induces Geological disaster influences the safe handling of building, or even threatens to the people's lives and property.
Summary of the invention
The technical problems to be solved by the present invention are: a kind of change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake and its construction method are provided, To solve in the prior art because there are the depth of stratum of multilayer unfavorable geology cavity and bearing course at pile end less than 3.0 times under engineering pile Stake diameter is less than 5m and leads to the presence of safety risks.
Above-mentioned technical problem is solved, the technical solution adopted in the present invention is as follows:
A kind of multistage load stake of change stake diameter string hole is equipped with the 1st grade of pile cutoff, and the 1st grade of pile cutoff is reinforced concrete pile, this 1 grade of pile cutoff is embedded in soil layer, and rock stratum is goed deep into the lower end of the 1st grade of pile cutoff;
The change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake is suitable for following situations: the rock stratum is in the perpendicular of the 1st grade of pile cutoff There are multilayer unfavorable geology cavities on extended position, also, bearing course at pile end i.e. the 1st grade stake of the 1st grade of pile cutoff supports The depth of stratum of power layer is less than 3.0 × D1' or less than 5m;Wherein, all unfavorable geology cavities are from top to bottom successively compiled Number, between depth of stratum, that is, soil layer of the 1st grade of bearing course at pile end and the 1st layer of unfavorable geology cavity it is minimum vertically away from From;D1' are as follows: for being provided only with the change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake of the 1st grade of pile cutoff, to keep the change stake diameter string hole multistage Load stake has target vertical bearing capacity, the most paxilla diameter being arranged needed for the 1st grade of pile cutoff;
It is characterized by:
The change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake is additionally provided with the N-1 grades of pile cutofves for being embedded in the rock stratum, and N is just greater than 1 Integer, any one in the N-1 grades of pile cutoff is by steel sleeve and the armored concrete pile body structure being built in the steel sleeve At;The N-1 grades of pile cutoff is respectively positioned on the lower section of the 1st grade of pile cutoff and coaxial with the 1st grade of pile cutoff, the 1st grade of stake The stake diameter of section and the N-1 grades of pile cutoff from top to bottom successively decreases step by step;Also, by the N-1 grades of pile cutoff from top to bottom since 2 according to Secondary number, for any one in the N-1 grades of pile cutoff i.e. i-stage pile cutoff, i is integer and 2≤i≤N, the i-stage stake The depth that the upper end of section is inserted into (i-1)-th grade of pile cutoff is at least 1m, and the upper end of the i-stage pile cutoff includes the upper of its steel sleeve The steel reinforcement cage upper end at end and armored concrete pile body;The i-stage pile cutoff penetrates (i-1)-th layer of unfavorable geology cavity, and described i-th Bearing course at pile end, that is, i-stage bearing course at pile end of grade pile cutoff is (i-1)-th layer of unfavorable geology cavity and i-th layer of unfavorable geology sky Rock stratum between hole, the depth of stratum i.e. (i-1)-th layer unfavorable geology cavity of the i-stage bearing course at pile end with i-th layer poorly The vertical distance of minimum between matter cavity;Concrete parts formed by integrally casting in the 1st grade of pile cutoff and the N-1 grades of pile cutoff Molding;
Wherein, the value of N meets following grading condition: the depth of stratum of N grades of bearing course at pile end is in 3.0 × DNMore than And in 5m or more;DNAre as follows: for being equipped with the change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake of the 1st grade of pile cutoff and the N-1 grades of pile cutoff, it is Change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake is set to have the target vertical bearing capacity, the stake diameter being arranged needed for N grades of pile cutofves.
Wherein, preferred: the unfavorable geology cavity is solution cavity, underground soil cave, goaf, any one in bank Kind.
As the preferred embodiment of the present invention: the value of the N is under the premise of meeting the grading condition, the N It is minimized.
As the preferred embodiment of the present invention: in the 1st grade of pile cutoff and the N-1 grades of pile cutoff, adjacent two-stage pile cutoff Stake diameter difference within 500mm.
As the preferred embodiment of the present invention: it is less than i-th grade of pile cutoff of 15m for the vertical extension of the steel sleeve, The steel sleeve of the i-stage pile cutoff is process using steel plate of the thickness in 10mm or more;For the vertical extension of the steel sleeve In 15m to the i-stage pile cutoff between 30m, the steel sleeve of the i-stage pile cutoff using thickness in the steel plate processing of 14mm or more and At;Vertical extension for the steel sleeve is more than the i-stage pile cutoff of 30m, and the steel sleeve of the i-stage pile cutoff is existed using thickness The steel plate of 18mm or more is process;Wherein, i is integer and 2≤i≤N.
A kind of construction method becoming the multistage load stake of stake diameter string hole, it is characterised in that: the construction method is for building The change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake, comprising:
Step 1: advance drilling is carried out in the construction position for becoming the multistage load stake of stake diameter string hole, to verify the rock stratum Unfavorable geology cavity situation below the 1st grade of pile cutoff;
Step 2: preparing the steel sleeve of the N-1 grades of pile cutoff i.e. the 2nd grade pile cutoff to N grades of pile cutofves;
Step 3: the 1st grade of bearing course at pile end using piling machine in the soil layer and rock stratum opens up the first stake holes, this first The aperture of stake holes and hole depth adapt to the 1st grade of pile cutoff;
Step 4: in such a way that vibration hammer carries out back drilled as holes, by the steel sleeve of the N grades of pile cutofves to the 2nd grade of stake The steel sleeve of section is successively squeezed into the rock stratum, to sequentially form N stake holes from the bottom to top to the 2nd stake holes, and simultaneously by i-th The steel sleeve of grade pile cutoff is embedded in the i-th stake holes, and i is integer and 2≤i≤N;
Step 5: the steel reinforcement cage of the N grades of pile cutofves is successively lifted from the bottom to top to the steel reinforcement cage of the 1st grade of pile cutoff, so that The steel reinforcement cage of i-stage pile cutoff is built in the steel sleeve of i-stage pile cutoff;
Step 6: disposably to placing concrete in the steel sleeve of first stake holes and the N-1 grades of pile cutoff, so that Concrete parts formed by integrally casting molding in the 1st grade of pile cutoff and the N-1 grades of pile cutoff, forms the 1st grade of pile cutoff and institute State the armored concrete pile body of N-1 grades of pile cutofves.
Compared with prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
First, the problem of present invention can effectively solve the problem that engineering pile supporting course thickness low LCL: by N grades of stake diameters of setting by upper The pile cutoff reduced step by step under enables the bearing course at pile end (i.e. N grades of bearing course at pile end) of most next stage pile cutoff (i.e. N grades of pile cutofves) Meet depth of stratum in 3.0 × DNAbove and in the grading condition of 5m or more, having so that becoming the multistage load stake of stake diameter string hole While being sufficient for the target vertical bearing capacity of upper load requirement, solve because the depth of stratum of bearing course at pile end is less than 3.0 times of stake diameters are less than 5m and lead to safety risks.
Second, the present invention uses multistage bearing course at pile end stress: by the pile cutoff to be gradually decreaseed from top to bottom with N grades of stake diameters Composition becomes the multistage load stake of stake diameter string hole, and every level-one pile cutoff is independent is supported on level-one bearing course at pile end, and by next The continuity for ensuring to become the multistage load stake of stake diameter string hole in the upper end insertion upper level pile cutoff of grade pile cutoff, so that every level-one pile cutoff It can be the target vertical bearing capacity of change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake by the effect of end resistance, every level-one pile cutoff It makes contributions, therefore, compared to the non-variable diameter load stake with identical vertical extension, change stake diameter string hole multistage load of the invention Stake has bigger vertical bearing capacity.
Third, the present invention have the advantages that safe and reliable: unfavorable geology cavity are passed through using steel sleeve, due to steel sleeve Intensity is high, water-resisting property is good, can smoothly pass through the stake bottom designed elevation in one layer of unfavorable geology cavity to corresponding pile cutoff, reach smooth The requirement in whole hole avoids pouring into the concrete slurry in steel sleeve and leaks into unfavorable geology cavity and cause concrete superfilled very Situations such as can not being extremely perfused to the design of pile top absolute altitude of pile cutoff, it is ensured that pile foundation hole quality and safety;Make unfavorable geology cavity week The working face soil body of side stratum and soil layer is able to maintain stabilization, prevent collapse, the soil body be lost, reduce ground settlement, ensure pore-forming and A series of working procedures such as underwater concreting smoothly complete.
4th, the present invention has the advantages that rigidity is big, intensity is high: N-1 grades being embedded in the pile cutoff of rock stratum, passes through steel sleeve It is effectively combined with built-in steel reinforcement cage and concrete, forms the steel-pipe pile that rigidity is big, intensity is high;Steel sleeve increases the rigid of stake The deformation of stake is spent, reduces, built-in armored concrete pile body ensure that the strength and stability of stake;Its rigidity is big, intensity is high, So that stake is passed through that multilayer karst cave squeezes into hard soil layer and pile body does not damage, and great vertical bearing capacity of single pile can be obtained.
5th, the present invention can save cost: being made up of the pile cutoff to be gradually decreaseed from top to bottom with N grades of stake diameters and become stake diameter String hole multistage load stake, is effectively utilized a side skin friction and end resistance, compared to the non-of identical vertical extension Variable diameter load stake, change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake of the invention have bigger vertical bearing capacity, so that: compared to non-variable diameter The stake diameter of similar vertical extension but every level-one pile cutoff can be set in load stake, change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake of the invention It is smaller, can have identical target vertical bearing capacity, therefore, the present invention can reduce the armored concrete and steel of pile body Dosage greatly saves cost.
6th, the present invention can shorten the construction period: under the premise of guaranteeing pile foundation quality, be avoided not by steel sleeve The influence in good geology cavity, to be substantially reduced difficulty of construction, accelerate construction progress, reduce construction risk and project cost;And It is to avoid multilayer using change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake of the invention and because the required buried depth in multilayer unfavorable geology cavity is big The most effective and both economical way of unfavorable geology cavity harm, when encountering multilayer, overlength unfavorable geology cavity, section of the present invention Province's cost shortens the construction period effect and becomes apparent.
7th, construction method of the invention, suitable for coping with the area with unfavorable geology cavity such as karst intense development area Pile foundation construction, can safely, quickly, it is economical, solution cavity, underground soil cave, goaf, bank is thoroughly effectively treated etc. poorly The harm in matter cavity, it is ensured that the safety and pile quality of Construction of Engineering Pile meet the requirement such as bearing capacity, deformation of structure.
Detailed description of the invention
The following further describes the present invention in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments:
Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram of change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake of the invention.
Specific embodiment
Below with reference to embodiment, the invention will be further described:
Embodiment one
As shown in Figure 1, disclosed by the invention is a kind of multistage load stake of change stake diameter string hole, it is equipped with the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1, should 1st grade of pile cutoff P1For reinforced concrete pile, the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1It is embedded in soil layer S, and the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1Lower end go deep into Rock stratum R.
The change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake is suitable for following situations: the rock stratum R is in the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1's It is empty that there are multilayer unfavorable geologies on vertically extending position, also, the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1Bearing course at pile end i.e. the 1st grade stake Hold supporting course R1Depth of stratum less than 3.0 × D1' or less than 5m;Wherein, will all the unfavorable geology cavities from top to bottom according to Secondary number, the 1st grade of bearing course at pile end R1Depth of stratum, that is, soil layer S and the 1st layers of unfavorable geology cavity C1Between most Small vertical distance;D1' are as follows: for being provided only with the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1The hole multistage load stake of change stake diameter string, to make the change stake The multistage load stake of diameter string hole has target vertical bearing capacity, the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1The most paxilla diameter of required setting.
Wherein, the unfavorable geology cavity can be for any one in solution cavity, underground soil cave, goaf, bank not Good geology.
For above situation, the change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake is additionally provided with the N-1 grades of stakes for being embedded in the rock stratum R Section, N are the positive integer greater than 1, any one in the N-1 grades of pile cutoff by steel sleeve A and is built in the steel sleeve Armored concrete pile body B is constituted;The N-1 grades of pile cutoff is respectively positioned on the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1Lower section and with described 1st grade Pile cutoff P1It is coaxial, the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1From top to bottom successively decrease step by step with the stake diameter of the N-1 grades of pile cutoff;Also, by the N- 1 grade of pile cutoff from top to bottom number consecutively since 2, for any one in the N-1 grades of pile cutoff i.e. i-stage pile cutoff Pi, i is Integer and 2≤i≤N, the i-stage pile cutoff PiUpper end be inserted into (i-1)-th grade of pile cutoff in depth be at least 1m ((i-1)-th grade of stake Section is being not shown in the figure, for example: the 2nd grade of pile cutoff P2Upper end i.e. be inserted into the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1It is interior), the i-stage pile cutoff Pi Upper end include the upper end of its steel sleeve A and the steel reinforcement cage upper end of armored concrete pile body B;The i-stage pile cutoff PiPenetrate I-1 layers of unfavorable geology cavity Ci-1, the i-stage pile cutoff PiBearing course at pile end, that is, i-stage bearing course at pile end RiIt is described (i-1)-th Layer unfavorable geology cavity Ci-1Between i-th layer of unfavorable geology cavity (not shown) rock stratum (such as: the 2nd grade of pile cutoff P2Bearing course at pile end i.e. the 2nd grade bearing course at pile end R2For the 1st layer of unfavorable geology cavity C1With the 2nd layer of unfavorable geology cavity Between rock stratum), the i-stage bearing course at pile end RiDepth of stratum i.e. (i-1)-th layer unfavorable geology cavity with i-th layer poorly Minimum between matter cavity is vertically apart from (for N grades of bearing course at pile end RNDepth of stratum, i.e. N-1 layers of unfavorable geology are empty The vertical distance of minimum between hole and n-th layer unfavorable geology cavity);The 1st grade of pile cutoff P1With mixing in the N-1 grades of pile cutoff Solidifying soil part formed by integrally casting molding.
Wherein, the value of N meets following grading condition: the depth of stratum of N grades of bearing course at pile end is in 3.0 × DNMore than And in 5m or more;DNAre as follows: for being equipped with the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1With the change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake of the N-1 grades of pile cutoff, To make change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake have the target vertical bearing capacity, N grades of pile cutofves are (i.e. in N-1 grades of pile cutoff Most next stage is not shown in the figure) needed for be arranged stake diameter.
According to different purposes and the required target vertical bearing capacity having, change stake diameter string hole multistage of the invention is held The stake diameter being arranged needed for every level-one pile cutoff of power stake should be calculated according to corresponding standard criterion, for example, the present invention can The stake diameter of every level-one pile cutoff is calculated according to " Code for design of building " (GB50007-2011), i.e., according to following formula into Row calculates:
Ap=π d2/4;
up=π d;
Ra=qpaAp+up∑qsinli
Ra=Ra1+Ra2+···+RaN
Qk≤Ra
Wherein, d is the stake diameter of m grades of pile cutofves, and m is integer and 1≤m≤N;RaTo become the perpendicular of stake diameter string hole multistage load stake To characteristic load bearing capacity, Ra1、Ra2、···、RaNIt is followed successively by the vertical bearing capacity characteristic value of the 1st grade of pile cutoff to N grades of pile cutofves, Unit is kN;ApThe difference that the cross-sectional area of m+1 grades of pile cutofves obtains is subtracted for the cross-sectional area of m grades of pile cutofves, for N grades of pile cutofves, ApThe cross-sectional area of as N grades pile cutofves, unit m2;qpaAnd qsinThe end bearing of respectively m grades pile cutofves Power characteristic value and pile side resistance characteristic value, unit are kPa, respectively by the dead load in change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake location Test result statistical analysis is calculated;upFor the cross-sectional circumferential length of m grades of pile cutofves, unit m;liFor the rock of m grades of pile cutofves Soil thickness, i.e., the overall thickness of the rock stratum R and soil layer S that are in contact with the m grades of pile cutofves, is equivalent to: the vertical length of m grades of pile cutofves Degree, deducts the vertical extension for the upper part that it is inserted into m-1 grades of pile cutofves, and deducts it and be located at (i-1)-th layer of unfavorable geology Empty Ci-1After partial vertical extension, the m grades of remaining vertical extensions of pile cutoff, unit m.QkFor the standard corresponding to effect When combination, axle center vertical force effect under any single pile vertical force, it may be assumed that superstructure partial safety factor be 1.0 permanent load with The sum of variable load is to the vertical pressure for becoming the multistage load stake of stake diameter string hole, unit kN.
Embodiment two
On the basis of the above embodiment 1, the present embodiment two additionally uses following preferred structure:
Under the premise of meeting the grading condition, the N is minimized the value of the N.To ensure to meet mesh In the case where marking vertical bearing capacity and code requirement, the armored concrete and steel of change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake of the invention Material dosage is minimum, saves cost to greatest extent.
Therefore, when being designed to change stake diameter string hole multistage load of the invention, Ying Cong N value is 2 beginnings, according to corresponding Standard criterion calculated, obtain the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1With the 2nd grade of pile cutoff P2Stake diameter, to judge whether to meet the classification item Part, if met, N value be 2, if do not met, the value of N add 1 i.e. N value be 3, according to corresponding standard criterion into Row calculates, and obtains the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1, the 2nd grade of pile cutoff P2With the stake diameter of the 2nd grade of pile cutoff, to judge whether to meet the classification item Part, if met, N value is 3, if do not met, the value of N continues to add 1, and so on, until N is incremented to suitably When value, judge that the stake diameter being calculated according to corresponding standard criterion meets the grading condition, then the value of N can be determined Get off, and N is minimized.
Embodiment three
On the basis of above-described embodiment one or embodiment two, the present embodiment three additionally uses following preferred structure:
The 1st grade of pile cutoff P1In the N-1 grades of pile cutoff, the stake diameter difference of adjacent two-stage pile cutoff is within 500mm.
It is less than the i-stage pile cutoff P of 15m for the vertical extension of the steel sleeve Ai, i-stage pile cutoff PiSteel sleeve A adopt Steel plate with thickness in 10mm or more is process, it is preferred to use the steel plate of 12mm thickness;For the vertical extension of the steel sleeve A In 15m to the i-stage pile cutoff P between 30mi, i-stage pile cutoff PiSteel sleeve A using thickness 14mm or more steel plate process It forms, it is preferred to use the steel plate of 14mm thickness;Vertical extension for the steel sleeve A is more than the i-stage pile cutoff P of 30mi, this i-th Grade pile cutoff PiSteel sleeve A be process using steel plate of the thickness in 18mm or more, it is preferred to use the steel plate of 18mm thickness;Wherein, I is integer and 2≤i≤N.
In addition, each steel sleeve A is preferably welded by several section pipeline sections, weld seam uses double groove, often For the vertical extension of one section pipeline section in 10m between 15m, mechanical concentrate of steel plate is preferably rolled processing system in the factory by pipeline section Make.
In addition, i-stage pile cutoff PiLower end go deep into i-stage bearing course at pile end RiDepth, should according in standard criterion to not Depending on the regulation of same type load stake, but generally it is no less than 1m.
Example IV
The embodiment of the present invention four discloses a kind of construction method for becoming the multistage load stake of stake diameter string hole, for building above-mentioned reality Apply the change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake described in any one embodiment into embodiment three of example one, comprising:
Step 1: advance drilling is carried out in the construction position for becoming the multistage load stake of stake diameter string hole, to verify the rock stratum R In the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1The unfavorable geology cavity situation of lower section, comprising: the number of plies in the unfavorable geology cavity, the soil layer S With the 1st layer of unfavorable geology cavity C1Between the vertical distance of minimum, the minimum between unfavorable geology cavity described in adjacent two layers is perpendicular To distance;
Step 2: preparing the N-1 grades of pile cutoff i.e. the 2nd grade pile cutoff P2To the steel sleeve A of N grades of pile cutofves;
Step 3: using piling machine the soil layer S and rock stratum R the 1st grade of bearing course at pile end R1The first stake holes is opened up, it should The aperture of first stake holes and hole depth adapt to the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1
Step 4: in such a way that vibration hammer carries out back drilled as holes, by steel sleeve A to the 2nd grades of the N grades of pile cutofves Pile cutoff P2Steel sleeve A successively squeeze into the rock stratum R, to sequentially form N stake holes from the bottom to top to the 2nd stake holes, and simultaneously By i-stage pile cutoff PiSteel sleeve A be embedded in the i-th stake holes, i be integer and 2≤i≤N;Wherein, sink every level-one pile cutoff In the work progress of steel sleeve A, using the verticality of the good steel sleeve A of horizontal ruler strict control, the verticality of steel sleeve A must not surpass Cross the 1/200 of job specfication requirement.
Step 5: the steel reinforcement cage of the N grades of pile cutofves is successively lifted from the bottom to top to the steel reinforcement cage of the 1st grade of pile cutoff, so that I-stage pile cutoff PiSteel reinforcement cage be built in i-stage pile cutoff PiSteel sleeve A in;
Step 6: disposably to placing concrete in the steel sleeve A of first stake holes and the N-1 grades of pile cutoff, so that Obtain the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1Concrete parts formed by integrally casting molding in the N-1 grades of pile cutoff, forms the 1st grade of pile cutoff P1 With the armored concrete pile body B of the N-1 grades of pile cutoff.
The present invention is not limited to above-mentioned specific embodiment, according to above content, according to the ordinary technical knowledge of this field And customary means, under the premise of not departing from above-mentioned basic fundamental thought of the invention, the present invention can also make other diversified forms Equivalent modifications, replacement or change, all fall among protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of multistage load stake of change stake diameter string hole is equipped with the 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1), the 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) it is armored concrete Stake, the 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) be embedded in soil layer (S), and the 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) lower end go deep into rock stratum (R);
The change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake is suitable for following situations: the rock stratum (R) is in the 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) It is empty that there are multilayer unfavorable geologies on vertically extending position, also, the 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) bearing course at pile end i.e. the 1st grade Bearing course at pile end (R1) depth of stratum less than 3.0 × D1' or less than 5m;Wherein, will all the unfavorable geology cavities by up to Lower number consecutively, the 1st grade of bearing course at pile end (R1) depth of stratum, that is, soil layer (S) and the 1st layer of unfavorable geology cavity (C1) between the vertical distance of minimum;D1' are as follows: for being provided only with the 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) change stake diameter string hole multistage load Stake, to make change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake have target vertical bearing capacity, the 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) needed for be arranged Most paxilla diameter;
It is characterized by:
The change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake is additionally provided with the N-1 grades of pile cutofves for being embedded in the rock stratum (R), and N is just whole greater than 1 It counts, any one in the N-1 grades of pile cutoff is by steel sleeve (A) and the armored concrete pile body being built in the steel sleeve (B) it constitutes;The N-1 grades of pile cutoff is respectively positioned on the 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) lower section and with the 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) coaxial, The 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) and the stake diameter of the N-1 grades of pile cutoff from top to bottom successively decrease step by step;Also, by the N-1 grades of pile cutoff by Under since 2 number consecutively, for any one in the N-1 grades of pile cutoff i.e. i-stage pile cutoff (Pi), i is integer and 2 ≤ i≤N, the i-stage pile cutoff (Pi) upper end be inserted into (i-1)-th grade of pile cutoff in depth be at least 1m, the i-stage pile cutoff (Pi) upper end include the upper end of its steel sleeve (A) and the steel reinforcement cage upper end of armored concrete pile body (B);The i-stage pile cutoff (Pi) penetrate (i-1)-th layer of unfavorable geology cavity (Ci-1), the i-stage pile cutoff (Pi) bearing course at pile end, that is, i-stage stake support power Layer (Ri) it is (i-1)-th layer of unfavorable geology cavity (Ci-1) and i-th layer of unfavorable geology cavity between rock stratum, the i-stage stake Hold supporting course (Ri) depth of stratum i.e. (i-1)-th layer unfavorable geology cavity and the minimum between i-th layer of unfavorable geology cavity it is vertical Distance;The 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) and the N-1 grades of pile cutoff in concrete parts formed by integrally casting molding;
Wherein, the value of N meets following grading condition: the depth of stratum of N grades of bearing course at pile end is in 3.0 × DNAbove and in 5m More than;DNAre as follows: for being equipped with the 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) and the N-1 grades of pile cutoff the hole multistage load stake of change stake diameter string, to make Change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake has the target vertical bearing capacity, the stake diameter being arranged needed for N grades of pile cutofves.
2. change stake diameter string hole according to claim 1 multistage load stake, it is characterised in that: the unfavorable geology cavity is molten Hole, underground soil cave, goaf, any one in bank.
3. change stake diameter string hole according to claim 1 or 2 multistage load stake, it is characterised in that: the value of the N is meeting Under the premise of the grading condition, the N is minimized.
4. change stake diameter string hole according to claim 1 or 2 multistage load stake, it is characterised in that: the 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) In the N-1 grades of pile cutoff, the stake diameter difference of adjacent two-stage pile cutoff is within 500mm.
5. change stake diameter string hole according to claim 1 or 2 multistage load stake, it is characterised in that: for the steel sleeve (A) Vertical extension be less than 15m i-stage pile cutoff (Pi), the i-stage pile cutoff (Pi) steel sleeve (A) using thickness in 10mm or more Steel plate be process;For the steel sleeve (A) vertical extension in 15m to the i-stage pile cutoff (P between 30mi), this i-th Grade pile cutoff (Pi) steel sleeve (A) be process using steel plate of the thickness in 14mm or more;For the vertical of the steel sleeve (A) Length is more than the i-stage pile cutoff (P of 30mi), the i-stage pile cutoff (Pi) steel sleeve (A) using thickness 18mm or more steel plate It is process;Wherein, i is integer and 2≤i≤N.
6. a kind of construction method for becoming the multistage load stake of stake diameter string hole, it is characterised in that: the construction method is for the power of building Benefit requires change stake diameter string hole multistage load stake described in 1 to 5 any one, comprising:
Step 1: carrying out advance drilling in the construction position for becoming the multistage load stake of stake diameter string hole, existed with verifying the rock stratum (R) The 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) below unfavorable geology cavity situation;
Step 2: preparing the 2nd grade of pile cutoff (P2) to the steel sleeve (A) of N grades of pile cutofves;
Step 3: using piling machine the soil layer (S) and rock stratum (R) the 1st grade of bearing course at pile end (R1) the first stake holes is opened up, The aperture of first stake holes and hole depth adapt to the 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1);
Step 4: in such a way that vibration hammer carries out back drilled as holes, by the steel sleeve (A) of the N grades of pile cutofves to the 2nd grade of pile cutoff (P2) steel sleeve (A) successively squeeze into the rock stratum (R), to sequentially form N stake holes from the bottom to top to the 2nd stake holes, and same When by i-stage pile cutoff (Pi) steel sleeve (A) be embedded in the i-th stake holes, i be integer and 2≤i≤N;
Step 5: successively lifting the steel reinforcement cage of the N grades of pile cutofves from the bottom to top to the steel reinforcement cage of the 1st grade of pile cutoff, so that i-stage Pile cutoff (Pi) steel reinforcement cage be built in i-stage pile cutoff (Pi) steel sleeve (A) in;
Step 6: disposably to placing concrete in the steel sleeve (A) of first stake holes and the N-1 grades of pile cutoff, so that The 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) and the N-1 grades of pile cutoff in the molding of concrete parts formed by integrally casting, form the 1st grade of pile cutoff (P1) and the N-1 grades of pile cutoff armored concrete pile body (B).
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